HDEV 4 4E By Rathus – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

1. Piaget’s sensorimotor stage refers to the first four to six years of cognitive development in children.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

2. Secondary circular reactions focus on the infant’s own body rather than on the external environment.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

3. In secondary circular reactions, the focus shifts to objects and environmental events.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

4. Memory improves dramatically between five to ten years of age and then again by the age of 18.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

5. Infant memory can be improved if infants receive a reminder before their memory is tested.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

6. Mirror neurons are found only in humans.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

7. Mirror neurons in humans are connected with emotions.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

8. Mirror neurons are apparently connected with observational learning and, perhaps, with gender differences in empathy.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

9. Cognitive development proceeds in the same way and at the same pace for all infants.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

10. Screening infants does not detect early signs of sensory or neurological problems.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

11. The Bayley scales is the only test that has been developed to screen infants for sensory or neurological problems.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

12. By about eight months of age, cooing decreases markedly.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

13. The mean length of utterance (MLU) is the average number of morphemes that communicators use in their sentences.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

14. ​Syntax is the rules in a language for placing words in order to form sentences.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

15. Extinction is the increase in frequency of a response due to absence of reinforcement.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

Multiple Choice

 

16. Which of the following is the focus of cognitive development?​

  a. ​How children perceive and mentally represent the world
  b. ​How children enter puberty and undergo physical changes
  c. ​How children deal with infectious diseases
  d. ​How children with developmental disorders behave

 

ANSWER:   a

 

17. Lauren has learned what a fish looks like from a book. Her mother buys her a goldfish and a fishbowl. She then learns that fish swim in water. Lauren tries to incorporate this new event into her scheme of fish. In this context, Lauren is using _____.​

  a. ​accommodation
  b. ​assimilation
  c. ​differentiation
  d. ​augmentation

 

ANSWER:   b

 

18. Latifa knows that kittens are animals. Her mother tells her that puppies are also animals. Latifa then modifies her existing scheme of animals to include puppies. In changing her scheme to incorporate the new information, Latifa is using _____.​

  a. ​assimilation
  b. ​augmentation
  c. ​differentiation
  d. ​accommodation

 

ANSWER:   d

 

19. According to Piaget, children’s cognitive processes develop:​

  a. ​within a span of two months.
  b. ​in an orderly sequence of stages.
  c. ​only after the first year.
  d. ​in a haphazard manner.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

20. Which of the following is an example of a simple reflex?​

  a. ​Reaching for an object
  b. ​Looking to see if one’s mother is near
  c. ​Searching for an object behind an obstacle
  d. ​Turning toward the source of a noise

 

ANSWER:   d

 

21. According to the first substage of the sensorimotor stage, at birth, infants’ reflexes are:​

  a. ​absent.
  b. ​flexible.
  c. ​stereotypical.
  d. ​unique.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

22. Which of the following represents a primary circular reaction?​

  a. ​Kala accidentally touches her nose with her thumb and then repeats it.
  b. ​Jose turns toward the sound of his mother’s voice.
  c. ​Lorenzo kicks his mobile over and over again because it makes it move.
  d. ​Megan pulls her blanket because it brings her teddy bear close enough to grab it.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

23. Emma is a seven-month-old infant. She repeatedly shakes a rattle because it makes a noise she likes. This is an example of a _____.​

  a. ​simple reflex
  b. ​secondary circular reaction
  c. ​primary circular reaction
  d. ​tertiary circular reaction

 

ANSWER:   b

 

24. Which of the following is a difference between primary and secondary circular reactions?​

  a. ​Primary circular reactions involve only reflexes, while secondary circular reactions involve only thoughts.
  b. Primary circular reactions involve complex actions, while secondary circular reactions involve simple actions.​
  c. ​Primary circular reactions focus on an infant’s own body, while secondary circular reactions focus on the environment.
  d. ​Primary circular reactions are goal oriented, while secondary circular reactions are based on reflexes.

 

ANSWER:   c

 

25. Which of the following substages of the sensorimotor stage involves infants showing goal-directed behavior?​

  a. ​Invention of new means through mental connections
  b. ​Coordination of secondary schemes
  c. ​Primary circular reactions
  d. ​Tertiary circular reactions

 

ANSWER:   b

 

26. Coordination of secondary schemes in an infant lasts from _____ months of age.​

  a. ​one to four
  b. ​four to eight
  c. ​eight to twelve
  d. ​twelve to eighteen

 

ANSWER:   c

 

27. Tertiary circular reactions are witnessed during the _____ stage of cognitive development.​

  a. ​sensorimotor
  b. ​concrete operational
  c. ​preoperational
  d. ​formal operational

 

ANSWER:   a

 

28. Tertiary circular reactions in an infant lasts from _____ months of age.​

  a. ​one to four
  b. ​four to eight
  c. ​eight to twelve
  d. ​twelve to eighteen

 

ANSWER:   d

 

29. Which of the following is an example of a tertiary circular reaction?​

  a. ​Kala accidentally touches her nose with her thumb; it makes her laugh. She then repeats the action, and it makes her laugh again.
  b. ​Jose turns toward the phone when it starts ringing. He also turns and looks at his mom when she speaks.
  c. ​Lorenzo kicks his mobile over and over because it makes it move.
  d. ​After many tries, Megan turns her toy sideways and is able to pull it into the crib. Now, whenever she wants the toy, she turns it sideways to pull it through.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

30. Which of the following substages of the sensorimotor stage serves as a transition to the symbolic thought of the next stage?​

  a. ​Tertiary circular reaction
  b. ​Secondary circular reaction
  c. ​Invention of new means through mental combinations
  d. ​Coordination of secondary schemes

 

ANSWER:   c

 

31. Which of the following is an accurate statement about object permanence?​

  a. ​It is the recognition that an object or person continues to exist even when out of sight.
  b. ​It is the absorption of new events into existing schemes.
  c. ​It is the modification of existing schemes to accommodate novel events.
  d. ​It is the imitation of people and events that occurred in the past.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

32. According to studies in 2013 by Kibbe & Leslie and Lowe, the development of object permanence is tied into the development of infants’ _____.​

  a. ​locomotive ability
  b. ​tetrachromacy
  c. ​reasoning ability
  d. ​echolocation

 

ANSWER:   c

 

33. Which of the following is an accurate statement about neonates?​

  a. ​They continuously lose weight for almost one month.
  b. ​They do not show tendency to respond to objects that are not within their immediate sensory grasp.
  c. ​They are capable of searching for hidden objects.
  d. ​They do not keep their actions constant as they learn how things work through a trial and error fashion.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

34. Which of the following represents the A-not-B error that infants make?​

  a. ​Infants not searching for hidden objects unless given an incentive
  b. ​Infants randomly searching for hidden objects but quickly becoming frustrated and giving up
  c. ​Infants searching for a hidden object in a familiar hiding place even after seeing the object being hidden in a new place
  d. ​Infants not searching for a hidden object for more than five to ten seconds and quickly becoming distracted by other, more interesting objects

 

ANSWER:   c

 

35. The pattern and sequence of events Piaget described have been observed:​

  a. ​only in his own children.
  b. more significantly in twins than normal siblings.​
  c. ​more directly in boys than girls.
  d. ​in children cross-culturally.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

36. Which of the following is an accurate statement on the evaluation of Piaget’s theory?​

  a. ​Piaget’s theory excluded adult and peer influences on cognitive development.
  b. ​Most of Piaget’s observations on his own infants were denied to be true by others.
  c. ​The pattern and sequence of events described in Piaget’s theory were restricted only to American infants.
  d. ​Piaget’s theory overestimates infants’ competence.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

37. Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s theory?​

  a. It excessively emphasized the role of maturation.
  b. ​It focused almost exclusively on learning processes.
  c. ​It did not explain the cognitive development of infants.
  d. ​It did not estimate the abilities of infants accurately.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

38. _____ is the imitation of an action that may have occurred hours, days, or even weeks earlier.​

  a. ​Deferred imitation
  b. ​Negative imitation
  c. ​Automatic imitation
  d. ​Cognitive imitation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

39. The presence of _____ suggests that children have mentally represented behavior patterns.​

  a. ​deferred imitation
  b. ​a mutation
  c. ​a simple reflex
  d. ​prelinguistic vocalizations

 

ANSWER:   a

 

40. Piaget believed that deferred imitation appears at about _____ months of age.​

  a. ​18
  b. ​15
  c. ​12
  d. ​10

 

ANSWER:   a

 

41. Infants’ tools for processing information include their:​

  a. ​memory and imitation.
  b. ​intonation and prelinguistic vocalization.
  c. ​echolalia and intonation.
  d. ​simple reflex and primary circular reaction.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. Which of the following is true of infant memory?​

  a. ​Infants demonstrate memory for experiences they had while still in the womb.
  b. ​Infants demonstrate reliable memory only after four months of age.
  c. ​Infants can only remember after 6 months of age.
  d. ​Infants can memorize things with only one exposure.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

43. Between which of the following ages does the first dramatic improvement in infant memory occur?​

  a. ​One and two months of age
  b. ​Two and six months of age
  c. ​Six and eight months of age
  d. ​Eight and 12 months of age

 

ANSWER:   b

 

44. Rovee-Collier and her colleagues tied one end of a ribbon to a brightly colored mobile and the other end to an infant’s ankle. Which of the following did this study measure?​

  a. ​Object permanence
  b. ​Habituation
  c. ​Memory
  d. ​Primary circular reaction

 

ANSWER:   c

 

45. According to Imuta’s study in 2013, infant memory can be improved if infants _____ before their memory is tested.​

  a. ​receive a reminder
  b. ​eat some food
  c. ​drink their mother’s milk
  d. ​sleep for two hours

 

ANSWER:   a

 

46. Sometimes very young infants can demonstrate imitation due to the activation of _____.​

  a. ​afferent neurons
  b. ​tertiary neurons
  c. ​mirror neurons
  d. ​efferent neurons

 

ANSWER:   c

 

47. Apart from mirroring motor acts performed by an individual being observed, mirror neurons in humans are also connected with _____.​

  a. ​hunger
  b. ​physical growth
  c. ​problem solving
  d. ​emotions

 

ANSWER:   d

 

48. ​Which of the following tests measures of infant intelligence?

  a. ​The Apgar Scales
  b. ​The Riley Scales
  c. ​The Bayley Scales
  d. ​The Piaget Scales

 

ANSWER:   c

 

49. In its simplest sense, the Bayley scales measure:​

  a. ​mental and motor abilities.
  b. ​environmental influences on intelligence.
  c. ​genetic influences on intelligence.
  d. ​social and emotional development.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

50. Which of the following is used in the Bayley Scales of Infant Development?​

  a. ​A language rating scale
  b. ​A behavior rating scale
  c. ​A reflex rating scale
  d. ​A maternal behavior scale

 

ANSWER:   b

 

51. Which of the following is a difference between the mental scale and the behavior rating scale?​

  a. ​The mental scale assesses perceptual skills, whereas the behavior scale assesses attention span.
  b. ​The mental scale assesses goal directedness, whereas the behavior scale assesses memory.
  c. ​The mental scale assesses emotional development, whereas the behavior scale assesses fine motor skills.
  d. ​The mental scale assesses persistence, whereas the behavior scale assesses learning.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

52. According to a study in the year 2004 by Courage et al., in a continuing effort to find aspects of intelligence and cognition that might remain consistent from infancy through later childhood, a number of researchers have recently focused on _____.

  a. ​visual recognition memory
  b. ​genetic behavioral patterns
  c. ​cognitive assimilation
  d. ​deferred imitation

 

ANSWER:   a

 

53. A child is shown two objects for 20 seconds. After this, one of the objects is replaced and the infant spends more time looking at the new object. Which of the following processes does this represent?​

  a. ​Visual recognition
  b. ​Concrete operations
  c. ​Centration
  d. ​Formal operations

 

ANSWER:   a

 

54. Higher visual recognition scores in infancy are related to:​

  a. ​attention deficit disorder in later childhood.
  b. ​poorer memory skills in later childhood.
  c. ​higher verbal ability in later childhood.
  d. ​higher IQ scores in later childhood.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

55. According to a study conducted by Rose and her colleagues, it was shown that, from age to age, individual differences in capacity for visual recognition memory:​

  a. ​are stable.
  b. ​increase gradually.
  c. ​increase at a hazardous rate.
  d. ​decrease gradually.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

56. _____ vocalizations, such as cooing and babbling, do not represent objects or actions, so infant crying is not a primitive form of language.​

  a. ​Receptive
  b. ​Expressive
  c. ​Prelinguistic
  d. ​Linguistic

 

ANSWER:   c

 

57. Newborn children, as parents are well aware, have an unlearned but highly effective form of verbal expression that is _____.​

  a. ​crying
  b. ​babbling
  c. ​receptive vocabulary
  d. ​expressive vocabulary

 

ANSWER:   a

 

58. Infants begin cooing:​

  a. ​at birth.
  b. ​during the second month.
  c. ​at one week of age.
  d. ​during the fourth month.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

59. Infants use their _____ when they coo.​

  a. ​tongues
  b. ​thumbs
  c. ​feet
  d. ​forefingers

 

ANSWER:   a

 

60. Infants coo when they are _____.​

  a. ​hungry
  b. ​tired
  c. ​hurt
  d. ​happy

 

ANSWER:   d

 

61. When infants babble, they tend to produce:​

  a. incomplete sentences.
  b. ​sounds of the vowel A.
  c. ​complete sentences of five to six words.
  d. ​combinations of consonants and vowels.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

62. Which of the following is a similarity between cooing and babbling?​

  a. ​Both do not represent objects or actions.
  b. ​Both sound like human speech.
  c. ​Both do not start until the age of one.
  d. ​Both are used to express meaning.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

63. Toward the end of the first year, infants are also using patterns of rising and falling _____ that resemble the sounds of adult speech.​

  a. ​echolalia
  b. ​syntax
  c. ​overextension
  d. ​intonation

 

ANSWER:   d

 

64. Which of the following sentences is true about receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary?​

  a. ​Children’s receptive vocabulary development outpaces their expressive vocabulary development.
  b. ​Children’s receptive vocabulary develops only after their expressive vocabulary is completely developed.
  c. ​Children’s receptive vocabulary is equal to their expressive vocabulary at any given time.
  d. ​Children’s receptive vocabulary is lost if proper reinforcement is not provided, whereas expressive vocabulary is permanent.

 

ANSWER:   a

 

65. Which of the following is a difference between surface structure and deep structure of language?​

  a. ​The surface structure includes prelinguistic vocalizations like cooing and babbling, whereas the deep structure includes holophrases and telegraphic speech.
  b. ​The surface structure is the superficial grammatical construction of a sentence, whereas the deep structure is the underlying meaning of a sentence.
  c. ​The surface structure is the number of words one understands, whereas the deep structure is the number of words one can use in a sentence.
  d. ​The surface structure is the automatic repetition of sounds or words, whereas the deep structure is the use of pitches of varying levels to help communicate meaning.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

Completion

 

66. According to Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory, the _________ stage is the first stage of cognitive development.

A. sensorimotor

B. formal operational

C. preoperational

D. concrete operational

ANSWER:   sensorimotor​

 

67. Infants tend to repeat stimulating actions that first occurred by chance and that focus on their own body. This is an example of a _________ in Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory.

A. primary circular reaction

B. secondary circular reaction

C. tertiary circular reaction

D. simple reflex

ANSWER:   primary circular reaction​

 

68. Piaget suggested that, between 12 to 18 months of age, infants engage in _________, or purposeful adaptations of established schemes to specific situations.

A. primary circular reactions

B. secondary circular reactions

C. tertiary circular reactions

D. simple reflex

ANSWER:   tertiary circular reaction​s

 

69. When an infant searches for an object that has rolled out of sight, this is evidence of _________ according to Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory.

A. object inheritance

B. object vocalization

C. object permanence

D. object reflex

ANSWER:   object permanence​

 

70. The presence of _________ suggests that children have mentally represented behavior patterns.

A. deferred imitation

B. negative imitation

C. automatic imitation

D. immediate imitation

ANSWER:   deferred imitation​

 

71. Some theorists speculate that _________ are connected with the built-in human capacity to acquire language.

A. afferent neurons

B. tertiary neurons

C. mirror neurons

D. efferent neurons

ANSWER:   mirror neurons​

 

72. _________ is comprised of both mental-scale and motor-scale items, and also includes a behavioral rating scale.

A. The Apgar Scales of Infant Development

B. The Riley Scales of Cognitive Development

C. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development

D. The Piaget Scales of Cognitive Development

ANSWER:   The Bayley Scales of Infant Development​

 

73. _________ is the ability to discriminate previously seen objects from novel objects.

A. Visual recognition memory

B. Genetic behavioral patterns

C. Cognitive assimilation

D. Deferred imitation

ANSWER:   Visual recognition memory​

 

74. Cooing and babbling are considered _________ vocalizations.

A. prelinguistic

B. paralinguistic

C. linguistic

D. postlinguistic

ANSWER:   prelinguistic​

 

75. The critical period is also known as the _________.

A. sensitive period

B. primary period

C. vocalization period

D. linguistic period

ANSWER:   sensitive period​

 

Essay

 

76. What do Jean Piaget’s schemes mean? How are assimilation and accommodation related to schemes?​

ANSWER:   Cognitive development focuses on the development of children’s ways of perceiving and mentally representing the world. Piaget labeled children’s concepts of the world schemes. He hypothesized that children try to use assimilation to absorb new events into existing schemes. When assimilation does not allow the child to make sense of novel events, children try to modify existing schemes through accommodation. Please see the section ”Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget” for more details.

 

77. Explain how Jean Piaget noted an interesting error known as the A-not-B error. Do infants show the A-not-B error under all circumstances?​

ANSWER:   Piaget noted an interesting error known as the A-not-B error. He repeatedly hid a toy behind a screen (A), and each time, his infant removed the screen and retrieved the toy. Then, as the infant watched, Piaget hid the toy behind another screen (B) in a different place. Still, the infant tried to recover the toy by pushing aside the first screen (A). It is as though the child had learned that a certain motor activity would reinstate the missing toy. The child’s concept of the object did not, at this age, extend to recognition that objects usually remain in the place where they have been most recently mentally represented.

Under certain conditions, nine- to ten-month-old infants do not show the A-not-B error. They apparently need a certain degree of maturation of the front lobes of the cerebral cortex, which fosters the development of working memory and attention. Also, if infants are allowed to search for the object immediately after seeing it hidden, the error often does not occur. Please see the section ”Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget” for more details.​

 

78. What are mirror neurons? Explain mirror neurons in humans.​

ANSWER:   Mirror neurons, also found in humans, are activated when the individual performs a motor act or observes another individual engaging in the same act. Mirror neurons in humans are also connected with emotions. Certain regions of the brain—particularly in the frontal lobe—are active when people experience emotions such as disgust, happiness, pain, and also when they observe another person experiencing an emotion. It thus appears that there is a neural basis for empathy—that is, the identification or vicarious experiencing of feelings in others based on the observation of visual and other cues. It has also been suggested that mirror neurons are connected with the built-in human capacity to acquire language. Mirror neurons are also apparently connected with observational learning and, perhaps, with gender differences in empathy. Please see the section ”Information Processing” for more details.​

 

79. Why are infants tested? Name a few scales with which they are tested.​

ANSWER:   It is no easy matter to test an infant. The items must be administered on a one-to-one basis by a patient tester, and it can be difficult to judge whether the infant is showing the targeted response. Then, why are infants tested? One reason is to screen infants for handicaps. A tester may be able to detect early signs of sensory or neurological problems, as suggested by development of visual–motor coordination. In addition to the Bayley scales, a number of tests have been developed to screen infants for such difficulties, including the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Please see the section ”Individual Differences in Intelligence among Infants” for more details.​

 

80. Explain briefly about overextension.​

ANSWER:   Young children try to talk about more objects than they have words for. To accomplish their linguistic feats, children often extend the meaning of one word to refer to things and actions for which they do not have words. This process is called overextension. Eve Clark studied diaries of infants’ language development and found that overextensions are generally based on perceived similarities in function or form between the original object or action and the new one. She provides the example of the word mooi, which one child originally used to designate the moon. The child then overextended mooi to designate all round objects, including the letter o and cookies and cakes. Overextensions gradually pull back to their proper references as the child’s vocabulary and ability to classify objects develop. Please see the section ”Language Development” for more details.​

 

 

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