How Children Develop 5th Edition By Siegler – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

1. Describe the visual abilities of newborn infants and research methodologies used to study infant vision development.

 

 

2. What is perceptual narrowing? Provide at least one example of perceptual narrowing, and explain its benefit.

 

 

3. Discuss three cues used for depth perception. For each type of cue, provide a definition, an example, and the age at which it develops.

 

 

4. Provide a detailed description of how researchers have examined 4-month-old infants’ auditory–visual intermodal perception, and discuss the results of these studies.

 

 

5. Provide a detailed explanation of how infants’ motor development occurs.

 

 

6. Describe the process by which an infant might learn to make his siblings laugh through (a) instrumental conditioning and (b) observational learning.

 

 

7. Describe the development of infants’ physical knowledge.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. It was originally assumed that newborn infants vision was underdeveloped and that they could barely function in this area. However, this is false. Newborns are able to see at birth and immediately begin using their eyes to explore their world by scanning their surroundings and pausing to look at objects of interest. While the vision of newborns is not as developed as that of adults, their vision develops rapidly in the first few months of life. Researchers studying the vision development of infants have used preferential looking, automatic eye trackers, head-mounted infant eye trackers, and habituation.
2. Perceptual narrowing is defined as developmental changes in which experiences fine-tune the perceptual system. Perceptual narrowing can be seen when infants, who are relatively inexperienced with music, can detect differences between musical stimuli that adults cannot. Developmental changes in which experience fine-tunes the perceptual system are observed across numerous domains, such as face perception and speech production. In these instances, experience leads the young learner to begin to “lose” the ability to make distinctions that he or she could make at earlier points in development. In each case, this perceptual narrowing permits the developing child to become especially attuned to patterns in biological and social stimuli that are important in their environment.
3. Depth perception and distance knowledge are both needed to successfully navigate the environment. One cue that infants are sensitive to very early on is optical expansion, in which the visual image of an object increases in size as the object comes toward us. Having two eyes also aids in the early development of depth perception. Because of the distance between our eyes, the retinal image of an object at any instant is never quite the same in both eyes. Consequently, the eyes never send the same signal to the brain, a phenomenon known as binocular disparity. The closer the object we are looking at, the greater the disparity between the two images; the farther away the object, the less the disparity. In a process known as stereopsis, the visual cortex computes the degree of disparity between the eyes’ differing neural signals and produces the perception of depth. This form of depth perception emerges quite suddenly at around 4 months of age and is generally complete within a few weeks. At about 6 months of age, infants begin to become sensitive to a variety of monocular depth cues. These cues are also known as pictorial cues because they can be used to portray depth in pictures.
4. Through the phenomenon of intermodal perception, the combining of information from two or more sensory systems, including vision and auditory, an event is experienced as a unitary, coherent event. Research suggests that infants can integrate information received from their various senses. Researchers have discovered that infants possess various forms of auditory–visual intermodal perception. In studies of this mode of perception, infants simultaneously view two different videos side by side, while listening to a soundtrack that is synchronized with one of the videos but not the other. If an infant responds more to the video that goes with the soundtrack, it is taken as evidence that the infant detects the common structure in the auditory and visual information. Another study showed 4-month-olds two videos: one presented a person playing peekaboo, and the other presented a hand beating a drumstick against a block. The infants responded more to the film that matched the sounds they were hearing. When they heard a voice saying “Peek-a-boo!” they looked more at the person, but when they heard a beating sound, they looked longer at the hand. In another study, 4-month-olds responded more to a film of a “hopping” toy animal in which the sounds of impact coincided with the animal’s landing on a surface than they did to a film in which the impact sounds occurred while the animal was in midair. At this age, infants can also draw more abstract connections between sights and sounds. Three- to 4-month-olds look longer at visual displays in which dimensions in each modality are congruent, such as a ball rising and falling at the same rate as a whistle rising and falling in pitch. One of the most dramatic demonstrations of auditory–visual blending is an illusion known as the McGurk effect. To elicit this illusion, the auditory syllable ba is dubbed onto a video of a person speaking the syllable ga. Someone watching this display will hear the syllable da, which is intermediate between ba and ga. Research has shown that 4 1/2-month-olds can experience this illusion:  they treat the da sound as familiar after familiarization with the McGurk stimulus, even though they did not actually ever hear da.
5. While there is some variation in the timing of motor skill development, most infants will roll over between 2 and 5 months of age, sit without support between 5 and 8 months of age, pull self to a standing position between 6 and 10 months of age, and walk independently between 11 and 15 months of age. Early motor development results from a confluence of numerous factors that include developing neural mechanisms, increases in infants’ strength, posture control, balance, and perceptual skills, as well as changes in body proportions and motivation. And, as motor development progresses, infants are better able to explore and manipulate the world around them, which facilitates learning about the world.
6. (a) Instrumental conditioning is another term for operant condition. This is a form of learning where infants learn through positive reinforcement. So, in the cause of learning laughter, an infant would be rewarded for laughing in a social context. Rewards can be affection from adults or others in the social setting. Once the infant is rewarded for the behavior, they are more likely to repeat it. (b) Observational learning is learning that occurs due to modeling or imitating the behavior of those around us. In the case of learning to laugh, the infant would see others laughing in the environment and would then imitate the behavior that they see.
7. There is evidence that infants understand the concept of gravity in the first year of life. Research has demonstrated that infants appreciate that objects do not float in midair, that an inadequately supported object will fall, that a non-round object placed on a stable surface will stay put, and so forth. Infants also gradually come to understand under what conditions one object can support another, suggesting an important role for learning. At 3 months of age, infants act surprised to see a box float in midair that should have dropped. By approximately 5 months of age, they appreciate the relevance of the type of contact involved in support. At 6 months of age, they recognize the importance of the amount of contact. Around their 1st birthday, infants also consider the shape of the object. Infants presumably develop this progressively refined understanding of support relations between objects because of experience. They also collect additional information through their own manipulation of objects.

 

 

 

 

1. In terms of perceptual and motor development, which statement is NOT a reason as to why is infancy is such an important time?
  A) Extremely rapid changes occur in perception, action, learning, and cognition during the first two years of life.
  B) Infant development in perception, action, learning, and cognition are intertwined.
  C) The methods used to investigate infant’s development in perception, action, learning, and cognition are similar to methods used to study older children.
  D) Most recent research on perceptual and motor development has focused on infants and young children.

 

 

2. Which debate has been contentious within developmental psychology for at least 2,000 years?
  A) nature versus nurture
  B) continuity versus discontinuity
  C) stability versus instability
  D) active versus passivity

 

 

3. Of sensation and perception, _____ involves the organization and interpretation of information.
  A) both sensation and perception
  B) sensation
  C) perception
  D) neither sensation nor perception

 

 

4. Of sensation and perception, _____ involves the processing of basic information by the receptors in the eyes, ears, and skin and the brain.
  A) both sensation and perception
  B) sensation
  C) perception
  D) neither sensation nor perception

 

 

5. Which sensory reaction is an example of perception?
  A) experiencing visual stimulation as a round green apple
  B) light stimulation activating the retina’s cones
  C) activation of sweetness receptors on the tongue
  D) coldness triggering nerves in skin

 

 

6. To examine whether infants can perceive a difference between a square of uniform color and a square with a pattern on it, a researcher displays the two squares side by side. The researcher records the number of seconds infants look at each square. This method is called the _____ technique.
  A) habituation
  B) preferential-looking
  C) contrast-sensitivity
  D) pattern-recognition

 

 

7. The sharpness of visual discrimination is called:
  A) habituation.
  B) visual acuity.
  C) visual scanning.
  D) contract sensitivity.

 

 

8. Researchers are able to assess infants’ _____ using the preferential-looking method.
  A) habituation
  B) visual acuity
  C) contrast sensitivity
  D) visual scanning

 

 

9. Dr. Jones has presented an infant a succession of black and white paddles with increasingly narrow stripes and increasingly narrow gaps between them. He wants to determine when the infant can no longer distinguish between the striped paddles and a gray one. Dr. Jones is assessing the infants’:
  A) contrast sensitivity.
  B) visual acuity.
  C) visual scanning.
  D) habituation.

 

 

10. When an infant looks longer at one of two stimuli presented side by side, researchers can infer that the infant:
  A) prefers that stimulus.
  B) can discriminate between the stimuli and favors one side over the other.
  C) favors one side over the other.
  D) can discriminate between the stimuli and prefers that stimulus.

 

 

11. The preferential-looking technique is founded on the expectation that infants will:
  A) look longer at objects they like or find interesting.
  B) look away from complicated or frightening objects.
  C) recognize familiar patterns.
  D) lose interest in objects that are familiar.

 

 

12. To examine whether infants can perceive a difference between two stimuli, a researcher first shows one stimulus to the infant until she becomes disinterested. The researcher then shows the other stimulus to the infant and records whether the infant becomes interested in the new stimulus. This method is called the _____ technique.
  A) habituation
  B) preferential-looking
  C) contrast-sensitivity
  D) pattern-recognition

 

 

13. The use of preferential looking to measure infants’ visual acuity draws from research demonstrating that infants consistently prefer to look at _____ over _____.
  A) simple designs; complex designs
  B) the color red; the color blue
  C) their mothers’ faces; their fathers’ faces
  D) a pattern; a gray block

 

 

14. How clearly an individual can see is referred to as his visual:
  A) contrast.
  B) scanning ability.
  C) acuity.
  D) constancy.

 

 

15. Two infants of different ages, Diego and Hannah, are tested with the preferential-looking technique to determine their visual acuity. A series of black-and-white-striped patterns are presented individually next to a gray square. Diego can distinguish stripes that are narrower than the stripes Hannah can distinguish. Compared with Hannah, Diego has:
  A) a smaller retina.
  B) better object segregation.
  C) more cones.
  D) better contrast sensitivity.

 

 

16. Light-sensitive neurons located in the central region of the retina are referred to as:
  A) cones.
  B) the fovea.
  C) cubes.
  D) acuity neurons.

 

 

17. The developmental maturity of infants’ cones contributes to their:
  A) excellent visual acuity.
  B) rapid visual scanning.
  C) slow pattern perception.
  D) poor contrast sensitivity.

 

 

18. Which statement about 3-month-old Isabella’s vision is TRUE?
  A) Isabella prefers blue over red.
  B) Isabella’s color vision is similar to that of an adult.
  C) Isabella is unable to smoothly track slow-moving objects.
  D) Isabella tends to look only at the outer edges of complex shapes.

 

 

19. By what age does a developing child’s visual acuity approach that of adults?
  A) 8 weeks
  B) 8 months
  C) 2 years
  D) 6 years

 

 

20. Which statement about infants’ color vision is TRUE?
  A) By the end of the 1st month, infants’ color vision is similar to that of adults.
  B) Four-month-olds prefer more complex colors to basic colors.
  C) Two-month-olds respond similarly to two different shades of blue.
  D) All of these statements are true.

 

 

21. By approximately what age can infants smoothly track slow-moving objects?
  A) at birth
  B) 4 months
  C) 10 months
  D) 17 months

 

 

22. When young infants (younger than 2 months old) look at complex shapes or pictures, they tend to look at:
  A) the perimeter.
  B) the inner detail.
  C) low-contrast areas.
  D) large sections simultaneously.

 

 

23. Newborns’ bias toward _____ is an underlying factor in their attraction to human faces.
  A) oval-shaped objects
  B) arrangements with more elements in the upper half than in the lower half
  C) objects with irregularities around the perimeter
  D) configurations with some dark elements and some light elements

 

 

24. Which statement about research on infants’ and adults’ ability to differentiate between pairs of human faces and between pairs of monkey faces is TRUE?
  A) By the age of 6 months, infants can successfully differentiate between pairs of monkey faces and between pairs of human faces, and this ability remains constant throughout life.
  B) At 6 months of age, infants can successfully differentiate between pairs of human faces but not between pairs of monkey faces, and this pattern remains throughout adulthood.
  C) At 6 months of age, infants can successfully differentiate between pairs of human faces and between pairs of monkey faces, but older infants and adults have lost the ability to differentiate between monkey faces.
  D) At 6 months of age, infants are unable to differentiate between pairs of human faces and between pairs of monkey faces, but both of these abilities develop by the age of 9 months.

 

 

25. Experience shapes preference for:
  A) own-race faces over other-race faces.
  B) top-heavy stimuli over bottom-heavy stimuli.
  C) attractive faces over unattractive faces.
  D) all of these.

 

 

26. The other race effect refers to:
  A) preference for own-race faces over other-race faces.
  B) superior discrimination between own-race faces than between other-race faces.
  C) superior discrimination between human faces than between other primate faces.
  D) the combination of all of these.

 

 

27. The study by Langlois and colleagues in which infants interacted with a woman wearing either an attractive face mask or an unattractive face mask demonstrated that infants:
  A) cannot perceive differences between attractive and unattractive faces.
  B) were more positive and played more with the woman when she was attractive than when she was unattractive.
  C) don’t care whether people are attractive or unattractive; they derive the same amount of pleasure from playing with an attractive or an unattractive person.
  D) were calmer and more attentive when interacting with the woman when she was unattractive than when she was attractive.

 

 

28. Perceptual constancy enables a baby to perceive:
  A) that the toy in current view is the same as the one he viewed prior to blinking.
  B) a moving point-light display as a person who is walking.
  C) that Mommy is a constant size as she walks toward him despite the fact that her size on his retina changes.
  D) that the cat is still whole when it stands behind a table leg.

 

 

29. The study in which infants were first presented with a cube and then were presented with the same cube and a larger cube that was placed farther away demonstrated that infants:
  A) are unable to form memories about the relative size of objects.
  B) do not need visual experience for the development of size constancy.
  C) are influenced by the retinal size of an image to a greater extent than are adults.
  D) fail to differentiate between objects that are located a varying distances.

 

 

30. Research has demonstrated evidence in support of _____ view(s) of perceptual constancy.
  A) the nativist
  B) the empiricist
  C) both the nativist and the empiricist
  D) neither the nativist nor the empiricist

 

 

31. The study in which infants were first presented with a cube in multiple locations and then were presented with the same cube and a larger cube that was placed farther away demonstrated that infants:
  A) preferred to look at the original cube.
  B) perceived the multiple presentations of the original cube as a single object.
  C) were unable to differentiate between the cubes.
  D) perceived each presentation of the cubes as a unique object.

 

 

32. Movement is an important cue for:
  A) shape constancy.
  B) subjective contour.
  C) pattern perception.
  D) object segregation.

 

 

33. Five-month-old Judy sees a novel sight—flowers arranged in a vase. The MOST important cue that would help Judy know whether she is seeing a single object or multiple objects is:
  A) differences in the textures and shapes of the flowers and vase.
  B) independent movement of the flowers as they are removed from the vase.
  C) common movement as her mother moves the full vase from the counter to the table.
  D) All of these cues are equally useful.

 

 

34. The cue that is MOST important for object segregation is common:
  A) movement.
  B) color.
  C) texture.
  D) distance.

 

 

35. Beginning at what age do infants use common movement as a cue for object segregation?
  A) at birth
  B) 2 months
  C) 5 months
  D) 8 months

 

 

36. Research by Needham and Baillargeon demonstrated that 8-month-old infants are better able than are 4-month-old infants to use which piece of information in their understanding of object segregation?
  A) common movement
  B) common texture
  C) knowledge about the world
  D) all of these

 

 

37. The change in retinal image size as a moving object gets closer, causing more and more of the background to be occluded, is referred to as:
  A) retinal enlargement.
  B) perceptual constancy.
  C) optical expansion.
  D) relative size.

 

 

38. The process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals caused by binocular disparity, resulting in depth perception, is called:
  A) optical expansion.
  B) stereopsis.
  C) binocular disparity.
  D) monocular vision.

 

 

39. This form of depth perception emerges around 4 months of age and is complete within just a few weeks.
  A) optical expansion
  B) stereopsis
  C) binocular disparity
  D) monocular vision

 

 

40. The development of _____ is a classic example of experience-expectant plasticity.
  A) optical expansion
  B) stereopsis
  C) binocular disparity
  D) monocular vision

 

 

41. Optical expansion is a cue used to perceive:
  A) depth.
  B) color.
  C) relative size.
  D) patterns.

 

 

42. The closer an object is to a person, the _____ there is.
  A) more binocular disparity
  B) less binocular disparity
  C) more perceptual constancy
  D) less perceptual constancy

 

 

43. Binocular disparity results in the perception of depth through which process?
  A) optical expansion
  B) object segregation
  C) stereopsis
  D) apoptosis

 

 

44. Baby Janet has a patch over one eye because of an eye infection. She will be unable to use which depth perception cue?
  A) optical expansion
  B) object segregation
  C) relative size
  D) binocular disparity

 

 

45. Binocular disparity results from:
  A) poor visual memory.
  B) the distance between a person’s two eyes.
  C) background occlusion.
  D) the difference between close items and faraway items.

 

 

46. Pictorial cues are also referred to as _____ depth cues.
  A) perceptive
  B) binocular
  C) stereotypical
  D) monocular

 

 

47. Relative size is an example of which type of depth cue?
  A) pictorial
  B) binocular
  C) disparity
  D) expansion

 

 

48. Which depth perception cue is the LAST to develop?
  A) binocular disparity
  B) auditory localization
  C) optical expansion
  D) monocular depth cues

 

 

49. Seven-month-old Vivi is presented with a trapezoidal object that adults would perceive as a rectangle placed on a diagonal, with one side closer than the other side, similar to the window from the Yonas, Cleaves, and Pettersen study described in the text. During the first set of trials, a patch is placed over one eye, and the object is presented in front of Vivi. During the second set of trials, the patch is removed and the object is again presented. Researchers record Vivi’s reaches toward the object. The MOST likely result will be that Vivi reaches:
  A) toward the longer side on both sets of trials.
  B) toward the longer side on the first set of trials but reaches equally toward both sides on the second set of trials.
  C) equally toward both sides on the first set of trials but reaches toward the longer side on the second set of trials.
  D) toward the longer side when viewed with one eye closed.

 

 

50. Infant Greta hears a bell that she cannot see and immediately turns toward the sound. This is an indication that Greta has which ability?
  A) auditory localization
  B) auditory segregation
  C) pattern perception
  D) music perception

 

 

51. Which of the following will fare worse at determining the spatial location of a sound?
  A) Angela, who is 3 days old
  B) Sam, who is 6 months old
  C) Thomas, who is 18 months old
  D) Brenda, who is 2 years old

 

 

52. Which statement about the development of an auditory spatial map is NOT true?
  A) It is entirely a result of maturation.
  B) It requires integration of auditory information and information from what infants see and touch.
  C) It is important for auditory localization.
  D) It is a mental representation of how sounds are organized in space.

 

 

53. Regarding infants’ perception of pictures, infants do NOT:
  A) perceive pictures as depictions of real objects.
  B) have the visual acuity to perceive the differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects.
  C) understand that the nature of two-dimensional objects means that they cannot be picked up.
  D) interpret the pictured objects as real because their poor perceptual constancy inhibits them doing so.

 

 

54. Among infant-directed speech, adult-directed speech, infant-directed singing, and adult-directed singing, 6-month-old infants show a preference for:
  A) any singing over any speech.
  B) any speech over any singing.
  C) infant-directed singing over infant-directed speech.
  D) infant-directed speech over any singing.

 

 

55. Research on the music perception of infants has NOT demonstrated that North American infants:
  A) have preferences for some musical sounds over others.
  B) can remember the key of songs they have heard previously.
  C) are able to perceive note changes that adults are unable to perceive.
  D) are less able to detect changes in complex rhythm than are adults.

 

 

56. Research on the music perception of infants has demonstrated that, with experience, humans:
  A) become less sensitive to differences in musical stimuli.
  B) become more sensitive to differences in musical stimuli.
  C) come to prefer consonant music over dissonant music.
  D) come to prefer dissonant music over consonant music.

 

 

57. Research by Hannon and Trehub on North American infants and North American and Balkan adults demonstrated that _____ perceived changes in simple rhythms, and _____ perceived changes in complex rhythms.
  A) all groups; infants
  B) all groups; infants and Balkan adults
  C) infants and Balkan adults; Balkan adults
  D) both groups of adults; infants

 

 

58. Changes in the ability to perceive differences in stimuli that happen with experience are referred to as:
  A) perceptual narrowing.
  B) sensory decay.
  C) perceptual decline.
  D) sensory contraction.

 

 

59. Newborns prefer which taste?
  A) salty
  B) spicy
  C) sweet
  D) sour

 

 

60. A study examining infants’ response to a breast pad worn by their own mother versus one worn by another woman demonstrated that 2-week-old infants:
  A) cannot distinguish between the scent of their mother and the scent of another woman.
  B) can distinguish between the scent of their mother and the scent of another woman but do not show a preference.
  C) prefer their own mother’s scent to that of another woman.
  D) prefer the scent of another woman to that of their mother.

 

 

61. Before the age of 4 months, which type of exploration of the environment is MOST common?
  A) oral
  B) manual
  C) self-locomotive
  D) smell

 

 

62. The combining of information from two or more sensory systems is referred to as _____ perception.
  A) intrasensory
  B) extrasensory
  C) intermodal
  D) multichannel

 

 

63. Infants as young as _____ look longer at visual displays in which dimensions in each modality are congruent.
  A) 2 months
  B) 4 months
  C) 9 months
  D) 13 months

 

 

64. Month-old infants have the ability to link their visual experience with their _____ experience.
  A) tactile
  B) auditory
  C) proprioceptive
  D) oral

 

 

65. An infant plays with a toy block in the dark, so he cannot see it. Later, he is shown a ball as well as the block. He realizes that it was the block, not the ball, that he played with in the dark through:
  A) intermodal perception.
  B) bimodal distribution.
  C) visual localization.
  D) interobject recognition.

 

 

66. Four-month-old infants respond more to a film _____ than to a film _____.
  A) of a monkey hopping; of a human hopping
  B) that matches the sounds they are hearing; that doesn’t match the sounds they are hearing
  C) showing a face in which lips move out of sync with the speech they hear; showing a face in which lips move in sync with the speech they hear
  D) showing a person saying “Peek-a-boo!”; showing a hand beating a drumstick against a block

 

 

67. Older infants are NOT sensitive to the correspondence between:
  A) monkey facial movements and monkey vocalizations.
  B) emotional expressions in faces and voices.
  C) visual and auditory stimuli produced by moving objects.
  D) their own visual and tactile experience as they manipulate objects.

 

 

68. This is a dramatic demonstration of auditory–visual blending.
  A) the McGurk effect
  B) contrast sensitivity
  C) visual scanning
  D) perceptual constancy

 

 

69. To elicit _____, the auditory syllable ba is dubbed onto a video of a person speaking the syllable ga. Someone watching this will hear the syllabus da.
  A) the McGurk effect
  B) contrast sensitivity
  C) visual scanning
  D) perceptual constancy

 

 

70. The _____ reflex is NOT known to have any adaptive significance.
  A) rooting
  B) tonic neck
  C) sucking
  D) grasping

 

 

71. _____ is indicative of a possible neurological problem.
  A) The existence of the tonic neck reflex
  B) Persistence of any neonatal reflexes past infancy
  C) An abnormally strong sucking reflex
  D) The disappearance of the grasping reflex

 

 

72. The vast majority of North American infants can sit without support by _____ months of age.
  A) 4
  B) 7
  C) 10
  D) 14

 

 

73. Most North American infants can walk alone easily between _____ months of age.
  A) 9 and 12
  B) 9 and 15
  C) 11 and 14
  D) 12 and 16

 

 

74. Which statement is an accurate portrayal of the impact of nurture on infants’ motor development?
  A) Infants develop motor skills on their own schedule, regardless of child-rearing practices.
  B) Child-rearing practices can accelerate but not retard infants’ motor development.
  C) Child-rearing practices can retard but not accelerate infants’ motor development.
  D) Child-rearing practices can either accelerate or retard infants’ motor development.

 

 

75. These early researchers concluded that infants’ motor development was governed by brain maturation.
  A) Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson
  B) Abraham Maslow and
  C) Arnold Gesell and Myrtle McGraw
  D) Mary Ainsworth and Sigmund Freud

 

 

76. Current theorists emphasize that early motor development do NOT result from:
  A) developing neural mechanisms.
  B) posture control.
  C) perceptual skills.
  D) an increase in infants’ weight.

 

 

77. A recent study by Cole and colleagues found that infants’ walking patterns are affected by:
  A) how frequently they walk naked.
  B) whether they typically wear cloth diapers or disposable diapers.
  C) whether they are naked or wearing a diaper when they walk.
  D) all of these factors.

 

 

78. Many current theorists of motor development, including Esther Thelen, take the _____ approach.
  A) dynamic-systems
  B) evolutionary
  C) Piagetian
  D) changing-modules

 

 

79. A researcher taking a dynamic-systems approach to motor development would be MOST likely to examine the impact of _____ on the development of crawling.
  A) cortical maturation
  B) multiple variables
  C) muscle strength
  D) vision

 

 

80. Research conducted by Esther Thelen supported which theoretical perspective?
  A) Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  B) theory of mind
  C) sociocultural context
  D) dynamic-systems

 

 

81. The research by Thelen in which infants were partially immersed in a tank of water demonstrated _____ to be responsible for the disappearance of the stepping reflex.
  A) changing ratio of weight to strength
  B) cortical maturation
  C) visual maturation
  D) motivation

 

 

82. At the age of 2 months, infants exhibit:
  A) stable reaching.
  B) prereaching movements.
  C) poorly controlled reaching.
  D) continuation of reflexes.

 

 

83. Bree is an 11-month-old baby girl who insists on trying to walk in order to explore and navigate her environment. However, she is not very good at walking and does much better at crawling. Yet she refuses to crawl. This demonstrates the vital role of:
  A) balance.
  B) motivation.
  C) posture control.
  D) perceptual skills.

 

 

84. Individual differences in motor maturity at _____ months of age predicts children’s academic achievement at the age of 14 years.
  A) 4
  B) 5
  C) 10
  D) 24

 

 

85. Charlie is 3 months old and consistently swipes clumsily toward the general area of objects they see. He is engaged in:
  A) pre-reaching movements.
  B) self-locomotion.
  C) gross motor skills.
  D) reflexive movement.

 

 

86. Infant pre-reaching movements generally emerge before _____ months of age.
  A) 2 to 3
  B) 3 to 4
  C) 4 to 5
  D) 5 to 6

 

 

87. Which statement about the development of reaching is NOT true?
  A) Vision is necessary for accurate reaching.
  B) Successful reaching begins at about 3 to 4 months of age.
  C) Reaching becomes stable at about the same time that infants can sit independently.
  D) Infants seem to have a sense of how long their arms are.

 

 

88. Studies in which young infants were given “sticky mittens” demonstrated that:
  A) disrupting the necessity of reaching disrupted the natural maturation process.
  B) increased ability to interact with objects was associated with decreased interest in social partners.
  C) object exploration led to earlier reaching.
  D) pre-reaching behaviors emerged prior to 4 months of age.

 

 

89. Research examining infants’ sitting skills and their 3D object completion skills suggests that:
  A) there is overlap in the brain maturation required for each of these skills.
  B) 3D object completion is necessary for skilled sitting.
  C) there is a great deal of interaction between visual development and motor development.
  D) there are specific brain regions devoted to each of these skills.

 

 

90. Infants FIRST become capable of self-locomotion at approximately _____ months of age.
  A) 4
  B) 6
  C) 8
  D) 10

 

 

91. Which activity is NOT an example of self-locomotion?
  A) crawling
  B) walking
  C) reaching
  D) “bum shuffles”

 

 

92. Which statement about self-locomotion is NOT true?
  A) All infants begin self-locomotion with belly crawling.
  B) Infants typically begin to walk independently at approximately 11 to 12 months.
  C) Most belly crawlers shift to hands-and-knees crawling.
  D) Infants adjust their mode of self-locomotion according to their perception of the surface.

 

 

93. The “visual cliff” was designed to evaluate:
  A) self-locomotion skills.
  B) depth perception.
  C) scale errors.
  D) stereopsis.

 

 

94. Which groups of infants would know their own limitations if placed at the top of a steep incline?
  A) beginning and experienced crawlers but not walkers
  B) beginning and experienced walkers but not crawlers
  C) experienced crawlers and experienced walkers
  D) experienced crawlers and all walkers

 

 

95. Cousins Bailey, Sofia, and Zola are playing at an indoor baby gym. Bailey has recently begun to crawl, Sofia has been crawling for a while, and Zola has recently begun to walk. The three cousins’ attention is suddenly grabbed by the pleasing sounds of a familiar toy that has rolled down a too-steep incline. Which of the cousins is likely to attempt to go down the incline?
  A) Zola
  B) Bailey and Sofia
  C) Bailey and Zola
  D) Sofia

 

 

96. Research using shallow and steep inclines has NOT demonstrated that:
  A) inexperienced crawlers are poor judges of what they can and cannot handle.
  B) infants are able to transfer judgment skills learned as crawlers to walking.
  C) experienced crawlers will disregard parents’ encouragement when it is inconsistent with their own judgment.
  D) infants have to learn from experience what they can and cannot do.

 

 

97. _____ is an example of a scale error.
  A) Attempting to put one’s own foot into a tiny doll shoe
  B) Attempting to reach for an object that is too far away
  C) Misjudging that one can successfully walk down a too-steep incline
  D) Mistakenly believing that a large sponge is heavier than a large rock

 

 

98. An infant who is using social referencing would learn:
  A) not to crawl down a steep incline by seeing another infant fall.
  B) to crawl around an obstacle by seeing an adult crawl around the obstacle.
  C) to avoid crawling off the side of a bed by seeing an adult’s fearful facial expression.
  D) to crawl more quickly because her parents provide a lot of encouragement.

 

 

99. Scale errors are thought to be a result of young children’s:
  A) overconfidence in their own abilities.
  B) underdeveloped depth perception.
  C) failure to integrate perception and planning of action.
  D) inexperience with self-locomotion.

 

 

100. Which form of learning is probably the simplest?
  A) classical conditioning
  B) habituation
  C) observational learning
  D) rehearsal

 

 

101. The decrease in response to repeated presentation of the same stimulus is referred to as:
  A) habituation.
  B) dishabituation.
  C) operant learning.
  D) observational learning.

 

 

102. Habituation to a stimulus and increased response to a novel stimulus does NOT indicate:
  A) a preference for novelty.
  B) the ability to differentiate between the two stimuli.
  C) learning.
  D) a preference for the characteristics of the novel stimulus over the old one.

 

 

103. Parents who are concerned about the habituation effect of their children watching violent acts on television are worried that their children will:
  A) learn how to commit violent acts.
  B) cease to be shocked by violence.
  C) become angered by the violence.
  D) look up to violent people as role models.

 

 

104. Which statement about the association between speed of habituation in infancy and general cognitive ability is TRUE?
  A) There is no association between habituation in infancy and general cognitive ability.
  B) There is a small association between habituation in infancy and general cognitive ability in early childhood, but this association disappears later in life.
  C) There is a large association between habituation in infancy and general cognitive ability in early childhood, but this association disappears later in life.
  D) There is a substantial association between habituation in infancy and general cognitive ability even into adulthood.

 

 

105. An infant’s learning of the association between the sight of his bottle and the taste of his milk is an example of:
  A) statistical learning.
  B) referencing.
  C) perceptual learning.
  D) habituation.

 

 

106. The process of extracting from the environment elements that remain stable is referred to as:
  A) differentiation.
  B) error scaling.
  C) statistical learning.
  D) habituation.

 

 

107. An affordance is a(n):
  A) ability.
  B) possibility.
  C) perception.
  D) memory.

 

 

108. Which scenario is the BEST example of an infant’s discovery of an affordance?
  A) Roger learns that the beep of a microwave often means he will soon be given his bottle.
  B) Xena learns to bang on a drum by watching her brother bang on it.
  C) Henry learns that his grandma kisses him whenever she holds him.
  D) Leah learns that she can sit in chairs that are low to the ground.

 

 

109. Perceptual learning is necessary for
  A) exhibiting differentiation.
  B) the development of intermodal perception.
  C) statistical reasoning.
  D) the effectiveness of classical conditioning.

 

 

110. Statistical learning involves:
  A) extracting from the environment those elements that remain stable.
  B) learning the relationship between one’s own behavior and its result.
  C) decreased response to repeated stimulation.
  D) forming associations between stimuli that occur in a predictable pattern.

 

 

111. Which statement about statistical learning and perceptual learning is TRUE?
  A) Both statistical learning and perceptual learning involve learning from the regularity in the environment.
  B) Statistical learning involves learning from the regularity in the environment, and perceptual learning involves learning from the irregular events that occur in the environment.
  C) Both statistical learning and perceptual learning involve learning from events that always occur simultaneously.
  D) Statistical learning involves learning from events that always occur simultaneously, and perceptual learning involves learning from events that sometimes occur simultaneously.

 

 

112. Baby Chiara learns that the sound of the door opening regularly comes before the sight of mail dropping from the mail slot to the floor. Baby Chiara has learned this through what type of learning?
  A) statistical learning
  B) habituation
  C) instrumental conditioning
  D) observational learning

 

 

113. Research on infants’ statistical learning indicates that infants appear to prefer statistical patterns that are:
  A) perfectly predictable.
  B) very complex.
  C) neither too easy nor too hard.
  D) unpredictable.

 

 

114. The types of patterns that infants appear to prefer are those:
  A) with which they are very familiar.
  B) that provide maximum new information.
  C) that are unpredictable.
  D) that are simple.

 

 

115. _____ was first discovered by Pavlov in his research with dogs.
  A) Observational learning
  B) Classical conditioning
  C) Perceptual learning
  D) Operant conditioning

 

 

116. An infant’s sibling always jumps off his bed with a loud bang when he wakes up from his nap. He then comes downstairs and greets the infant with a tickle, making the infant laugh and cough reflexively. Eventually, the infant begins to laugh and cough reflexively when he hears the bang, even before he sees his brother. In this scenario, the loud bang is a(n):
  A) conditioned stimulus.
  B) unconditioned stimulus.
  C) conditioned response.
  D) unconditioned response.

 

 

117. An infant’s sibling always jumps off his bed with a loud bang when he wakes up from his nap. He then comes downstairs and greets the infant with a tickle, making the infant laugh and cough reflexively. Eventually, the infant begins to laugh and cough reflexively when he hears the bang, even before he sees his brother. In this scenario, the laugh and cough in response to the bang are a(n):
  A) conditioned stimulus.
  B) unconditioned stimulus.
  C) conditioned response.
  D) unconditioned response.

 

 

118. _____ indicates learning through classical conditioning.
  A) Realizing the association between the UCS and the UCR
  B) Realizing the association between the UCR and the CR
  C) The occurrence of the CS just before the UCR
  D) The occurrence of the CR upon exposure to the CS

 

 

119. Learning the relations between one’s own behavior and its consequences is:
  A) statistical learning.
  B) instrumental conditioning.
  C) classical conditioning.
  D) perceptual learning.

 

 

120. This is a reward that reliably follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
  A) positive reinforcement
  B) negative reinforcement
  C) positive punishment
  D) negative punishment

 

 

121. At what age can infants learn through instrumental conditioning?
  A) at birth
  B) 6 months
  C) 10 months
  D) 15 months

 

 

122. The result that infants of depressed mothers tend to smile less than do other infants is thought to be caused, at least in part, by:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) statistical learning.
  C) classical conditioning.
  D) habituation.

 

 

123. An infant randomly makes many vocalizations throughout the day. Some of her vocalizations elicit no response from her parents, but several elicit laughter and hugging from her parents. Eventually, she increases how frequently she makes those vocalizations in order to elicit laughter and hugs through which type of learning?
  A) classical conditioning
  B) perceptual learning
  C) observational learning
  D) instrumental conditioning

 

 

124. Research by Meltzoff in which 18-month-olds observed either an adult or a mechanical device pull at two ends of a dumbbell demonstrated that children can learn by imitating what?
  A) the behavior of adults
  B) both the behavior and intentions of adults
  C) the behavior of adults and inanimate objects
  D) both the behavior and intentions of adults and inanimate objects

 

 

125. An infant learns a new way to climb up on the living room sofa by watching his older sibling through which type of learning?
  A) classical conditioning
  B) statistical learning
  C) observational learning
  D) instrumental conditioning

 

 

126. Research by Meltzoff and colleagues indicates that very young children are able to learn from what kinds of models?
  A) adults but not children
  B) children but not adults
  C) both children and adults
  D) neither children nor adults

 

 

127. Neurons that are activated when a monkey observes another being perform a goal-directed action as though the monkey were performing the action are referred to as _____ neurons.
  A) memory
  B) repeat
  C) imitation
  D) mirror

 

 

128. Infants’ use of prior experience to make inferences about the future is referred to as:
  A) observational learning.
  B) instrumental conditioning.
  C) habituation.
  D) rational learning.

 

 

129. Active learning is an important aspect of which theories of cognitive development?
  A) Piaget’s theory and dynamic systems theory
  B) theory of mind and biopsychosocial perspective
  C) theory of mind and dynamic systems theory
  D) biopsychosocial perspective and dynamic systems theory

 

 

130. The idea that we learn by doing is called:
  A) social knowledge.
  B) object permanence.
  C) active learning.
  D) rational learning.

 

 

131. Recent research has concluded that infants learn more when they choose what they learn about. This supports the notion of:
  A) social knowledge.
  B) object permanence.
  C) active learning.
  D) rational learning.

 

 

132. Which factor is involved in active learning?
  A) surprise
  B) motivation
  C) improved neural mechanisms
  D) rational learning

 

 

133. Piaget’s observation that young infants’ do not manually search for hidden objects
  A) has been proven to be false.
  B) has been supported by research.
  C) has been refuted by research.
  D) cannot accurately be examined.

 

 

134. Piaget developed his concept of object permanence by observing young:
  A) infants’ expectation that objects continue to exist even when hidden.
  B) infants’ failure to search for hidden objects.
  C) children’s expectation that objects continue to exist even when hidden.
  D) children’s failure to attempt to move permanently attached objects.

 

 

135. A father puts his 5-month-old infant in his crib and then leaves the room. With which statement would Piaget be MOST likely to agree?
  A) The infant can mentally represent his father.
  B) The infant fails to comprehend that his father still exists.
  C) The infant knows that his father still exists but cannot remember what his father looks like.
  D) The infant knows that his father still exists but does not know how to get his father to come back to his room.

 

 

136. A 6-month-old infant is trying very hard to reach a colorful rattle that is on the floor in front of her. The infant’s mother mistakenly drops a blanket over the rattle, concealing it from the infant. The infant reacts by looking away from the covered rattle and picking up another nearby toy. How would Piaget attribute the infant’s reaction?
  A) The infant’s reaching behavior is not consistent with her understanding.
  B) The infant has a short attention span.
  C) The infant lacks problem-solving skills.
  D) The infant lacks object permanence.

 

 

137. Research demonstrating that young infants reach for objects in the dark is evidence of their:
  A) conception of object permanence.
  B) inability to mentally represent objects.
  C) innate learning mechanism.
  D) excellent night vision.

 

 

138. Research examining young infants’ reaching for small and large objects in a darkened room demonstrated that young infants:
  A) have excellent night vision.
  B) do not have an innate learning mechanism for object size.
  C) have poor night vision.
  D) are able to think about the characteristics of invisible objects.

 

 

139. The violation-of-expectancy procedure is founded on the expectation that infants:
  A) lose interest in events that are familiar.
  B) look longer at possible events.
  C) are interested in events that are inconsistent with their knowledge.
  D) lose interest in events that violate their expectations.

 

 

140. Which statement BEST describes researchers’ current view of young infants’ ability to mentally represent objects?
  A) Young infants are able to mentally represent objects, but they do not have any expectations about the behavior of objects that are out of sight.
  B) Young infants are able to mentally represent objects, but they are unable to act on these mental representations.
  C) Young infants are able to mentally represent objects and to act on these mental representations.
  D) Young infants are unable to mentally represent objects.

 

 

141. A 6-month-old infant watches as his sister hides behind a door. While the infant is turned away from his sister for a moment, the sister moves from behind the door and hides under a bed. Suddenly, the wind pushes the partially open door even farther open, until it touches the wall. The 6-month-old is MOST likely to:
  A) stare at the fully open door, expecting his sister to appear from behind it.
  B) stare at the fully open door, surprised that the door was able to fully open with his sister behind it.
  C) turn away from the door, demonstrating no surprise that the door was able to fully open with his sister behind it.
  D) turn to his mother and ask where his sister went.

 

 

142. Research by Baillargeon in which infants looked longer at a screen that rotated 180 degrees than at a screen that rotated up and stopped at the top of a box used the _____ paradigm in the test of whether the infants were able to mentally represent the box.
  A) visual preference
  B) violation-of-expectancy
  C) habituation
  D) preferential-looking

 

 

143. Research by Baillargeon in which 4-month-old infants were shown a screen that apparently rotated through a box and a screen that rotated up and stopped at the top of the box demonstrated that infants:
  A) looked longer at the screen when it rotated the full 180 degrees than when it stopped.
  B) looked longer at the screen when it stopped than when it rotated the full 180 degrees.
  C) looked at both events for the same length of time.
  D) were unable to mentally represent the box when it was out of view.

 

 

144. What did research by Baillargeon examining infants’ attention to a screen that rotated into the space occupied by hidden objects that were either tall or short demonstrate about infants’ thinking about objects?
  A) Infants cannot mentally represent objects that are out of their view.
  B) Infants know that hidden objects still exist, but they are unable to remember their size.
  C) Infants are able to reason about some characteristics of unseen objects.
  D) Infants reach differently for objects depending on their size.

 

 

145. Which statement about how infants learn about gravity is TRUE?
  A) Very young infants have an initial, simple concept on which they gradually build more and more complex understandings over their 1st year.
  B) Older infants have an initial, simple concept on which they gradually build more and more complex understandings over their 2nd year.
  C) Very young infants have an initial, simple concept to which they rapidly add the remaining understanding over a very short time.
  D) Older infants have an initial, simple concept to which they rapidly add the remaining understanding over a very short time.

 

 

146. _____ is the FIRST concept to develop as infants learn about objects being able or not being able to support each other.
  A) Type of contact
  B) Whether or not there is contact
  C) The shape of a supported object
  D) Amount of contact

 

 

147. Nine-month-old Jessie observes an irregularly shaped object placed approximately halfway off the edge of a surface. Adults who view this scene would be surprised that the object does not fall since its larger side is off the surface. Jessie:
  A) also demonstrates surprise.
  B) does not demonstrate surprise because she has no understanding of the effects of gravity.
  C) does not demonstrate surprise because she only attends to the amount of contact between the object and the surface.
  D) does not demonstrate surprise because she only attends to the fact that there is contact between the object and the surface.

 

 

148. Which factor is NOT part of the social knowledge of a typical 15-month-old?
  A) an understanding that human behavior is goal-directed
  B) the understanding that humans and not inanimate objects can have intentions and goals
  C) the ability to make inferences about what other people will do based on knowledge of what the person knows
  D) an understanding that human behavior often has a purpose.

 

 

149. Older infants are able to reason from:
  A) observation of others’ goal-directed actions.
  B) expectations of others’ knowledge.
  C) both observation of others’ goal-directed actions and expectations of others’ knowledge.
  D) neither observation of others’ goal-directed actions nor expectations of others’ knowledge.

 

 

150. Research in which 12- and 15-month-old infants were introduced to a faceless, eyeless blob suggested that infants are willing to attribute intentions and goals to:
  A) virtually any object, animate or inanimate.
  B) inanimate objects.
  C) inanimate objects if they look like animate objects.
  D) inanimate objects if they behave like animate objects.

 

 

151. Infants demonstrate social preferences based on:
  A) language being spoken by others.
  B) positivity of others’ behavior.
  C) both language being spoken and positivity of others’ behavior.
  D) neither language being spoken nor positivity of others’ behavior.

 

 

152. Fifteen-month-olds who witness an object being moved from one location to another while an adult appears not to witness the move will:
  A) look longer when the adult searches in the object’s original location.
  B) look longer when the adult searches in the object’s new location.
  C) look equally long, regardless of where the adult searches.
  D) be surprised that the adult searches for the object.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. A
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. B
9. B
10. D
11. A
12. A
13. D
14. C
15. D
16. A
17. D
18. B
19. B
20. C
21. B
22. A
23. B
24. C
25. B
26. B
27. B
28. C
29. B
30. A
31. B
32. D
33. B
34. A
35. B
36. C
37. C
38. B
39. B
40. B
41. A
42. A
43. C
44. D
45. B
46. D
47. A
48. D
49. D
50. A
51. A
52. A
53. C
54. C
55. D
56. A
57. B
58. A
59. C
60. C
61. A
62. C
63. B
64. D
65. A
66. B
67. A
68. A
69. A
70. B
71. B
72. B
73. C
74. D
75. C
76. D
77. C
78. A
79. B
80. D
81. A
82. B
83. B
84. B
85. A
86. B
87. A
88. C
89. C
90. C
91. C
92. A
93. B
94. C
95. C
96. B
97. A
98. C
99. C
100. B
101. A
102. D
103. B
104. D
105. C
106. A
107. B
108. D
109. B
110. D
111. A
112. A
113. C
114. B
115. B
116. A
117. C
118. D
119. B
120. A
121. A
122. A
123. D
124. B
125. C
126. C
127. D
128. D
129. A
130. C
131. C
132. A
133. B
134. B
135. B
136. D
137. A
138. D
139. C
140. C
141. B
142. B
143. A
144. C
145. A
146. B
147. A
148. B
149. B
150. D
151. C
152. B

 

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