Introduction to Criminology Theories Methods and Criminal Behavior 9th Edition By Hagan – Test Bank


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Hagan, Introduction to Criminology 9e Instructor Resource


  1. “Theory” is best described as:


  1. Fact
  2. Providing justifications for criminal behavior
  3. Useful in locating the one key that will explain all criminological behavior

*d. Useful for making sense of otherwise isolated, seemingly random facts



  1. The view that criminal behavior is ultimately driven by supernatural forces is known as:


  1. Classicalism
  2. Marxism

*c. Demonology

  1. Victimology



  1. “Women accused of witchcraft were tied up and thrown in the water. If they survived, they were innocent.” This type of practice is known as:


  1. Capital punishment
  2. Exorcism
  3. Torture

*d. Trial by ordeal



  1. The earliest theories of crime causation were:


  1. Ecological

*b. Demonological

  1. Economic
  2. Classical



  1. Beccaria’s work can be summarized as arguing that:


  1. Crime is the result of forces outside of an individual’s control.
  2. Capitalism is at the root of most crimes.

*c. The punishment should fit the crime.

  1. Crime rates are related to geography.



  1. Jeremy Bentham advocated for “the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number.” The term that refers to this approach is:


  1. Demonism
  2. Ecological determinism
  3. Hedonism

*d. Utilitarianism



  1. Which of the following theoretical perspectives is based on the premise that human behavior is primarily hedonistic in nature?


*a. Classicalism/Neoclassicalism

  1. Demonism
  2. Ecological determinism
  3. Marxism



  1. Which of the following would an adherent of the neoclassical school propose?


*a. Mandatory sentencing policies

  1. Social reform
  2. Family counseling
  3. Substance abuse treatment



  1. Who was the first researcher to take advantage of criminal statistics?


  1. Beccaria
  2. Lombroso
  3. Bonger

*d. Quetelet



  1. A criminologist notices that crime rates tend to be higher in warmer climates. This observation is most closely linked to the concept of:


  1. Demonism
  2. Neoclassical theory

*c. Ecological theory

  1. Just deserts



  1. The “thermic law” of crime argues that crimes against persons increase in:


  1. Capitalistic societies
  2. Secular societies
  3. Hedonistic locales

*d. Warmer climates



  1. As the first scientific criminologist, Adolphe Quintelet’s work is most noteworthy because:


  1. His work disproved the long-held notion that crime was related to the lunar cycles.
  2. He was the first criminologist to identify the weaknesses to relying on official crime statistics.
  3. He was the first criminologist to draw a connection between capitalism and crime.

*d. His observation that crime was linked to other variables called into question the notion of free will.



  1. Deterrence theory is related to which school(s) of thought?


  1. Ecological

*b. Classical/Neoclassical

  1. Economic/Marxist
  2. Demonological



  1. Which of the following is an example of situational crime control?


  1. Securing of entries, doors, and locks
  2. Use of surveillance
  3. Improvement of lighting

*d. All of the above



  1. The basic principles of the modern Western judicial and legal system are found in the:


  1. Demonological school of criminology
  2. Neoclassical school of criminology

*c. Classical school of criminology

  1. Economic school of criminology



  1. A little boy shoplifts a candy bar from a local store. The view that this crime was influenced by environmental factors is known as:


  1. Classicalism
  2. Demonism

*c. Human ecology

  1. Marxism






  1. Demonological theory represents theological explanations of reality where the criminal was viewed as a(n):


  1. Witch
  2. Heretic

*c. Sinner

  1. Ordeal



  1. His writings did not specifically address crime; however, his ideas impacted Willem Bonger who viewed the criminal law as primarily protecting the interests of the propertied class.


  1. Becarria
  2. Guerry

*c. Marx

  1. Bentham



  1. Willem Bonger saw capitalism as causing crime through its promotion of selfish individualism, which is also referred to as:


  1. Anomie

*b. Egoism

  1. Force
  2. Psychopathy



  1. With which school of criminological thought is Willem Bonger associated?


  1. Classical

*b. Economic

  1. Human ecological
  2. Neoclassical
  3. Developing policies with the purpose of improving the physical and social environments to decrease crime is an example of which of the following theories:
  4. demonological
  5. classical/neoclassical

*c.  ecological

  1. economic



  1. Developing policies that reduce inequality and poverty suppport which of the following theories:
  2. demonological
  3. classical/neoclassical
  4. ecological

*d.  economic



  1. _____________________, with it emphasis on geographical explanations for crime, is refelcted in the media portrayal of bad neighborhoods.
  2. Classical theory

*b.  Ecological theory

  1. Economic theory
  2. Demonological theory



  1. A student is caught cheating on an exam resulting in the consequence of failing both the exam and the course. Classmates believe the student had this “punishment coming.”  This supports which of the following concepts:
  2. classical theory
  3. just deserts
  4. general deterrence
  5. demonological theory



  1. Prior to the formulation and acceptance of this theory, the administration of criminal justice in Europe was cruel, uncertain, and unpredictable.

*a.  classical theory

  1. neoclassical theory
  2. economic theory
  3. demonological theory


  1. True or False? Demonological theory views criminals as rational, hedonistic, free actors.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Theological views of criminality have not been held by any society since the Middle Ages.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham are associated with the classical school of criminology.


*a. True

  1. False



  1. True or False? The neoclassical school is primarily concerned with finding effective criminal justice policies, not explaining the causes of crime.


*a. True

  1. False



  1. True or False? The concept of “just deserts” is related to the neoclassical approach to criminology.


*a. True

  1. False



  1. True or False? Adolphe Quetelet’s work provided empirical support for the idea that free will explains criminal behavior.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Cesare Lombroso is the undisputed “father of criminology.”


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Hedonism is the view that criminality is biologically inherited.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Karl Marx wrote extensively on the topic of crime causation.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Charles Darwin coauthored The Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels.


  1. True

*b. False


  1. A primary challenge to understanding crime through a demonological perspective was thatcrime and criminality were to be found in the natural rather than supernatural world.


*a. True

  1. False


  1. True or False? Becarria’s philosophies surrounding punishment were considered radical during his time.


*a. True

  1. False



  1. True or False? Diappointed with criminology’s overconcern with the search for basic causes of crime, James Q. Wilson proposed a policy analysis approach that was less concerned with finding “causes” and more concerned with “what works.”


*a. True

  1. False



  1. True or False? Rational choice theorists argue that individuals are purely rational in the decision making, which includes consideration of the costs and benefits of crime.


  1. True

*b. False



  1. True or False? Classical theorists emphasize criminal behavior rather than criminal law.


  1. True

*b. False


  1. Define theory.


Correct Answer:

Efforts to explain or understand crime causation; a plausible explanation of a given reality



  1. Which two theorists are most often associated with the classical school?


Correct Answer:

Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham



  1. What are trials by ordeal?


Correct Answer:

Trials in which the accused were exposed to dangerous tests and, if they survived, they were considered to have been protected by God. For example, women accused of witchcraft were tied up and thrown in the water. If they survived, they were found innocent. Running the gauntlet and walking on fire were other such trials.



  1. Define hedonism and explain how this term relates to the study of crime.


Correct Answer:

The assumption that the main purpose of life is to maximize pleasure while minimizing pain.  From a classical perspective, this applies to the idea that people will engage in crime unless the known punishment is more painful than the benefits of committing the crime.  This follows the assumption that people are rational and choose whether they will engage in crime.



  1. Identify two lasting influences of the classical/neoclassical schools of thought on the field of criminal justice.


Correct Answer:

Examples: Deterrence theory; the Eighth Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment; the idea that punishment should be commensurate with the seriousness of the crime



  1. Provide two examples of situational crime control.


Correct Answer:

Examples: target hardening (securing of entries, doors, and locks), access control, entry screening, surveillance, better lighting, property identification, and other means of reducing criminal opportunity



  1. Define human ecology.


Correct Answer:

The study of the interrelationship between human organisms and the physical environment.



  1. What is the thermic law of crime?


Correct Answer:

The argument that crimes against persons increase in equatorial climates, while property crimes are most prevalent in colder climates



  1. Describe Karl Marx contribution to the field of criminology.


Correct Answer:

Marx did not specifically address crime in his writings which viewed the history of all existing societies as one of class struggle.  Marx believed that capitalism breeds its own destruction by giving birth to a proletarian revolution and finally a new world order of socialism.  Marx’ views influenced Willem Bonger who viewed that criminal law as primarily protecting the interests of the propertied class.



  1. Identify four justifications for punishment that were identified in the chapter.


Correct Answer:

Retribution, deterrence which includes incapacitation, rehabilitation, and the protection and maintenance of social solidarity.



  1. Describe the contributions of Andre M. Guerry and Adolphe Quetelet to the field of criminology, and explain their significance.


Correct Answer:

Since he employed these sections of maps and used them as his principal units of analysis, he is often viewed as the founder of the ecological or cartographic school of criminology (Thomas & Hepburn, 1983, p. 139). Comparing poverty with crime, Guerry found that the wealthier areas of France had higher property crime. Urban, industrial, northern regions had more property crime than rural, southern regions (Courtright & Mutchnick, 1999). He concluded that the higher rates were due to greater opportunity. Guerry was also credited with being a pioneer in comparative crime statistics in comparing English and French rates



  1. Identify the major premises of neoclassical criminology.


Correct Answer:

Similar to classical theory, it believes people are rational; however, admits that environmental, psychological, and other mitigating circumstances influence a person’s choices whether to commit crime.  Rational choice theory – a subset of neoclassical criminology – proposes that offenders weigh the opportunities, costs, and benefits of particular crimes.  A number of factors may constrain choice including social factors, individual traits, and attitudes toward crime.  “Situational crime controls” can reduce the likelihood of crime through increased surveillance, better lighting, etc.



  1. While walking to her car in a mall parking lot, a woman is approached by a man who displays a handgun and demands her purse. She gives him her purse, and he runs away with it. How would each of the following theoretical perspectives explain this crime?


Correct Answer:

  1. Demonology- there is demon within the individuals making them act this way
    B. Classicalism- the individual has free will and the choice to commit the act
    C. Ecological Theory- Group characteristics, social and physical environment affect crime.



  1. Compare and contrast the classical and ecological perspectives of crime. How are these explanations of crime similar? How are they different?


Correct Answer:

Classical: Criminals are rational actors and responsible for their actions (free will). The keystone of our criminal justice system, which assumes individual responsibility for one’s actions. Let the punishment fit the crime. Ecological: Group characteristics, social and physical environment affect crime. Improvement of physical and social environment will decrease crime.



  1. Compare and contrast the ecological and economic perspectives of crime. How are these explanations similar? How are they different?


Correct Answer:

Economic: Capitalism and inequality cause crime. Reduction of inequality and poverty will reduce crime. Ecological: Group characteristics, social and physical environment affect crime. Improvement of physical and social environment will decrease crime.



  1. Discuss three of the four theory-policy connections discussed.


Correct Answer:

Demonological: inconsistent punishment; Classical: effective punishemtn is sure, swift, and certain; Neoclassical: mandatory sentence and deterrence policy; Ecological and Economic: fight crime by changing social and physical environment



  1. What did Willem Bonger (economic theory) argue?


Correct Answer:

Law focuses on protecting the propertied classes; pleasure-seeking is natural but capitalism encourages egoism to an extreme



  1. What is economic determinist (Marx)?


Correct Answer:

Insisted that society’s economic substructure shapes all other institutions and relationships



  1. Cesare Beccaria proposed a numbers of principles that he believed were crucial for the proper operation of the criminal justice system. List five (5) of those principles.


Correct Answer:

1) laws should be made by legislatures, and they should be specific; 2)role of judges is only to determine guilt and to follow strictly to the letter of the law in determining punishment. Judges should not interpret the laws; 3) seriousness of crime should be determined by the harm it inflicts on society and be based on the pleasure/pain principle; 4) punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime and its ability to deter; 5) punishment should not exceed that which is necessary for deterrence; 6)excessive severity in punishment often increases crime that is then committedd in order to avoid punishment; 7) punishment should be sure, swift, and certain; 8) capital punishment should be abolished as should the use of torture in order to gain confessions; 9) laws should be structured so as to prevent crime in the first place.  It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them; 10) all should be treated equally before the law._



  1. Explain why theory is needed. What does it help us accomplish?


Correct Answer:

Help us understand and explain crime causation; help us make sense of random and seemingly unrelated facts; are not laws or facts; will not lead us to one “key” explanation of criminal behavior


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