Industrial Relations In Canada 3rd Edition By Hebdon Brown – Test Bank

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1. The recent shift to a more individualistic employment relationship has affected union identity.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

2. Globalization has increased the bargaining power of unions by allowing money to move more freely across borders.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

3. The macroeconomic purpose of wealth redistribution could be achieved by replacing individual bargaining with collective bargaining through unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

4. The International Labour Organization is an agency of the United Nations that includes representatives from labour, management, and government

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

5. A “company union” is an independent workers’ organization whose members all work for a single employer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

6. Craft unions was defined by the way goods were produced in North America

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

7. Public-sector unions evolved in response to changes in labour legislation and an increase in public services.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

8. Locals are subunits of the parent national or international union, and as such may have aims that diverge somewhat from the parent organization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

9. Unifor’s broad social agenda stand is very similar to those of the occupational unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

10. It is possible to organize a union that is not affiliated with either a national or international union.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

11. Canada’s two largest unions are both private-sector unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

12. Three of the six biggest unions in Canada are public-sector unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

13. From 2001 to 2014 CUPE has grown by 25 percent.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

14. The Canadian Labour Congress is the largest central labour body in Canada.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

15. The CLC’s mandate is to advance a broad social agenda to improve the lives of all workers.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

16. Provincial federations of labour are the main bodies pushing labour’s issues on legislation and other policy areas with provincial governments.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

17. National labour bodies are particularly important in Canada because most labour legislation is federal.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

18. Local labour councils provide a critical link between labour and the broader community.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

19. Labour councils participate in many community organizations to promote and advance the economic, social, cultural, and political interests of union members and the wider community.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

20. Internal union democracy has been shown to be an important factor in winning union elections, union renewal and worker perceptions of union power.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

21. Community attitudes toward unions affect a worker’s desire (or lack of desire) to join a union.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

22. Blue-collar workers are more likely to join a union for economic reasons than for noneconomic ones.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

23. Women and minorities were significantly more likely to want unionization than men and non-minorities.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

24. If unions want to keep the allegiance of their members, they must fulfill their primary function of providing distributive justice to their members.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

25. Unionized employees who work for larger companies are more likely to want to leave their unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

26. Canadian patterns of unionization are very similar to those in the United States, but on a smaller scale.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

27. Union density statistics answer the question of whether the growth in union membership has kept pace with the natural growth in the labour force.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

28. The Rand Formula requires all members of a bargaining unit to pay union dues, whether or not they choose to join the union.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

29. In Canada, a union is legally required to represent all individuals covered by a collective agreement, whether or not they have signed a union card.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

30. The public sector is more highly unionized in the United States than in Canada.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

31. People who are satisfied in their jobs, take pride in their work, and feel fairly paid will not join unions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

32. By 2012, there had been a significant shift where the union density for female employees exceeded that of for male employees.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

33. Employees under the age of 25 and over the age of 64 were much less likely to belong to a union or to be covered by a collective agreement than employees between the ages of 25 and 64.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

34. Newfoundland has the highest union density in Canada.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

35. According to the textbook, institutionalists saw two broad approaches to justify the existence of unions. What were they?

  a. economics  and human rights
  b. human rights and social justice
  c. politics and social justice
  d. economics and politics

 

ANSWER:   d

 

36. Which aspect of globalization has eroded the bargaining power of unions?

  a. free movement of capital
  b. international labour protections
  c. rising education levels
  d. continuing poverty

 

ANSWER:   a

 

37. According to institutional economists, which mechanism improves the efficiency of markets?

  a. unregulated trade
  b. unions with bargaining rights
  c. macroeconomic policy
  d. wealth creation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

38. What was the International Labour Organization’s international labour standards established to limit?

  a. child labour
  b. freedom of association
  c. the right to strike
  d. collective bargaining

 

ANSWER:   a

 

39. What is the most important institutionalist objective for unions?

  a. achieving the right to strike
  b. macroeconomic redistribution of wealth
  c. achieving industrial democracy
  d. freedom of association

 

ANSWER:   c

 

40. What key element of industrial democracy are labour boards and arbitration processes examples of?

  a. an employee voice in determining work rules
  b. a written law of employment standards
  c. a binding procedure for the enforcement of written law
  d. a balance of power between management and labour

 

ANSWER:   c

 

41. Which organization is responsible for the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work?

  a. the UN
  b. the CLC
  c. the ILO
  d. the AFL-CIO

 

ANSWER:   c

 

42. What two elements of the legal definition of unions are essential under Canada’s labour relations laws?

  a. labour organization that bargains collectively and supports the right to strike
  b. labour organization that bargains collectively and is independent of the employer
  c. labour organization that supports the right to strike and supports political action
  d. labour organization that supports political action and is NOT dominated by the employer

 

ANSWER:   b

 

43. There have been three great waves of unionization in Canada, each with its own defining elements. What are the three waves?

  a. craft, industrial, and public sector
  b. craft, health, and public sector
  c. transportation, craft, and health
  d. public sector, teachers, and craft

 

ANSWER:   a

 

44. Which great wave of unionization in Canada corresponded with assembly-line production?

  a. craft
  b. industrial
  c. public sector
  d. globalization

 

ANSWER:   b

 

45. Which of the following might influence the non-collective bargaining goals of a union?

  a. history of violent struggles
  b. labour laws
  c. company union
  d. human rights

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. What is the primary focus of business unionism?

  a. to promote the economic welfare of the employer
  b. to run an effective and efficient organization
  c. to achieve economic gains through collective bargaining
  d. to ensure the long-term employment security of a specific industry

 

ANSWER:   c

 

47. Why do craft unions often lack a strong social agenda?

  a. This form of unionism arose before corporate social responsibility was popular.
  b. The complexity of many trades makes social activism impossible.
  c. Their goals are tied to promoting opportunities that exist in a specific occupation.
  d. They are prevented by law from joining political parties.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

48. What is the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers an example of?

  a. an employer-sponsored association
  b. an industrial union
  c. a national union
  d. a craft union

 

ANSWER:   d

 

49. In addition to economic gains from collective bargaining, what are industrial unions primarily concerned with?

  a. restricting entry into professions
  b. licensing and regulation of competitors
  c. training and educating members
  d. broad social issues in their community

 

ANSWER:   d

 

50. Which statement most accurately describes industrial unions?

  a. They were a response to assembly-line methods of production.
  b. They tried to organize all production workers in an occupation.
  c. They focused on collective bargaining instead of broad social issues.
  d. They primarily organized office workers.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

51. What type of union is Unifor an example of?

  a. industrial
  b. occupation
  c. craft
  d. social justice

 

ANSWER:   a

 

52. Which of the following is an example of a social justice unionism goal that extends beyond the workplace?

  a. organization of all workers in an industry
  b. elimination of harassment and discrimination
  c. organizational conservation
  d. implementation of quality standards

 

ANSWER:   b

 

53. Which entitlement is typical of an enterprise union?

  a. Workers are entitled to a safe and healthy workplace.
  b. Workers are entitled to a strong economic system.
  c. Members of society are entitled to a strong economic system.
  d. Members of society are entitled to a safe and sustainable environment.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

54. Which of the following best explains why independent unions have limited social and political objectives?

  a. Company and local conditions are their priority.
  b. They lack the financial power of large membership.
  c. They are opposed to collective bargaining.
  d. They are nonpartisan organizations.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

55. Which of the following is an important link between unions and the broader community?

  a. Canadian Labour Congress
  b. provincial labour federation
  c. local labour council
  d. New Democratic Party

 

ANSWER:   c

 

56. Which of the following is beyond the scope of the democratic structure of unions?

  a. Union members make decisions about collective bargaining.
  b. Union members must show solidarity in collective bargaining.
  c. Union members make decisions about political affiliation.
  d. Union members set the union’s policies.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

57. According to the textbook, why do workers join unions?

  a. collective voice, utility, and ideology
  b. collective voice, collective agreement, and vision
  c. ideology, more money, and better benefits
  d. ideology, more money, and social inclusion

 

ANSWER:   a

 

58. What does “union coverage” measure?

  a. all workers who are covered by a collective agreement
  b. the percentage of all workers who are union members
  c. union members as a percentage of the nonagricultural workforce
  d. the percentage of union members who pay dues

 

ANSWER:   a

 

59. How does union security language in a collective agreement protect the union’s survival?

  a. It ensures that new employees believe in and support a union.
  b. It replaces legislation.
  c. It provides a guarantee of income to the union through dues.
  d. It enhances union coverage.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

60. Which factor best explains why unions have been more successful organizing in Canada than in the U.S.?

  a. demographic differences
  b. higher proportion of female members
  c. variation in economic stability
  d. differences in political systems

 

ANSWER:   d

 

61. Name four institutionalist objectives for unions’ promotion of industrial democracy.

ANSWER:   1. Employee voice in determining work rules
2. A written law of workplace rules
3. A procedure for enforcing written workplace rules
4. A balance of power between labour and management

 

62. What are the three main categories of unions?

ANSWER:   1. Craft unions
2. Industrial unions
3. Public-sector unions

 

63. What are the two key elements of a legal definition of a union?

ANSWER:   1. Collective bargaining as their purpose
2. Unions must be independent of the employer

 

64. List five distinct categories of unions, and provide one example of each.

ANSWER:   1. Craft unions such as firefighters, nurses, carpenters
2. Industrial unions such as the CAW, UFCW, Steelworkers
3. Public-sector unions such as CUPE, NUPGE, PSAC
4. Unions with roots outside the workplace such as CLAC
5. Independent locals dealing with a single employer, such as the Association of Employees of the University of Ottawa

 

65. List five areas of public policy in which social unions have promoted members’ interests beyond the workplace.

ANSWER:   1. Housing
2. Taxation
3. Education
4. Medical services
5. The environment
6. International relations
7. Homelessness and poverty

 

66. Name the four goals of the Canadian Labour Congress.

ANSWER:   1. Worker democracy
2. Social justice
3. Equality
4. Peace

 

67. List five reasons why a democratic structure is important for unions.

ANSWER:   1. It gives workers a voice.
2. It makes unions more effective.
3. Decisions made by members are more likely to be implemented.
4. It increases members’ identification with their union.
5. It trains new leaders.

 

68. List four issues that are important for unions to address when they try to organize women.

ANSWER:   1. Pay equity
2. Sexual harassment
3. Child care
4. Maternity provisions

 

69. What are three reasons for comparing union membership in Canada with the situation in the United States?

ANSWER:   1. The economies of the two countries are very closely linked.
2. In many areas, Canada tends to follow U.S. patterns, so the comparison may provide a key to the future here.
3. The comparative approach allows for more rigorous analysis.

 

70. List three forms of union security in Canada.

ANSWER:   1. Closed shop
2. Union shop
3. Rand Formula

 

71. How has union density changed over the past 30 years in Canada?

ANSWER:   1. Growing proportion of women
2. Decline in youth densities, rise in employment in non-union industries
3. Differences between public and private sectors
4. Variations by province

 

72. What four areas do we need to invest in for the future “Green Jobs”?

ANSWER:   1. Increase energy efficiency, building retrofits and green building
2. Invest in rail and mass transit infrastructure
3. Reduce the distance between producer and consumer and encourage production of everything from green vehicles to windmill blades here in Canada

4. Develop renewable energy sources

 

73. Discuss why internal union democracy has been shown to be an important factor in winning union elections, union renewal, and worker perceptions of union power.

ANSWER:   Unions exist not just to better workers’ economic conditions but to give them a voice. Democracy gives them that voice. It is not enough to assume that union officers know what members want, for the officers are often wrong.

Over the long run, democracy makes unions more effective: it weeds out the corrupt and incompetent. It gives the officers an incentive to perform better.

Decisions made by the members (such as a decision to go on strike) are more likely to be implemented by the members. Democracy helps mobilize member support.

Having a choice is of great symbolic value and considerably increases the members’ identification with their union.

Democracy unearths and trains leaders, especially the unpaid, shop-level leaders who would seem to be essential for strong unions.

There is no comprehensive theory of union democracy, but scholars have identified several factors that may influence their democratic practices:

• Newly organized groups of workers will be highly active in the union—control by members over leaders is highest at this stage.
• Member control and influence may decline over time as the union establishes itself.
• As product markets grow, local unions amalgamate into larger more centralized entities—unions can become large, bureaucratic, and more remote from the rankand file.
• This bureaucratization leads to a dependence on professionals and nonelected officials—rank and file inevitably lose some control.
• Internal democracy can be diminished in unions by the apathy and ignorance of the members; except in a crisis (e.g., a strike vote), members do not attend meetings.
• Elected leaders tend to stifle opposition, but bargaining requires some discipline and control in order to maintain solidarity; the challenge is to achieve a balance between these competing forces.

 

74. Discuss three reasons employees join unions.

ANSWER:   Collective voice: When dissatisfied or frustrated on the job, employees join unions to remedy the sources of dissatisfaction through collective representation. Existing research suggests that non-union employees who are dissatisfied with their jobs and the companies for which they work want union representation more than those employees who are satisfied with their jobs and companies. Employees who perceive that their company is doing better financially or that their industry has more growth potential have a much greater desire to join a union. This desire is perhaps due to a feeling of entitlement to share in the company success. Thus, it is also important to consider a company’s performance variables.

Utility: This theory asserts that employees will join unions if the unions are able to satisfy a utility function consisting of such economic concerns as wages and benefits or anxiety over job security. Unions have to be seen as able to “deliver the goods.”

Politics or ideology: Under this theory, employees join unions for political or ideological reasons. Employees who have more positive attitudes to unions are more likely to want to join. Reasons for supporting a union may range from purely political to familial (having a family member in a union) to communal (community attitudes are supportive of unions). One study found, for example, that prounion youth workers had a predisposition for collective solutions to social and economic issues.

Research shows that union support is linked to employee dissatisfaction, but adds attitudes toward work, perceived company performance, and intention to quit as other factors for supporting unions.

When determining the desire for unionization among blue-collar workers, economic or extrinsic satisfaction appears to be more important than noneconomic or intrinsic satisfaction. In addition, workers who had more company tenure were more likely to want to join a union. The study also found that women and minorities were significantly more likely to want unionization than men and non-minorities. Immigrants also show a higher than average propensity to unionize.

 

75. Why do employees leave unions?

ANSWER:   Unionized employees who work for larger companies are more likely to want to leave their unions. This might be because of the union security clauses of larger companies requiring their employees to join unions even if the employees have no desire to do so. Unionized employees who are less satisfied with their compensation and benefits also have a greater desire to leave their unions. Research also identified a strong relationship between the employees’ level of dissatisfaction with the company and their desire to leave both the company and the union.

Generally, unionized employees will express discontent with the union if it fails to fulfill its primary function of providing distributive justice for its members. A company’s performance appears to significantly influence employees’ desire to join and, to a lesser extent, leave an existing union. Employees will generally seek change if they perceive that their current working environment is not in their best interests.

 

76. Describe two of the three broad approaches used to justify the existence of unions.

ANSWER:   The institutional economists believed that unions would improve both the efficiency and equity of markets by providing a greater balance of bargaining power between individuals and firms (Kaufman, 2000). This belief was in part a reaction to the unregulated markets of the nineteenth century that led to exploitative wages, excessive workplace injuries and deaths, and the general lack of opportunities for personal growth and development at work.

The macroeconomic purpose of wealth redistribution could be achieved by replacing individual bargaining with collective bargaining through unions. Conditions of unfettered markets that produce such negative outcomes as substandard wages would be replaced with union protection. Thus, the institutionalists envisioned win–win outcomes for employers, workers, and the public at large.

Even more important than enhancing economic outcomes was the institutionalist objective for unions: promoting industrial democracy. Scholars defined industrial democracy in various ways, ranging from simple profit-sharing to government ownership of the means of production. For the institutionalists, there were four key elements of industrial democracy:

1. Employee voice in determining work rules. Representative democracy in industry is representation of organized interests” and “it is the equilibrium of capital and labor—the class partnership of organized capital and organized labor, in the public interest.”

2. A written law of workplace rules. Whether carved on stone by an ancient monarch or written in a Magna Carta by a [sic] King John, or embodied in collective agreement between a union and employer, the intent is the same, to subject the ruler to definite laws to which subjects or citizens may hold him when he attempts to exercise arbitrary power.

1. A binding procedure for the enforcement of the written law. Like the Constitution of the United States, the agreement has become a “government of law and not of men.” A man is not deprived of his job without “due process of law.”
2. A balance of power between management and labour. If one party to the employment relationship has a preponderance of power, it is likely that this power will be used in ways that are both arbitrary and onerous.

 

 

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