Intimate Relationships 2nd Edition by Thomas N. Bradbury – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download

 

Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 5: Attraction and Mate Selection

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The experience of evaluating another individual positively refers to:
a. attraction. c. sexual attraction.
b. dating. d. mate selection.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Attraction       TOP:   Attraction

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Brian is taking a cooking class. On the first day of class, all the students introduced themselves, and Brian noticed that he felt more positively about some of his fellow students than others. Brian’s feelings best demonstrate the process of:
a. attraction. c. sexual attraction.
b. liking. d. the primacy effect.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Attraction       TOP:   Attraction

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Attraction is to ________ as mate selection is to ________.
a. individual processes; dyadic processes
b. dyadic processes; individual processes
c. unrequited love; romantic attraction
d. liking; love

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Attraction | Mate Selection

TOP:   Attraction | Mate Selection               MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Research about personality and attraction shows that:
a. the more positive traits a person has, the more attractive that person is.
b. the balance of positive and negative traits predicts how attractive a person is.
c. personality has little effect on attraction.
d. the relationship between personality and attraction is complex.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Personality: What Do We Like about Others?

TOP:   Attraction: Personality                     MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Anderson’s (1968) list of the top 10 most likeable and least likeable personality traits suggests that:
a. being trustworthy is more attractive than being fun.
b. no one finds dishonest individuals attractive.
c. friendliness is the most attractive personality trait.
d. individuals with a few negative qualities are not attractive.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Personality: What Do We Like about Others?

TOP:   Attraction: Personality                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. As described in the textbook, Aronson and his colleagues conducted a study where college students listened to an audiotape of someone supposedly auditioning for the chance to compete in a trivia contest. The main implication from this study was that because of ________, people who are ________ are most attractive.
a. the “what is beautiful is good” stereotype; nearly perfect
b. downward social comparisons; clumsy
c. the matching hypothesis; similar to us
d. the pratfall effect; clumsy

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Personality: What Do We Like about Others?

TOP:   Attraction: Personality: Pratfall effect                                MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Using the phantom other technique on college students, researchers have examined the determinants of liking inside and outside the laboratory. Which finding has NOT been supported by this kind of research?
a. The more someone shares our values, the more we expect that person to like us.
b. The less similar someone is to us, the less we like that person.
c. The more someone shares our values, the more we like that person.
d. If someone similar to us is going through a hard time, we like that person even more.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Factual

 

  1. The explanation for why the pratfall effect works is that:
a. we like people who are clumsy and use self-deprecating humor.
b. due to upward comparison, we find people whose performance is consistently excellent threatening.
c. we identify people who generally do well but whose performance is occasionally imperfect as being similar to ourselves.
d. due to downward comparison, people whose performance is imperfect boost our self-esteem.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Conceptual

 

  1. The chapter on attraction lists three reasons why we find people who are similar to us more attractive. These reasons are that people who are similar to us:
a. are easy to get along with, are validating, and are probably going to like us.
b. increase our confidence, are validating, and facilitate self-expansion.
c. are easy to get along with, facilitate self-expansion, and are probably going to like us.
d. are validating, increase our confidence, and share our vulnerabilities.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is supported by research about complementarity?
a. We are attracted to people who possess qualities we lack.
b. Couples may adopt complementary patterns of behavior when they are together.
c. People report being more attracted to individuals who they think have personality traits that they themselves lack.
d. There is no evidence that complementarity is attractive.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Factual

 

  1. As mentioned in the attraction chapter, ________ refers to ________.
a. the mere exposure effect; the idea that we become more attracted to people (and objects) that we have been exposed to more frequently
b. reciprocity; the fact that sharing common experiences leads us to want to disclose other experiences to an attractive person
c. behavioral synchrony; how people who are attracted to each other coordinate their schedules and availability
d. the phantom other technique; a research method used to study the determinants of physical attraction (e.g., hip-to-waist ratio)

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us | Familiarity: Liking What We Know | Reciprocity: Liking People Who Like Us | First Moves: Signaling Availability and Interest

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity | Attraction: Familiarity | Attraction: Reciprocity | Mate Selection: Signaling availability and interest               MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Researchers took photographs of women and then made mirror images of the pictures. The researchers then showed the actual photo and the mirror-image photo to the women and to their close friends. According to the mere exposure effect, which photo should people prefer?
a. Both the women and their friends should prefer the actual photo.
b. The women should prefer the actual photo; their friends should prefer the mirror-image photo.
c. The women should prefer the mirror-image photo; their friends should prefer the actual photo.
d. Both the women and their friends should prefer the mirror-image photo.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Familiarity: Liking What We Know

TOP:   Attraction: Familiarity                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. You participate in a research study where researchers take your photograph and then make a mirror image of the picture. They then show you the actual photo and the mirror-image photo. According to the mere exposure effect, which photo should you prefer?
a. You should prefer the actual photo.
b. You should prefer the mirror-image photo.
c. You should prefer neither photo—after all, who likes photos of themselves?
d. You should like both photos equally.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Familiarity: Liking What We Know

TOP:   Attraction: Familiarity                     MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The mere exposure effect predicts that repeated exposure to ________ will lead to ________.
a. any stimulus; increased liking
b. a neutral stimulus; decreased liking
c. any stimulus; decreased liking
d. a neutral stimulus; increased liking

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Familiarity: Liking What We Know

TOP:   Attraction: Familiarity                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. On the first day of her consumer behavior seminar, Leona doesn’t know any of her twelve classmates. Based on the mere exposure effect, who of the following will Leona report liking most at the end of the course?
a. Madison, who sat beside her and missed a few classes
b. Manuel, who sat across the room from her and missed a few classes
c. Jamil, who sat across the room from her and didn’t miss any classes
d. Leona will like all three of them equally.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Familiarity: Liking What We Know

TOP:   Attraction: Familiarity                     MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Research about reciprocity has shown that:
a. the effects of being liked influence feelings of attraction more strongly than the effects associated with the qualities of the individuals.
b. the effects associated with the qualities of the individuals influence feelings of attraction more strongly than the effects of being liked.
c. the effects of being liked influence feelings of attraction as strongly as the effects associated with the qualities of the individuals.
d. we like people more the more they like us.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Reciprocity: Liking People Who Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Reciprocity                    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. You participate in a study where you meet four other students and work one-on-one with each on a series of activities (i.e., first you are paired with one student, then with a second, etc.). After each activity, you overhear your partner talking to the experimenter about you. According to research by Aronson and his colleagues, which of the students will you like more?
a. Kenisha, who likes you at the beginning of the study and still likes you at the end of the study
b. Will, who likes you at the beginning of the study but not at the end of the study
c. Jamie, who doesn’t like you at the beginning of the study but likes you by the end of the study
d. Jose, who doesn’t like you at the beginning of the study and still doesn’t like you at the end of the study

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Reciprocity: Liking People Who Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Reciprocity                    MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The process of thinking someone would be desirable as a potential intimate partner is called:
a. attraction. c. sexual attraction.
b. dating. d. mate selection.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction       MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Elaine Hatfield and her colleagues randomly matched University of Minnesota freshmen for a Welcome Week dance. When the students were asked to evaluate their dates, the physical attractiveness of the date was the best predictor of whether someone wanted to go out with that person again. What was the secondbest predictor?
a. similarity of values c. intelligence
b. sense of humor d. There was no second-best predictor.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Miguel is a college freshman of average physical attractiveness who waits tables at the campus café to help pay his tuition. Based on what you have learned about attraction research, which of the following women would you expect Miguel to most want to spend time with?
a. Jolanda, a stunning freshman who does some modeling to help pay her tuition
b. Mandip, a freshman of average physical attractiveness who works as a cashier at the local grocery store
c. Casey, a senior of average physical attractiveness who works at the campus library
d. Brenda, a somewhat unattractive senior who works part-time as a waitress

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. When it comes to romantic attraction:
a. shared interests are equally as important in predicting attraction as physical appearance is.
b. physical appearance is the largest predictor of attraction for men and women.
c. women are more influenced by physical appearance than men are.
d. men are more influenced by physical appearance than women are.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Nalini is a college senior majoring in mathematics. To help pay her tuition, she works part-time waiting tables at a local restaurant. She enjoys playing soccer and going for hikes. Her friends would describe her as outgoing, kind, funny, and pretty but not beautiful. Based on the matching phenomenon, which of the following men is Nalini most likely to form an intimate relationship with?
a. Trevor, a senior in the math department who plays on the same soccer team as Nalini
b. Jagdeep, a fairly good-looking senior in the physics department who works at the same restaurant as Nalini
c. Tremayne, a somewhat unattractive junior in the math department with whom Nalini goes hiking every other weekend
d. Jose, an extremely attractive senior in the math department who volunteers in a local elementary school helping disadvantaged children with their math skills

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?: Matching phenomenon            MSC:              Applied

 

  1. The matching phenomenon suggests that people tend to pair up with partners who are similar in their:
a. social skills. c. socioeconomic background.
b. intellectual capacity. d. physical attractiveness.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?: Matching phenomenon            MSC:              Factual

 

  1. Researchers have studied telephone conversations between unacquainted men and women. In these studies, one of the interaction partners (either the man or the woman) is led to believe his or her conversation partner is either physically attractive or physically unattractive. What is the most important conclusion we can draw from such studies?
a. Attractiveness of a conversation partner has no effect on the nature of the interaction.
b. Men who think they are talking to a more attractive woman are friendlier.
c. Women who think they are talking to a more attractive man are friendlier.
d. Women and men believed to be attractive by their partners behave in a friendlier manner.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Physical Appearance: Why Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: Why does it matter?

MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The beauty stereotype suggests that physically attractive people are kinder, more sensitive, and more interesting than less attractive people. What is a downside to being physically attractive?
a. Attractive people are judged as equally vain as less attractive people.
b. Potential partners are only interested in attractive people’s reproductive fitness.
c. Attractive people find it difficult to trust positive feedback from others.
d. Employers are more likely to offer attractive people a job after an interview.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Physical Appearance: Why Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: Why does it matter?

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. You conduct a study about what people find physically attractive by creating computer-generated composites of photographs and asking people to rate the attractiveness of each. Your results show that the composite made up of ________ faces is rated as most attractive.
a. 2 c. 16
b. 4 d. 32

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Physical Appearance: Why Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: Why does it matter?

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Which of the following statements about physical attractiveness is FALSE?
a. Distinctive or unusual faces tend to be rated as more attractive than average ones.
b. The physical attractiveness of potential partners affects the mate choices of men and women to about the same degree.
c. People tend to pair up with mates whose physical attractiveness matches their own.
d. People tend to believe that physically attractive individuals are also attractive in other ways.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Physical Appearance: Why Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: Why does it matter?

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Strategic pluralism refers to the idea that humans:
a. have developed the capacity to pursue long-term relationships or short-term relationships as the circumstances warrant.
b. are evolutionarily predisposed to prefer long-term relationships no matter the circumstances.
c. are evolutionarily predisposed to prefer short-term relationships no matter the circumstances.
d. are likely to pursue more than one relationship at once to maximize their chances of passing along their genes.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Research based on sexual strategies theory shows that:
a. men derive benefits only from pursuing many short-term relationships.
b. women have nothing to gain from pursuing short-term relationships.
c. men are willing to lower their standards to engage in short-term relationships.
d. women are willing to pursue a short-term relationship as long as the male partner is dependable.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium

REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Sexual strategies theory predicts that:
a. men should pursue long-term relationships only in exceptional circumstances, such as when no women are willing to enter into a short-term relationship.
b. women should pursue long-term relationships only in exceptional circumstances, such as when no men are willing to enter into a short-term relationship.
c. men should pursue long-term relationships when doing so will grant them access to more desirable partners than pursuing short-term relationships would.
d. women should only pursue long-term relationships because the most desirable partners always want long-term relationships.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Why might Monica Lewinski have been willing to engage in an extramarital affair with President Bill Clinton?
a. Monica was looking for a long-term relationship; she thought Clinton might eventually leave his wife to be with her.
b. Although giving up long-term commitment, Monica gained access to one of the most powerful men in the world.
c. Because her parents argued a lot when she was young, Monica learned that long-term relationships are not worth pursuing.
d. Monica was coerced into engaging in the relationship.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Jessica is a college freshman interested in pursuing a short-term relationship. According to sexual strategies theory, which of the following men would she be most likely to pursue a relationship with?
a. Kabore, who is physically attractive but is not particularly dependable
b. Jonah, who is moderately attractive as well as dependable and loyal
c. Fynn, who is moderately attractive and rich, but prefers to save his money for the future rather than spend it now
d. Luca, who is physically attractive and likes to spend money, but is not particularly dependable

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Social psychologists Donald Dutton and Art Aron had an attractive female research assistant offer her phone number to men in the middle of the high, rickety Capilano Suspension Bridge in Vancouver, British Columbia, and to men on a nearby low, sturdy bridge. The main finding was that the men on the suspension bridge were ________ likely to call the research assistant because they ________ the swaying bridge was the source of their physiological arousal and so attributed their feelings of arousal to ________.
a. less; did not realize; the research assistant
b. more; mistakenly thought; the bridge
c. less; correctly realized; the bridge
d. more; did not realize; the research assistant

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Romantic Attraction in Different Contexts

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Different contexts           MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Javeed has a fear of flying. Every time he has to fly, his heart races and his palms get sweaty. On a recent business trip, instead of being accompanied by his colleague Franco, a new female colleague, Blanca, accompanied him. Meeting her for the first time at the airport, Javeed found himself extremely attracted to her. Based on the chapter about attraction, what could explain Javeed’s attraction to Blanca?
a. Javeed was distracted by having someone attractive to talk to on this trip, so he did not experience his usual fear of flying.
b. Being accompanied by a woman instead of by a man was soothing for Javeed, so he was better able to handle his fear of flying.
c. Javeed mistakenly attributed his arousal (fast heartbeat and sweaty palms) as a sign of attraction to Blanca.
d. Blanca is a striking woman with unusual features, making her exceptionally physically attractive.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Romantic Attraction in Different Contexts

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Different contexts           MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Research on unrequited love shows that:
a. unrequited love is relatively rare, because being romantically attracted to someone who isn’t romantically attracted to us in return is not rewarding.
b. because it causes heartache, feelings of unrequited love fade quickly once it becomes clear the other person is not attracted to us in return.
c. being the object of unrequited love is a particularly flattering experience.
d. feelings of unrequited love are likely to persist, because we believe that if we work hard enough we may eventually win the affection of the person we desire.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Unrequited Love

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Unrequited love              MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Ana is head over heels in love with Mark, a fellow student in her chemistry class. Unfortunately, it seems as though he is barely aware of her existence. Ana makes every effort to be near Mark, including sitting next to him in class, joining the same chemistry study group he belongs to, and even attending their school’s soccer team games when she knows he will be there. Ana’s behavior can best be described as an example of:
a. unrequited love. c. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
b. consummate love. d. the mere exposure effect.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Unrequited Love

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Unrequited love              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The distinction between unrequited love and stalking:
a. is clear—unrequited lovers are sweet and harmless, whereas stalkers are dangerous.
b. may be difficult to assess—unrequited lovers and stalkers both believe they can win over the objects of their affections.
c. may be difficult to assess—it depends on how clearly the object of unwanted attraction communicates his or her lack of interest; he or she may just be playing hard to get.
d. is nonexistent—it all depends on the interpretation made by the object of unwanted attraction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Unrequited Love

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Unrequited love              MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. The process through which a committed relationship is formed is called:
a. hooking up. c. behavioral synchrony.
b. mate selection. d. the matching phenomenon.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Mate Selection

TOP:   Mate Selection                                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Bev participates in a speed-dating study. On the pre-study questionnaire she reports that physical attractiveness in a potential romantic partner is very important to her. Yet at the end of the study, the people she reports wanting to meet again are not those she rates as being most physically attractive. How can we explain this discrepancy?
a. Bev misunderstood the pre-study questionnaire and does not think physical attractiveness in a potential romantic partner is important.
b. Mate selection is essentially random so Bev’s preferences are not important.
c. The measures did not assess dyadic processes, such as how each person she met made Bev feel.
d. Most people think physical attraction is important, but other qualities such as humor play a larger role in attraction.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Mate Selection: Predicting Partner Choices

TOP:   Mate Selection: Do preferences predict mate choices?        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Lykken and Tellegen conducted a study of twins that showed that even though monozygotic (identical) twins tend to make similar choices in many aspects of their lives, this is not true when it comes to mate selection. The spouses of monozygotic twins are no more similar to each other than are the spouses of dizygotic (fraternal) twins. What important idea can we infer from this study?
a. Mate selection is a dyadic process and, hence, is rather different from other choices that people tend to make.
b. Attraction has a clear biological substrate, but environment also plays a crucial role.
c. Monozygotic twins tend to select different kinds of partners compared to dizygotic twins.
d. Mate selection is heavily shaped by genetic influences.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Mate Selection: Predicting Partner Choices

TOP:   Mate Selection: Do preferences predict mate choices?        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. To understand people’s mate choices, it is enough to know about the qualities of the two individuals involved.
a. True
b. False
c. This is true except when partners share temperament qualities.
d. This is false except when partners share qualities that indicate loyalty.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Mate Selection: Predicting Partner Choices

TOP:   Mate Selection: Do preferences predict mate choices?        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Your sister is about to start her first semester at college and has moved into campus housing. Based on what you know about attraction, which of the following people would you predict that she will most likely form a relationship with?
a. Shakira, who lives in the room next to your sister
b. June, who lives down the hall from your sister
c. Ava, who lives one floor down from your sister
d. Lee, who lives in the building next to your sister

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Proximity: Making Interaction Possible

TOP:   Mate Selection: Proximity               MSC:  Applied

 

  1. The fact that we tend to form relationships with those closest to us demonstrates the principle of:
a. proceptivity. c. proximity.
b. mate selection. d. attraction.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Proximity: Making Interaction Possible

TOP:   Mate Selection: Proximity               MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Proceptivity is to ________ as behavioral synchrony is to ________.
a. attraction; proximity c. signaling; mimicking
b. proximity; attraction d. mimicking; signaling

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   First Moves: Signaling Availability and Interest

TOP:   Mate Selection: Signaling availability and interest             MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. After taking this class and mastering the material on attraction, you go to a bar on a Friday night, take a corner table, and observe how people meet and form couples. Which of the following individuals is likely to be the LEAST successful at finding a partner at a singles’ bar?
a. Martin, who greets his friends with a loud insult and a punch in the arm
b. Tuan, who tends to mimic the behaviors of the people she finds herself talking to
c. June, who emphasizes her long hair by tossing it frequently
d. Terry, who openly shares personal details of his life shortly after he meets someone

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult

REF:   First Moves: Signaling Availability and Interest | Self-Disclosure: Knowing and Being Known

TOP:   Mate Selection: Signaling availability and interest | Mate Selection: Self-disclosure

MSC:  Applied

 

  1. An experiment by Bernstein and his colleagues showed that men will crowd into a small viewing cubicle next to an attractive woman to view a film when different movies are being shown in two viewing rooms but will go to a separate cubicle when only one film is available for viewing. An explanation for this finding is that:
a. the men didn’t like the movie being shown in the other viewing room.
b. when people have a choice of settings, perceived control makes crowding more tolerable.
c. men prefer watching movies in spacious environments when possible.
d. in the two-film condition, there was less risk of rejection.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   First Moves: Signaling Availability and Interest

TOP:   Mate Selection: Signaling availability and interest             MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What predictions would NOT follow from Altman and Taylor’s social penetration theory?
a. As you get closer with your roommate, you will discuss more personal information with him or her.
b. If your partner is supportive when you discuss slightly personal information, it is reasonable to assume that he or she will be supportive when you discuss topics that are more intimate.
c. Depth of disclosure between partners tends to be fairly equal across all topical areas.
d. Pace of disclosure tends to slow as disclosures become very intimate.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Self-Disclosure: Knowing and Being Known

TOP:   Mate Selection: Self-disclosure        MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following statements about self-disclosure in relationships is NOT true?
a. Relationship development is associated with an increase in depth and breadth of information shared.
b. We like people more after we have disclosed personal information to them.
c. We expect more immediate reciprocal exchange of personal information from our closest friends and partners than either more distant friends or strangers.
d. A pattern of matching and deepening self-disclosures characterizes relationship development.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Self-Disclosure: Knowing and Being Known

TOP:   Mate Selection: Self-disclosure        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. The steps of relationship formation in the staircase model (in order) are:
a. initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding.
b. initiating, intensifying, experimenting, commitment, and bonding.
c. dating, intensifying, integrating, and commitment.
d. dating, experimenting, intensifying, and bonding.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   Courtship: Developing Commitment

TOP:   Mate Selection: Courtship                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Research about commitment suggests that:
a. whether a relationship becomes more or less committed depends on the enduring qualities of the two partners.
b. how quickly partners make a commitment to each other depends on the speed of their self-disclosures.
c. committed couples tend to avoid discussing threatening topics.
d. relationships can become more or less committed for reasons that have little to do with the qualities of the two partners.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   Courtship: Developing Commitment

TOP:   Mate Selection: Courtship                MSC:  Factual

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Distinguish attraction, romantic/sexual attraction, and mate selection from each other.

 

ANS:

Attraction is the process of evaluating another individual positively; it is what draws us to other people.  Sexual or romantic attraction separates those people whom we find attractive into those with whom we want to pursue a romantic relationship and those with whom we want to be friends. Thus, sexual or romantic attraction is defined as the process of finding someone desirable as a potential intimate partner. Finally, although we may be romantically attracted to any number of people, most of us develop intimate relationships with relatively few of these people. Distinguished from romantic attraction, mate selection is the process through which committed relationships are formed.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Attraction | Romantic and Sexual Attraction | Mate Selection

TOP:   Attraction | Romantic and Sexual Attraction | Mate Selection

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Briefly summarize the research about personality and attraction. Be sure to discuss the pratfall effect in your answer.

 

ANS:

Early research on what makes people attractive assumed that some people simply had better personalities than others, and they were generally more attractive. There is evidence that we are attracted to people who have positive personality characteristics and dislike people with negative ones. In particular, we appear to be attracted to people who are honest and trustworthy. This does not mean, however, that the more positive personality traits a person has, the more attractive they will be. In fact, the people we find most attractive are those who possess wonderful qualities that are tempered by a few endearing flaws––this is known as the pratfall effect.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Personality: What Do We Like about Others?

TOP:   Attraction: Personality                     MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Two of your friends are arguing about what makes someone attractive. One of your friends claims, “opposites attract,” whereas the other insists, “birds of a feather flock together.” Both point to couples you all know to support their argument.  Based on what you have learned in this course, what would you tell your friends about whether similarity or complementarity is more attractive?

 

ANS:

A large body of research supports the claim that we generally find people more attractive the more similar they are to ourselves. Studies using the phantom other technique consistently find that the more a person has in common with someone else, the more they find that person attractive. (The exception to this is if the similar other is suffering or in pain.) These findings hold even when the other person is not a phantom and are most clear when assessing similarity in attitudes and values. On the other hand, some researchers suggest that when it comes to personality, it is complementarity that matters, for example, where one partner is dominant and the other submissive. Unfortunately, almost all research attempts to validate the complementarity hypothesis have failed. When it comes to attraction, people find similarity attractive, not complementarity.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Conceptual

 

  1. Describe three reasons why we find people who are similar to us more attractive.

 

ANS:

First, it is validating to be with people who are similar to us; being with people who share our beliefs and interests reinforces the idea that our beliefs and interests are justified and worthwhile, and this makes us feel better about ourselves. Second, people who are similar to us are easier to get along with. We are less likely to have disagreements and arguments with those who share our values. Third, we expect that people who are similar to us are probably going to like us.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Similarity: Liking People Who Are Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Similarity MSC:             Factual

 

  1. What is the mere exposure effect and what role does it play in attraction?

 

ANS:

The mere exposure effect is the idea that simply being exposed to something can make that thing intrinsically rewarding. The effect assumes that the exposure is relatively neutral. Repeated exposure to a negative stimulus or repeated exposure to a neutral stimulus paired with a negative one does not lead to increased attraction.  In general, people express preference for whatever stimulus they see most often, which may explain why we prefer to spend time with people who are familiar to us.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Familiarity: Liking What We Know

TOP:   Attraction: Familiarity                     MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Early research on reciprocity suggested that we are attracted to people who like us. Explain how subsequent research about the role of reciprocity on attraction has refined this idea.

 

ANS:

Research has shown that not all liking is equally rewarding. It turns out that, rather than preferring people who like us right away, we tend to prefer people who have initially negative opinions of us but then grow to like us over time. People who like us without even knowing us might simply be very easy to please. Although it may be flattering that they like us, we are unlikely to take their liking personally (perhaps they like everyone!). People who grows to like us over time, however, may be harder to please. Consequently, when those people come to like us, we can feel certain that the approval we are receiving reflects our own qualities.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Reciprocity: Liking People Who Like Us

TOP:   Attraction: Reciprocity                    MSC:  Factual

 

  1. When he first moved from another state, your friend Annand used an online dating service to look for a girlfriend. Annand is of average attractiveness, plays soccer twice a week, and likes sci-fi movies. Although he continually claimed to be interested in only very attractive women’s profiles, his girlfriend of one year (whom he met through the service) is of average attractiveness. Based on the matching phenomenon, how would you explain this apparent contradiction between Annand’s claims and actual choice of a romantic partner?

 

ANS:

Physical appearance is important in attraction: people are generally more interested in forming romantic relationships with people who are physically attractive. However, people also want to pursue relationships that are likely to be successful and are reluctant to open themselves to the possibility of rejection. Therefore, although Annand may have claimed to be interested in only the most attractive women’s profiles, he was more likely to approach women who were of similar attractiveness to him rather than risk rejection by the highly attractive women.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Physical Appearance: How Much Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: How much does it matter?: Matching phenomenon            MSC:              Applied

 

  1. Your friend wonders why female celebrities who have unusual facial features are judged as being most physically attractive. Based on what you have learned about physical appearance and attractiveness, what do you tell your friend?

 

ANS:

There appears to be a considerable level of overall agreement about the components of physical attractiveness. Men and women from a variety of different cultures tend to agree that women with large eyes, a small nose, and high cheekbones are especially attractive—features that many attractive female celebrities are likely to possess. Overall, however, research suggests that the features people find attractive are characteristic of average faces, not unusual ones. Other research suggests that what people find attractive is symmetry, or the degree to which paired features on both sides of the face are aligned. Yet despite the evidence that people find “averageness” and symmetry attractive, some evidence does support the notion that those faces that are rated as extremely attractive are not necessarily symmetrical or average.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Physical Appearance: Why Does It Matter?

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Physical appearance: Why does it matter?

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Describe how the attributes women and men look for in romantic partners change depending on whether they are pursuing short-term relationships as opposed to long-term ones.

 

ANS:

Sexual strategies theory is an attempt to explain and predict what sorts of qualities men and women tend to look for when they pursue long-term versus short-term relationships. Sexual strategies theory predicts that men would have evolved relatively low standards for short-term partners. When asked, men report lower standards (less intelligence and less physical appeal) for a one-night stand (a hookup) than for a marriage partner. Men rate evidence of sexual promiscuity desirable in a potential short-term partner but rate the same traits as highly undesirable in a long-term partner. Sexual strategies theory suggests women may benefit from a short-term relationship if it promises them access to resources or high-status men who are otherwise not accessible as long-term partners. In their short-term relationships, women prefer partners who are physically strong and who are willing to spend money. Overall, evidence suggests that men are willing to lower their standards to engage in short-term relationships, whereas women in several ways have higher standards for short- than long-term relationships (with respect to resources, status, and physical appearance).

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Romantic Attraction in Long-Term vs. Short-Term Relationships

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Long-term versus short-term relationships

MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Explain how situations can affect romantic attraction.

 

ANS:

Research clearly shows that our preferences for intimate partners are not consistent across situations.  This applies to internal and external context. An example where internal states affect romantic attraction is misattribution of arousal. When we feel physiologically aroused, we are quite poor at recognizing where that arousal comes from. In a classic study, Dutton and Aron had an attractive female research assistant offer her phone number to men in the middle of the high rickety Capilano Suspension Bridge in Vancouver, British Columbia, and to men on a nearby sturdy, low concrete bridge. Dutton and Aron found that the men from the suspension bridge were more likely to call the research assistant because they misinterpreted the source of their physiological arousal and so attributed their feelings of arousal to the attractive woman. External context can also affect romantic attraction by supporting different mating strategies. For example, being in a singles bar versus a library changes the targets of our romantic attraction.

 

DIF:    Difficult         REF:   Romantic Attraction and Situations

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Context: Different contexts              MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Your friend Abdul claims he is in love with Maia, a woman in his health psychology class.   He tells you that so far, he has had no luck in getting her to agree to go on a date with him, but he is certain that if he keeps trying Maia will change her mind. After what you have learned in your intimate relationships course, you conclude that Abdul is experiencing unrequited love.   Provide three reasons why Abdul would continue to pursue Maia, despite her repeated rejections.

 

ANS:

First, Abdul likely believes that Maia is exceptionally desirable. Thus, in terms of rewards, Maia’s perceived capacity to reward Abdul is very high. Second, Abdul seems to believe that, although his feelings are not currently returned, they are likely to be returned eventually. For Abdul, the costs of not being loved today might be outweighed by the potential rewards of Maia possibly loving him in the future. Finally, Abdul is likely to endorse the view that simply being in love is rewarding, even if Maia does not return his feelings. For example, he is likely to agree with the statement, “It is better to have loved in vain than never to have loved at all.”

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Unrequited Love

TOP:   Romantic and Sexual Attraction: Unrequited love              MSC:  Applied

 

  1. Proximity is a prerequisite for relationship formation. Does living close to people make them intrinsically more attractive?  Explain why or why not.

 

ANS:

It seems that someone being nearby doesn’t necessarily make them intrinsically more attractive, although people who are nearby are likely to be more familiar and perhaps also more similar to us. The most likely explanation for the effects of proximity on attraction is that people who are physically closer to each other simply have more opportunities to interact than people who are farther away. Thus, being close gives us more opportunities for positive interactions with people, but it also gives us more opportunities for conflict. This has been demonstrated in studies of college students living in campus housing; although most people tend to live close to their closest friends, they tend to live close to their enemies as well.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Proximity: Making Interaction Possible

TOP:   Mate Selection: Proximity               MSC:  Conceptual

 

  1. Describe Altman and Taylor’s social penetration theory. How does it relate to attraction?

 

ANS:

According to social penetration theory, the development of a relationship is associated with the kind of personal information that partners exchange with each other. The theory categorizes self-disclosures along two dimensions: breadth, or the variety of information shared, and depth, or the personal significance of the information shared. During an initial conversation, people tend to exchange information that is neither broad nor deep (e.g., “What other classes are you taking?”). Over the course of multiple interactions, however, people’s self-disclosures tend to spread over a wider range of areas and tend to deal with increasingly personal issues (e.g., “I’ve been depressed because my parents are getting divorced.”). Research shows that there is generally a strong relationship between disclosure and liking between two people. However, not all disclosures lead to increased liking, such as when people disclose highly personal information too early in an interaction or when people disclose personal information about themselves while giving the impression that they would disclose the information to anyone who will listen.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Self-Disclosure: Knowing and Being Known

TOP:   Mate Selection: Self-disclosure        MSC:  Factual

 

  1. What is the problem with stage theories of relationship development? In what other way do relationship researchers conceptualize relationship development?

 

ANS:

The problem with stage theories is that intimate relationships rarely follow the orderly pattern of development that stage models describe. For example, although some recently married couples do describe a steady increase in involvement over time, others describe relationships that progressed from strangers to marriage very quickly or relationships that experienced many ups and downs before reaching marriage. Consequently, rather than thinking of relationship development in terms of stages, researchers who examine how relationships actually develop think instead about turning points, or specific events or behaviors, that increase or decrease the level of commitment between two people. For example, the first time partners exchange the words I love you is a major event that changes how both partners feel about the relationship, as are more concrete behaviors such as buying a house. Thus, more recent research suggests that, rather than progressing along a series of  “steps,” relationships appear to experience turning points during which each partner’s commitment to the relationship is made explicit, either through a conversation or through the choices he or she makes in response to the opportunities offered.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   Courtship: Developing Commitment

TOP:   Mate Selection: Courtship                MSC:  Factual

 

  1. Kara and her girlfriend have just said I love you to each other for the first time. Why would researchers studying commitment describe this as a turning point in their relationship?

 

ANS:

The first time Kara and her girlfriend exchange the words I love you represents a major event that changes how both partners feel about the relationship. Although researchers initially thought of relationship development as progressing through a series of stages, they now examine how specific events or behaviors (called turning points) increase or decrease the level of commitment between partners. During such turning points, each partner’s commitment to the relationship is made explicit, either through a conversation (as for Kara and her girlfriend) or through the choices each partner makes in response to the opportunities offered.

 

DIF:    Easy               REF:   Courtship: Developing Commitment

TOP:   Mate Selection: Courtship                MSC:  Applied

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Intimate Relationships 2nd Edition by Thomas N. Bradbury – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.