Introduction to Criminal Justice Practice and Process 2nd Edition Peak – Test Bank

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Chapter 05: Police Organization: Structure and Functions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the primary criminal justice officials of early England that exist (or existed until recently) in the United States?
a. Sheriff
b. Constable
c. Police officer
d. Justice of the peace

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: English and Colonial Roots                        OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What were the responsibilities of the shire reeve in early England?
a. He maintained law and order in the tithings.
b. He patrolled the community on horseback and arrested criminals.
c. He collected taxes and served as magistrate.
d. He conducted preliminary hearings to determine cause of death and the party responsible for it.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Sheriff

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following were among the duties of the constable in early England?
a. He maintained law and order in the tithings.
b. He patrolled the community on horseback and arrested criminals.
c. He collected taxes and served as magistrate.
d. He conducted preliminary hearings to determine cause of death and the party responsible for it.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Constable

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Why did the role of constable fall into disfavor in the American colonies?
a. The office was rife with corruption and abuse of power.
b. Most constables were untrained and believed to be unqualified as law officials.
c. The functions were already being performed by sheriffs and justices of the peace.
d. The role of constable was too great a reminder of the heavy hand of government the colonists were attempting to avoid.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Constable

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the early criminal justice officials of the American colonies would have determined cause of death and the party responsible for it?
a. Justice of the peace
b. Sheriff
c. Constable
d. Coroner

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Coroner

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. This early criminal justice official’s authority to grant bail to felons led to corruption and criticism when individuals that should not have been released into the community were granted bail.
a. Justice of the peace
b. Sheriff
c. Constable
d. Coroner

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Justice of the Peace                                   OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. How does the position of justice of the peace differ between England and the United States?
a. The position has always been widely respected in England; it has generally been subject to corruption in the United States.
b. The jurisdiction of authority is limited to criminal cases in England, while it has both civil and criminal jurisdiction in the United States.
c. A law degree is required to hold the position in England; a law degree is not required in the United States.
d. The position is roughly the same in both England and the United States.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Justice of the Peace                                   OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Why are the London police referred to as “bobbies”?
a. The police qualification test includes a swimming test that measures the candidates’ ability to float or “bob” in the water.
b. This is a reference to the nodding of the officers’ heads as they respond to citizens’ questions.
c. They are nicknamed after Sir Robert Peel, who established the first police force in London.
d. This is a common misconception; the London police have never been referred to as “bobbies.”

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England, 1829                 OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What was the main purpose of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829?
a. It established a merit system for the hiring of police officers.
b. It granted funding to municipal police agencies across the United States.
c. It established a full-time preventative police force in New York City.
d. It allowed Sir Robert Peel to establish a police force to combat urban problems.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Police Reform in England, 1829       OBJ:   1                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following statements are true of the selection of police officers during the political era?
a. Political parties elected a committee to nominate candidates for police officers.
b. The selection system encouraged political patronage and rewarding friends rather than selecting the most qualified people for the job.
c. The selection system made it difficult for qualified candidates to be selected unless they belonged to the right social clubs and organizations.
d. The selection system discriminated against candidates who were racial or ethnic minorities.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: The Political Era      OBJ:   2                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Police corruption surfaced during this era with close ties between police and politicians.
a. The reform era
b. The political era
c. The community era
d. The homeland security era

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Political Era      OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Michael was hired because of his close affiliation with the mayor. Under which era did he probably het hired?
a. The political era
b. The reform era
c. The community era
d. The homeland security era

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Hard | Easy

REF:   under heading: The Political Era      OBJ:   2                    COG:  Application | Knowledge

 

  1. During which era of policing were civil service systems created?
a. The political era
b. The reform era
c. The community era
d. The crime control era

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Why did some police departments in the reform era prohibit officers from residing in neighborhoods where they patrolled?
a. In order to isolate officers from potential political influences
b. To make officers more familiar with the entire municipality
c. To expand the “rolling fortress” of police protection
d. To expand the “thin blue line” of police protection

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. This individual is credited with shaping the development of police professionalism during the reform era.
a. John Augustus
b. Cesare Becarria
c. August Vollmer
d. Arnold Comte

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. During Vollmer’s tenure, all of the following occurred EXCEPT
a. the creation of the first Metropolitan Police Act of London.
b. the use of psychology to anticipate criminal behavior.
c. the first police chief to order his men to patrol on bikes.
d. the first fully mobile police force in the country.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following was one of the problems associated with the reform era that the community era attempted to solve?
a. Fewer police officers were able to meet the new merit selection standards, causing huge vacancies in the police officer ranks.
b. Police officers became more social work oriented rather than law enforcement oriented and did not enforce all laws.
c. Police officers continued to engage in political patronage and rampant corruption despite reforms of the reform era.
d. Police officers were neither trained nor encouraged to consider the underlying causes of crime on their beats.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Community Era                                  OBJ:   2

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. During which era was there greater emphasis placed on numbers of arrests, citations, and response times?
a. The reform era
b. The community era
c. The political era
d. The homeland security era

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. How did policing change from the reform era to the community era?
a. Police agencies refocused their service orientation to take more crime-related calls than noncriminal calls.
b. More police agencies were given grant funding to increase response times for service calls.
c. The police were trained to work with the community to customize solutions to local crime problems.
d. The police were given more take-home vehicles to avoid wear and tear on their personal vehicles.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: The Community Era                                  OBJ:   2

COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. The Secret Service falls under which federal department?
a. Department of Homeland Security
b. Department of Justice
c. Department of Interior
d. Department of Agriculture

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Federal Law Enforcement/Agencies and Employment in General

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which federal law enforcement agency has the largest number of officers?
a. The Federal Bureau of Prisons
b. The Federal Bureau of Investigations
c. The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
d. The Bureau of Land Management

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Table 5.2

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Each of the following is a fundamental requirement to be considered for employment within a federal law enforcement agency EXCEPT _______.
a. must be a U.S. citizen
b. must have a valid driver’s license
c. must be able to pass the agency’s physical abilities testing
d. must be at least 18 years of age

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Federal Law Enforcement                          OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which president established the Department of Homeland Security?
a. George H. W. Bush
b. Barack Obama
c. Bill Clinton
d. George W. Bush

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is the newest federal agency?
a. Department of Homeland Security
b. Federal Bureau of Investigation
c. Drug Enforcement Administration
d. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Among the responsibilities of this federal agency is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States _______.
a. U.S. Postal Service
b. U.S. Customs and Border Protection
c. U.S. Coast Guard
d. Transportation Security Administration

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following agencies is responsible for identifying and closing weak spots in the nation’s borders as well as in economic, transportation, and infrastructure security?
a. The Secret Service
b. Transportation Security Administration
c. U.S. Customs and Border Protection
d. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Among the responsibilities of this federal agency is the investigation of crimes such as counterfeiting, financial institution fraud, and computer-based attacks on the country’s financial, banking, and telecommunications infrastructure.
a. Secret Service
b. U.S. Customs and Border Protection
c. Federal Deposit Insurance Agency
d. Federal Bureau of Investigation

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. The oldest and probably only truly international crime-fighting organization for offenses committed across national borders (e.g., drug trafficking, counterfeiting, and bank fraud) is _______.
a. CIA
b. INTERPOL
c. FBI
d. INTERCEPT

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Investigating Further: Interpol                    OBJ:   6

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is the cardinal rule of INTERPOL?
a. It deals only with international espionage and human trafficking cases.
b. It only deals with terrorist-related crimes and criminals.
c. It deals only with common criminals, not political, racial, or religious matters.
d. It only deals with big money crimes, such as bank fraud, wire transfer fraud, and counterfeiting.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Investigating Further: Interpol                    OBJ:   6

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the Department of Justice?
a. Its main priority is to protect the U.S. from terrorist attacks.
b. It is the legal arm of the U.S. government.
c. It is the national-level law enforcement agency.
d. It operates outside the authority of the federal government.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Justice                                OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The Department of Justice is headed by which of the following?
a. The Attorney General
b. The state prosecutor
c. The town manager
d. The governors

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Justice                                OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. All of these are top priorities of the Federal Bureau of Investigations EXCEPT _______.
a. protect the United States from terrorist attack
b. protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage
c. protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes
d. provide a complete change of identity for witnesses and families in the Witness Protection Program

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Federal Bureau of Investigation                  OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which federal agency is responsible for enforcing laws regarding alcohol and tobacco smuggling and diversion?
a. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
b. Drug Enforcement Administration
c. U.S. Marshals Service
d. U.S. Secret Service

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. This organization has the primary responsibility for drug and narcotics enforcement at the federal level.
a. U.S. Marshals Service
b. U.S. Secret Service
c. Central Intelligence Agency
d. Drug Enforcement Administration

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Drug Enforcement Administration              OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which federal agency has a criminal investigation division that employs “accountants with a badge”?
a. Internal Revenue Service
b. Central Intelligence Agency
c. Department of Homeland Security
d. Drug Enforcement Administration

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Internal Revenue Service                           OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which state-level agencies are responsible for providing technical support to local agencies, such as laboratory analysis or record services?
a. State bureaus of investigation
b. State departments of public safety
c. State highway patrol divisions
d. State attorney general investigators

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Patrol, Police, and Investigative Organizations

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What percentage of municipal police agencies in the United States employ fewer than 10 sworn personnel?
a. One quarter
b. One third
c. Two thirds
d. One half

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Basic Operations      OBJ:   5                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Which operational element of local police agencies is considered the “backbone” of policing?
a. Investigations
b. Patrol
c. Communications
d. Records

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Organization

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Private security firms contracted by a company to provide security services for a fee are called _______.
a. contract services
b. proprietary services
c. security guards
d. security consultants

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   On Guard: The Private Police           OBJ:   7                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following are true of private security personnel?
a. They are not bound by Miranda provisions regarding suspects’ rights as sworn police officers.
b. They have the same arrest authority as sworn police officers.
c. They attend the same academies and have the same training as sworn police officers.
d. They are not bound by use of force policies like sworn police officers

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police                    OBJ:   7

COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following are concerns related to private security/private police personnel?
a. Private security officers are more likely to use excessive force than sworn police officers.
b. Private security officers are unarmed and have more safety concerns than sworn police officers.
c. Private security officers often receive little training compared to sworn police officers.
d. All of these are concerns related to private security/private police personnel.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police                    OBJ:   7

COG:  Knowledge

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The primary function of the sheriff in early England was to maintain law and order in the community.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Sheriff

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The primary function of the constable in early England was to grant bail to suspects and determine cause of death in suspicious death cases.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Constable

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Today, the coroner determines the causes of all deaths by violence or under suspicious circumstances.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Coroner

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The office of the Justice of the Peace was criticized in the 16th century because of the wealthy landowners who were able to buy their way into office.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Justice of the Peace                                   OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The first police force was established in London after the passage of the Metropolitan Police Act of 1829.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England, 1829                 OBJ:   1

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Despite the efforts of reformers, police corruption increased dramatically during the reform era.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: The Reform Era       OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The community era of policing implemented research findings that found traditional methods of policing were ineffective, such as reducing response times and increased calls for service.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: The Community Era                                  OBJ:   2

COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. The Federal Bureau of Investigations has the highest number of officers with arrest and firearm authority of all federal agencies.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Table 5.2

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The primary purpose of the Department of Homeland Security is preventing terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Among the duties of the U.S. Secret Service is to investigate counterfeiting and other financial crimes, such as financial institution fraud, computer fraud, and identify theft.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security             OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. INTERPOL is the largest global police force, with police officers with arrest and investigation authority in every country of the world.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Investigating Further: Interpol                    OBJ:   6

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. One of the top priorities of the Federal Bureau of Investigations is to protect the United States against cyber-attacks and high-technology crimes.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Federal Bureau of Investigation                  OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is prohibited from monitoring Internet sites, churches and political organizations, nor can its agents attend public meetings for the purpose of preventing terrorism.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Federal Bureau of Investigation                  OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The Internal Revenue Service is considered the most clandestine government service.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Central Intelligence Agency                       OBJ:   3

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Proponents of a national police force argue such a system will be more accountable and less costly than the current decentralized system.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: You Be the JUDGE: One National Police Organization

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. State public safety agencies tend to perform general police functions such as highway patrol, traffic control, and crash investigations.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: Patrol, Police, and Investigative Organizations

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Unlike their federal contemporaries, state bureau of investigations officers are uniformed investigators.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: Patrol, Police, and Investigative Organizations

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Municipal police departments and sheriff’s offices report women comprise at least half their sworn workforce.

 

ANS:  F                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Operations

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Police agencies (particularly large agencies) often divide work functions into parole, investigations, staff (or administrative) services, and auxiliary (technical) services.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Organization

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. The first private security operation was established by Allan Pinkerton in 1851, which specialized in railway security.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police                    OBJ:   7

COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The most common security services provided in the United States include contract guards, alarm services, and armored-car services.

 

ANS:  T                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police                    OBJ:   7

COG:  Knowledge

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. What were the four primary criminal justice officials in early England that were adopted in American and still exist (or existed until recently)?

 

ANS:

The four primary criminal justice officials from early England that transferred to America and continue to exist today are the sheriff, constable, coroner, and justice of the peace.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   under heading: English and Colonial Roots: An Overview

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Describe why the position of constable largely fell into disuse in the American colonies.

 

ANS:

Most constables were untrained and considered to be inadequate law officers.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Constable

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Since the early part of this century, what is the primary function of the coroner?

 

ANS:

The primary function of the coroner is to determine the cause of all violent deaths or those deaths under suspicious circumstances.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Coroner

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What was the impetus for the formation of the London police in the early 1800s?

 

ANS:

The London police were formed via Parliamentary act as a result of lessening effectiveness of the British army in dispersing rioters.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Describe how political considerations could work against corrupt officers during the political era.

 

ANS:

Corrupt officers who angered their supervisors could be transferred to less desirable locations where there were no opportunities for financial advancement.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: The Political Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What does it mean that policing during the reform era was “driven by numbers”?

 

ANS:

Police work during the reform era was driven by numbers in that much of police work was related to numbers (e.g., number of arrests, number of calls for service, response time, number of tickets written).

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: The Reform Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. How did Los Angeles Police Chief William Parker liken policing with a “thin blue line”?

 

ANS:

In Parker’s opinion, the police were the thin blue line, the line that protected society from barbarism. Parker viewed society as a jungle that needed the police for protection.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: The Reform Era

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. How was the formation of the Department of Homeland Security the most significant transformation of the U.S. government in more than 50 years?

 

ANS:

All or part of 22 federal departments and agencies were combined, and 80,000 new federal employees were put to work.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What is INTERPOL’s cardinal rule?

 

ANS:

It deals only with common criminals; it does not get involved with political, racial, or religious matters.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Investigating Further: Interpol

OBJ:   6                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What types of responsibilities are generally tasked to state police agencies?

 

ANS:

State police organizations are typically tasked with more general law enforcement functions, such as criminal investigations, highway patrol, crash investigations, and traffic control.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: Patrol, Police, and Investigative Organizations

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. How do municipal police and sheriff’s departments recruit qualified personnel?

 

ANS:

Both municipal police and sheriff’s departments typically utilize physical agility tests, written aptitude tests, and personality inventories.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Basic Operations

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What is the difference between primary and secondary functions of police operations?

 

ANS:

Police operations are typically divided into patrol, the primary operational element, and investigative and youth functions as the secondary operational element.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Organization

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What are some of the benefits of working at a larger organization with regard to varied work assignments?

 

ANS:

In a larger agency, an officer has more opportunity to be assigned to different tasks, such as dog handler, motor officer, detective, etc.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Organization

OBJ:   4                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What is the difference between proprietary and contract services in the private security/police industry?

 

ANS:

Proprietary services are those in-house services directly hired and operated by the company or organization. In contrast, contract services are outside agencies or individuals hired by the individual or company to provide services for a fee.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police

OBJ:   7                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. Describe some of the concerns with regard to arming private security officers.

 

ANS:

Among the concerns with regard to arming private security guards are that security officers often receive little to no prior firearms training, and many are not subjected to background checks.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police

OBJ:   7                    COG:  Comprehension

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Describe how the selection of police officers in 1840s New York differed from police officer selection under the European model.

 

ANS:

The selection in New York City differed in a number of ways. First, the American plan divided each ward into separate patrol districts, contrasted with the European model, which separated districts by levels of criminal activity. Second, the officer selection process was different in that the mayor chose recruits from a list provided by the aldermen and tax collectors of each ward.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: The Political Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What was the impetus for the current community era of policing?

 

ANS:

The community era emerged as a result of some of the problems of the reform era, such as the ineffectiveness of traditional police methods like response time and calls for service. During the community era, officers were trained and encouraged to reach out to the community to solve problems collaboratively and examine the underlying causes of crime.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: The Community Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. What is the difference between the U.S. Customs and Border Protection agency and the Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency?

 

ANS:

The CBP is responsible for preventing terrorists and their weapons from entering the United States while expediting the flow of legal trade and travel. In contrast, ICE is responsible for identifying and minimizing weak points in the nation’s borders and in economic, transportation, and infrastructure security.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What is the primary purpose and function of INTERPOL?

 

ANS:

INTERPOL primarily gathers and disseminates intelligence to nations around the world. It manages databases with information related to offenders and wanted persons and disseminates crime-related data through international notices.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: FOCUS ON: Interpol

OBJ:   6                    COG:  Comprehension

 

  1. What are the arguments in support of or against a national police force?

 

ANS:

Supporters of a national police force cite the current decentralization of law enforcement as fragmented and lacking in uniformity. They believe a national force would have fewer laws to uphold, be more accountable, and be less expensive than the current system. Opponents argue that centralization is a threat to democracy as well as personal freedom. They believe a national police force would be too distanced from local issues, involve a loss of local control, and be vulnerable to abuse by the central government.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   under heading: You Be the JUDGE: One National Police Organization

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. Explain the development of private policing and its current status and issues.

 

ANS:

Private police services were first developed by Allan Pinkerton and his Pinkerton National Detective Agency in 1851. The need for private security staff is increasing in the United States, although there are several concerns with the industry, such as lack of training, quality of staff, and questions whether or not to arm private security officers.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   under heading: On Guard: The Private Police

OBJ:   7                    COG:  Comprehension

 

COMPLETION

 

  1. The __________ in early England maintained law and order in the tithings

 

ANS:  shire reeve

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Sheriff

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The __________ in early England collected taxes and served as a magistrate.

 

ANS:  constable

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Constable

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The __________ of the early criminal justice officials of the American colonies determined cause of death.

 

ANS:  coroner

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Coroner

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. London police are referred to as __________.

 

ANS:  bobbies

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England, 1829

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The main purpose of the Metropolitan Police Act of __________ was to establish a professional police force.

 

ANS:  1829

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England, 1829

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. __________ established the first Metropolitan Police Act in England

 

ANS:  Sir Robert Peel

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Police Reform in England, 1829

OBJ:   1                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The civil service systems were created during the __________ era.

 

ANS:  reform

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: The Reform Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. During the __________ era, police were trained to work with the community in order to resolve local crime problems.

 

ANS:  community

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: The Community Era

OBJ:   2                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The __________ is the federal agency responsible for preventing terrorists from entering the United States.

 

ANS:  U.S. Customs and Border Patrol

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Department of Homeland Security

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is the oldest and only truly international crime-fighting organization for offenses committed across national borders.

 

ANS:  INTERPOL

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Investigating Further: Interpol

OBJ:   6                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. The __________ is the legal arm of the U.S. government.

 

ANS:  Department of Justice

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Department of Justice

OBJ:   3                    COG:  Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is referred to as the backbone of policing.

 

ANS:  Patrol

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   under heading: Organization

OBJ:   5                    COG:  Knowledge

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