Information Technology Project Management 8th Edition By Kathy – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

1. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: One of the most important and most difficult aspects of project management is defining the scope of a project. Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

2. Deliverables are only product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Deliverables can be product-related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

3. Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in a project.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Project scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project. It ensures that the project team and stakeholders have the same understanding of what products the project will produce and what processes the project team will use to produce them.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

4. The scope management plan can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The scope management plan is a subsidiary part of the project management plan. It can be informal and broad or formal and detailed, based on the needs of the project.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.186
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.32 – LO: 5-2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Planning Scope Management
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

5. The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors do not affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements for scope planning.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The project’s size, complexity, importance, and other factors affect how much effort is spent on collecting requirements.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.190
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.33 – LO: 5-3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Collecting Requirements
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

6. Information from the project charter provides a basis for further defining the project scope.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The charter describes the high-level scope, time, and cost goals for the project objectives and success criteria, a general approach to accomplishing the project’s goals, and the main roles and responsibilities of important project stakeholders.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.191
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

7. Project scope statements must include the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Project scope statements should include at least a product scope description, product user acceptance criteria, and detailed information on all project deliverables. It is also helpful to document other scope-related information, such as the project boundaries, constraints, and assumptions.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.191
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

8. The scope of a project is clear and specific from the start.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: As time progresses, the scope of a project should become more clear and specific.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.193
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

9. Many information technology projects also require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Many IT projects require detailed functional and design specifications for developing software, which also should be referenced in the detailed scope statement.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.193
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

10. The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are produced or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The project scope statement should reference supporting documents, such as product specifications that will affect what products are created or purchased, or corporate policies, which might affect how products or services are produced.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.191-193
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

11. The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The project scope management plan, scope statement, requirements documentation, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

12. The scope baseline in a WBS consists of the requirements documentation and enterprise environmental factors.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The scope baseline includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

13. The WBS is organized solely around project phases.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A project team often organizes the WBS around project products, project phases, or the project management process groups.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

14. A work package represents one component of the product that the project aims to deliver.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS. It represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

15. A work package must always represent less than 80 hours of work.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A work package represents the level of work that the project manager monitors and controls. If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one week or less. If a project has a very long time frame and requires quarterly progress reports, a work package might represent work completed in one month or more.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

16. Given the project management software that is available, it is relatively easy to create a good WBS.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: It is very difficult to create a good WBS.  In order to do so, you must understand the project and its scope and incorporate the needs and knowledge of the stakeholders.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.197
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

17. The tasks in a WBS must be developed as a sequential list of steps.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A concern when creating a WBS is how to organize it to provide the basis for the project schedule. You should focus on what work needs to be done and how it will be done, not when it will be done. In other words, the tasks do not have to be developed as a sequential list of steps.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p. 198
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

18. The executing tasks of the WBS remain constant from project to project.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The executing tasks vary the most from project to project, but many of the tasks under the other project management process groups would be similar for all projects.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.198
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

19. Many organizations provide different guidelines and templates for developing WBSs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. Microsoft Project 2013 comes with several templates, and more are available on Microsoft’s Web site and other sites.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

20. Mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

21. The format of the WBS dictionary is essentially the same for all projects.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
RATIONALE:   Feedback: WBS dictionary is a document that provides detailed information about each WBS item. The format of the WBS dictionary can vary based on project needs.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.203
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

22. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A basic principle of creating a good WBS and its WBS dictionary is that a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.204
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

23. Scope creep if not managed well can lead to the failure of information technology projects.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Even when the project scope is fairly well defined, many IT projects suffer from scope creep—the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger. Many IT projects fail due to scope creep.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.205
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

Multiple Choice

 

24. The term ______ describes a product produced as part of a project.

  a. variance b. scope
  c. deliverable d. work package

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The term deliverable describes a product created as part of a project. Deliverables can be product related, such as a piece of hardware or software, or process-related, such as a planning document or meeting minutes.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

25. Scope refers to:

  a. each level of work that is outlined in a work breakdown structure.
  b. the end product created as part of a project that is delivered to the client.
  c. tasks that are decomposed into smaller tasks in a work breakdown structure.
  d. the work involved in creating the products and the processes used to create them.

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

26. _____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.

  a. Collecting requirements b. Defining scope
  c. Controlling scope d. Validating scope

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products for the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates requirements documentation and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

27. _____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.

  a. Creating scope b. Defining scope
  c. Controlling scope d. Validating scope

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Defining scope involves reviewing the scope management plan, project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

28. _____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables.

  a. Creating scope b. Defining scope
  c. Controlling scope d. Validating scope

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Validating scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

29. Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the _____ process in project scope management.

  a. planning b. monitoring and controlling
  c. closing d. executing

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Creating the WBS is a subprocess associated with the planning process of the project scope management.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.32 – LO: 5-2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Planning Scope Management
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

30. The ______ documents how project needs will be analyzed, documented, and managed.

  a. requirements traceability matrix b. requirements management plan
  c. WBS d. project scope statement

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The requirements management plan documents how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.187
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.32 – LO: 5-2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Planning Scope Management
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

31. Generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization is known as _____.

  a. variance b. benchmarking
  c. prototyping d. decomposition

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Benchmarking, or generating ideas by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products inside or outside the performing organization, can be used to collect requirements.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.189
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.33 – LO: 5-3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Collecting Requirements
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

32. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

  a. requirements traceability matrix b. Gantt chart
  c. state transition table d. entity-attribute-value model

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A requirements traceability matrix (RTM) is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.191
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.33 – LO: 5-3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Collecting Requirements
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

33. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.

  a. project charter b. business case
  c. project scope statement d. work breakdown structure

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: After collecting requirements and defining scope, the next step in project scope management is to create a work breakdown structure. A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

34. The main technique used in creating a WBS is _____, which involves subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.

  a. conglomeration b. accumulation
  c. decomposition d. catalyzation

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The main tool or technique involved in creating a WBS is decomposition—that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

35. A(n) ____ is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

  a. variance b. objective
  c. deliverable d. work package

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A work package is a task at the lowest level of the WBS.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.196
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

36. The _____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.

  a. project charter b. scope statement
  c. WBS d. Gantt chart

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: The scope statement should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project. It is very important to ensure consistency between the project charter, scope statement, WBS, and Gantt chart to define the scope of the project accurately.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.199
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

37. In the _____approach for constructing a WBS, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point.

  a. top-down b. bottom-up
  c. mind-mapping d. analogy

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: A method for constructing a WBS is the analogy approach. In the analogy approach, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   P.200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

38. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.

  a. analogy b. bottom-up
  c. top-down d. mind mapping

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Feedback: To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

39. The _____ approach for constructing a WBS starts with the largest items of the project and breaks them into subordinate items.

  a. analogy b. bottom-up
  c. top-down d. mind mapping

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Feedback: To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into subordinate items. The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

40. The _____ technique for creating a WBS uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks.

  a. analogy b. bottom-up
  c. top-down d. mind mapping

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas. Instead of writing down tasks in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

41. In the _____ approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS.

  a. analogy b. bottom-up
  c. top-down d. mind mapping

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

42. Mind mapping can be used for developing WBSs using

  a. the analogy approach only b. the bottom-up or analogy approach
  c. the top-down or bottom-up approach d. any approach

 

ANSWER:   c
RATIONALE:   Feedback: You could conduct mind mapping for an entire project by listing the project in the center of a diagram and adding branches or develop a mind-mapping diagram for each deliverable and merge them to create one large diagram for the entire project.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.202
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

43. Which of the following is recommended for the creation of a good WBS?

  a. Any WBS item should be the responsibility of all the people working on it.
  b. A unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS.
  c. Each WBS item should be created assuming that the requirements are inflexible.
  d. The work content of a WBS item is independent of the WBS items below it.

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Some basic principles apply to creating any good WBS and its WBS dictionary. Firstly, a unit of work should appear at only one place in the WBS. The work content of a WBS item is the sum of the WBS items below it.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.204
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Analytic
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

44. Scope creep refers to:

  a. the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
  b. subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces.
  c. the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS.
  d. a task at the lowest level of the WBS.

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Scope creep refers to the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.205
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

45. _____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.

  a. Scope validation b. Scope planning
  c. Scope control d. Scope baseline

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Scope validation involves formal acceptance of the completed project deliverables. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.206
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

46. _____ refers to the difference between planned and actual performance.

  a. Decomposition b. Variance
  c. Scope validation d. Scope creep

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Variance is the difference between planned and actual performance.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.208
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.37 – L:5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

47. _____ refers to the process of developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

  a. Prototyping b. Variance
  c. Decomposition d. Use case modeling

 

ANSWER:   a
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

48. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.

  a. Prototyping b. JAD
  c. RAD d. Use case modeling

 

ANSWER:   d
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements of information systems.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

49. _____ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems.

  a. Prototyping b. JAD
  c. RAD d. Use case modeling

 

ANSWER:   b
RATIONALE:   Feedback: Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders — the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on —to jointly define and design information systems.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

Completion

 

50. _____ includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project.

ANSWER:   Project scope management
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

51. _____ refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them.

ANSWER:   Scope
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.184
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

52. The main outputs of _____are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.

ANSWER:   scope definition
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

53. Creating the _____ involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components.

ANSWER:   WBS
work breakdown structure
work breakdown structure (WBS)
WBS (work breakdown structure)
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

54. _____ refer to “conditions or capabilities that must be met by the project or present in the product, service, or result to satisfy an agreement or other formally imposed specification.”

ANSWER:   Requirements
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.186
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.32 – LO: 5-2
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Planning Scope Management
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

55. A(n) _____ is a table that lists requirements, their various attributes, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all are addressed.

ANSWER:   requirements traceability matrix
requirements traceability matrix (RTM)
RTM
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.191
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.33 – LO: 5-3
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Collecting Requirements
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

56. The main outputs of scope definition are the _____ and project document updates.

ANSWER:   project scope statement
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.191
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.34 – LO: 5-4
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Defining Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

57. A(n) _____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines its total scope.

ANSWER:   WBS
work breakdown structure
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

58. Subdividing the project deliverables into smaller pieces is known as _____.

ANSWER:   decomposition
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

59. The _____ includes the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary.

ANSWER:   scope baseline
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

60. Tasks in a WBS that are decomposed into smaller tasks are called _____ tasks.

ANSWER:   summary
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

61. PMI uses the term “_____” to describe each level of work in the WBS.

ANSWER:   task
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.195
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

62. A work package is a task at the _____ level of the WBS.

ANSWER:   lowest
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.196
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

63. Some organizations prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects. These are known as _____.

ANSWER:   guidelines
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.200
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

64. In the _____ approach to creating a WBS, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible.

ANSWER:   bottom-up
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

65. _____ is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas when creating a WBS.

ANSWER:   Mind mapping
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

66. A(n) _____ is a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item.

ANSWER:   WBS dictionary
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.203
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

67. _____ is the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger and bigger.

ANSWER:   Scope creep
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.205
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

68. The main tool for performing scope validation is _____ and group decision making techniques.

ANSWER:   inspection
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.206
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

69. _____ involves controlling changes to the project scope while keeping project goals and business strategy in mind.

ANSWER:   Scope control
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.207
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

70. _____ is the difference between planned and actual performance.

ANSWER:   Variance
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.208
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

71. _____ involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system.

ANSWER:   Prototyping
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

72. _____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.

ANSWER:   Use case modeling
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

Essay

 

73. List and briefly describe the six main processes involved in project scope management.

ANSWER:   1. Planning scope management involves determining how the project’s scope and requirements will be managed. The project team works with appropriate stakeholders to create a scope management plan and requirements management plan.

2. Collecting requirements involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them. The project team creates stakeholder requirements documentation, a requirements management plan, and a requirements traceability matrix as outputs of the requirements collection process.

3. Defining scope involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved. The main outputs of scope definition are the project scope statement and updates to project documents.

4. Creating the WBS involves subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. The main outputs include a work breakdown structure, a WBS dictionary, a scope baseline, and updates to project documents.

5. Verifying scope involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables. Key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process. If the deliverables are not acceptable, the customer or sponsor usually requests changes. The main outputs of this process, therefore, are accepted deliverables, change requests, work performance information, and updates to project documents.

6. Controlling scope involves controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project—a challenge on many information technology projects. Scope changes often influence the team’s ability to meet project time and cost goals, so project managers must carefully weigh the costs and benefits of scope changes. The main outputs of this process are work performance information, change requests, and updates to the project management plan, project documents, and organizational process assets.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.184-185
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.31 – LO: 5-1
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   What Is Project Scope Management?
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

74. What is a work breakdown structure? What are the inputs and tools used for creating one?

ANSWER:   A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project. Because most projects involve many people and many different deliverables, it is important to organize and divide the work into logical parts based on how the work will be performed. The WBS is a foundation document in project management because it provides the basis for planning and managing project schedules, costs, resources, and changes. Since the WBS defines the total scope of the project, some project management experts believe that work should not be done on a project if it is not included in the WBS. Therefore, it is crucial to develop a good WBS.
The project scope statement, stakeholder requirements documentation, and organizational process assets are the primary inputs for creating a WBS. The main tool or technique is decomposition, that is, subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces. The outputs of the process of creating the WBS are the WBS itself, the WBS dictionary, a scope baseline, and project document updates.
POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Easy
REFERENCES:   p.194
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

75. List and briefly describe five approaches for creating work breakdown structures.

ANSWER:   Using Guidelines
If guidelines for developing a WBS exist, it is very important to follow them. Some organizations—the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) for example—prescribe the form and content for WBSs for particular projects.

Many organizations provide guidelines and templates for developing WBSs, as well as examples of WBSs from past projects. At the request of many of its members, the Project Management Institute recently developed a WBS Practice Standard to provide guidance for developing and applying the WBS to project management.

Project managers and their teams should review appropriate information to develop their unique project WBSs more efficiently.

The Analogy Approach
In the analogy approach, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point. Some organizations keep a repository of WBSs and other project documentation on file to assist people working on projects. Viewing examples of other similar projects’ WBSs allows you to understand different ways to create a WBS.

The Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches
Most project managers consider the top-down approach of WBS construction to be conventional. To use the top-down approach, start with the largest items of the project and break them into their subordinate items. This process involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail. After finishing the process, all resources should be assigned at the work package level. The top-down approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.

In the bottom-up approach, team members first identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible. They then aggregate the specific tasks and organize them into summary activities, or higher levels in the WBS. The bottom-up approach can be very time-consuming, but it can also be a very effective way to create a WBS. Project managers often use the bottom-up approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy  with a project team.

Mind Mapping
Mind mapping is a technique that uses branches radiating out from a core idea to structure thoughts and ideas. Instead of writing tasks down in a list or immediately trying to create a structure for tasks, mind mapping allows people to write and even draw pictures of ideas in a nonlinear format. This more visual, less structured approach to defining and then grouping tasks can unlock creativity among individuals and increase participation and morale among teams.

After discovering WBS items and structure using the mind-mapping technique, you could then translate the information into chart or tabular form. Mind mapping can be used for developing WBSs using the top-down or bottom-up approach.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Challenging
REFERENCES:   p.200-201
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.35 – LO: 5-5
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Creating The Work Breakdown Structure
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

76. Describe the process of scope verification.

ANSWER:   Scope verification involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders. This acceptance is often achieved by a customer inspection and then sign-off on key deliverables. To receive formal acceptance of the project scope, the project team must develop clear documentation of the project’s products and procedures to evaluate if they were completed correctly and satisfactorily. To minimize scope changes, it is crucial to do a good job of verifying project scope.

The scope management plan, scope baseline, requirements documentation, requirements traceability matrix, validated deliverables, and work performance data are the main inputs for scope validation. The main tools for performing scope validation are inspection and group decision-making techniques. The customer, sponsor, or user inspects the work after it is delivered and decides if it meets requirements. The main outputs of scope validation are accepted deliverables, change requests, work performance information, and project documents updates.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.206
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.36 – LO: 5-6
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Validating Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Knowledge

 

77. What are some of the suggestions for improving the requirements process?

ANSWER:   1. Develop and follow a requirements management process that includes procedures for initial requirements determination.

2. Employ techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and Joint Application Design to understand user requirements thoroughly. Prototyping involves developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system. These working replicas may be throwaways or an incremental component of the deliverable system. Prototyping is an effective tool for gaining an understanding of requirements, determining the feasibility of requirements, and resolving user interface uncertainties. Use case modeling is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them. It is an effective tool for understanding requirements for information systems. Joint Application Design (JAD) uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems. These techniques also help users become more active in defining system requirements.

3. Put all requirements in writing and keep them current and readily available. Several tools are available to automate this function. For example, a type of software called a requirements management tool aids in capturing and maintaining requirements information, provides immediate access to the information, and assists in establishing necessary relationships between requirements and information created by other tools.

4. Create a requirements management database for documenting and controlling requirements. Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools or other technologies can assist in maintaining a repository for project data. A CASE tool’s database can also be used to document and control requirements.

5. Provide adequate testing to verify that the project’s products perform as expected. Conduct testing throughout the project life cycle.

6. Use a process for reviewing requested requirements changes from a systems perspective.

7. Emphasize completion dates.

8. Allocate resources specifically for handling change requests.

POINTS:   1
DIFFICULTY:   Difficulty: Moderate
REFERENCES:   p.209-210
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   INFO.SCHW.14.38 – LO: 5-7
NATIONAL STANDARDS:   United States – BUSPROG: Technology
TOPICS:   Controlling Scope
KEYWORDS:   Bloom’s: Comprehension

 

 

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