Geosystems An Introduction to Physical Geography (10 th Edition By by Robert W. Christopherson – Test Bank

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Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical Geography, 10e (Christopherson)
Chapter 5 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations
1) The horizontal motion of air relative to Earth’s surface is
A) barometric pressure.
B) wind.
C) convection flow.
D) a result of equalized pressure across the surface.
E) conduction.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
2) A(n) ________ is an instrument used to measure wind direction.
A) anemometer
B) wind vane
C) barometer
D) sling psychrometer
E) thermometer
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
3) Winds are named based on
A) the direction from which they originate.
B) the direction in which they are blowing.
C) the scientist who first described them.
D) the altitude at which they occur.
E) consensus by the World Meteorological Organization.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
2
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
4)
Sixteen wind directions identified on a wind compass. Winds are named for the direction from
which they originate.
If a wind is blowing from a compass direction of 202.5°, the wind is from the
A) north (N).
B) south (S).
C) northwest (NW).
D) south-southwest (SSW).
E) north-northeast (NNE).
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
3
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5) A(n) ________ is an instrument used to measure wind speed.
A) anemometer
B) wind vane
C) barometer
D) sling psychrometer
E) thermometer
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
6) The Beaufort wind scale measures wind speed
A) with an anemometer.
B) by observed effects.
C) using satellites.
D) with a wind vane.
E) utilizing a barometer.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
7) Evangelista Torricelli, a pupil of Galileo, determined
A) atmospheric pressure is uniform in the troposphere.
B) winds flow from airs of high to low pressure.
C) large-scale circulations of winds.
D) air pressure varied with weather conditions.
E) wind speed is a function of pressure gradients.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
4
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
8) Evangelista Torricelli developed the first
A) aneroid barometer.
B) mercury barometer.
C) anemometer.
D) water-based barometer.
E) vacuum pump barometer.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
9) An instrument used to measure air pressure is
A) a wind vane.
B) an aneroid barometer.
C) a mercury thermometer.
D) an anemometer.
E) thermometer.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
10) ________ is used in a barometer because ________.
A) Water; it is liquid at normal air temperature
B) Water; it is denser than mercury
C) Mercury; it will rise more than water will under the same air pressure
D) Mercury; it is denser than water
E) Alcohol; it will not freeze in extreme cold weather
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
5
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
11) The average height of a column of mercury (Hg) in a barometer at sea level is
A) 760 mm (76 cm).
B) 1013 inches.
C) dependent on the temperature.
D) 29.00 millibars.
E) 32.01 inches.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
12) An increase in air pressure will cause the mercury in a barometer to
A) rise.
B) fall.
C) freeze.
D) boil.
E) condense.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
13) An aneroid barometer
A) uses a meter long tube for measuring air pressure.
B) uses a chamber that expands or contracts with changes in air pressure.
C) requires the use of mercury.
D) is a hypothetical instrument for measuring air pressure.
E) is placed in a white louvered box.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
6
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
14) Airplanes measure their altitude using
A) a mercury barometer.
B) an anemometer.
C) a hygrometer.
D) an aneroid barometer.
E) sextants.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
7
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
15)
Atmospheric pressure readings and conversions. Scales express barometric air pressure in
millibars and inches of mercury (Hg), with average air pressure values and recorded pressure
extremes.
Normal sea level pressure has a value of
A) 1013.2 millibars.
B) 28.50 inches of lead.
C) 32.01 inches of mercury.
D) 500 millibars.
E) 32.01 inches of mercury
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
8
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
16)
Atmospheric pressure readings and conversions. Scales express barometric air pressure in
millibars and inches of mercury (Hg), with average air pressure values and recorded pressure
extremes.
The highest surface air pressure ever recorded occurred when the air was
A) very cold.
B) very hot.
C) very wet.
D) very high above the surface of Earth.
E) moderately warm.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
9
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
17)
Atmospheric pressure readings and conversions. Scales express barometric air pressure in
millibars and inches of mercury (Hg), with average air pressure values and recorded pressure
extremes.
The Earth’s lowest barometric pressures are associated with
A) hurricanes (typhoons).
B) frontal systems (cold and warm fronts).
C) cold and dry climates.
D) sea level.
E) very cold temperatures.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
10
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
18) Which of the following is not a determinant of wind speed and direction?
A) electromagnetic force
B) pressure gradient force
C) Coriolis force
D) friction force
E) gravitational force
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
19) Which of the following is not true of the wind?
A) It is initiated by the pressure gradient force.
B) It blows from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.
C) The direction of flow can be affected by the rotation of Earth.
D) Air blows from regions of hotter air to regions of colder air.
E) Winds are named based on the direction from which they blow.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
20) Air flow is initiated by the
A) Coriolis force.
B) pressure gradient force.
C) friction force.
D) centrifugal force.
E) gravitational force.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
11
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
21) Which of the following describes the pressure gradient force?
A) It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
B) It decreases with height above the surface.
C) It causes apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.
D) It is the only force acting on atmospheric flows in the upper troposphere.
E) It exerts a virtually uniform force on the atmosphere.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
22) A isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as an
A) isotherm.
B) isoplat.
C) isobar.
D) isohyet.
E) isobath.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
23) On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?
A) little without knowing temperature patterns
B) a steep pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
C) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air
D) higher pressures
E) a weak pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
12
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
24) If there is a steeper pressure gradient, wind will be ________than areas with a gradual
pressure gradient.
A) lighter
B) warmer
C) stronger
D) cooler
E) weaker
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
25) The Coriolis force
A) drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.
B) decreases with height above the surface.
C) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.
D) is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.
E) exerts a virtually uniform force on the atmosphere.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
13
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
26)
The Coriolis force-an apparent deflection
Objects and wind moving over distance and time on Earth’s surface are
A) always deflected from a straight path to the west in the Southern Hemisphere.
B) affected only by the pressure gradient and friction force.
C) always deflected to the right by the friction force.
D) apparently deflected from a straight path to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
E) uniformly affected regardless of the latitude at which the objects and winds are found.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
14
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
27) The deflection produced by the Coriolis force is caused by
A) Earth’s rotation on its axis.
B) differing pressure gradients.
C) friction caused by gravitational force.
D) air temperature differences.
E) the uneven heating of Earth’s surface.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
28) Which of the following is true regarding the effects of the Coriolis force?
A) The amount of Coriolis deflection is uniform from equator to poles.
B) Coriolis deflection occurs only along parallels, not meridians.
C) The Coriolis force is zero at the poles, increasing to maximum along the equator.
D) The strength of the apparent deflection varies with speed of Earth’s rotation.
E) Slowly moving objects are deflected more than rapidly moving objects.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
15
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
29)
The Coriolis force-an apparent deflection
If an airplane flew from the North Pole due south along the 90° meridian and did not correct
course, it would land
A) on the 90° meridian.
B) east of the 90° meridian.
C) west of the 90° meridian.
D) north of the 90° meridian.
E) south of the 90° meridian.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
16
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
30) If Earth did not rotate, air would flow
A) perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars.
B) to the right of its direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
C) to the left of its direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.
D) parallel to the isobars.
E) in a circular pattern.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
31) Which of the following would cause the Coriolis force to increase?
A) increase in wind speed
B) occurrence closer to the equator
C) increase in friction
D) movement over very small areas
E) Nothing; the Coriolis force is a constant.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
32) If surface winds were influenced only by the pressure gradient force and Coriolis force (i.e.,
without the frictional force),
A) winds would flow in a straight line from areas of higher to lower pressure.
B) winds would flow parallel to isobars and at high rates of speed.
C) there would be no winds at all.
D) the effects would vary depending on surface texture.
E) wind speed and direction would be reduced.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
17
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
33) In the absence of friction, the combined effect of the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient
force produces
A) geostrophic winds at altitude above the ground.
B) surface winds.
C) air flow from low to high pressure centers.
D) air flow in a north-south direction.
E) air flow perpendicular to the isobars.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
34) The frictional force effect on winds
A) is lessened in areas with rougher surfaces.
B) is negligible at altitudes above 500 m (~1,600 ft).
C) increases with increasing altitude.
D) is constant, regardless of time of day or year.
E) increases with altitude.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
35) Upper tropospheric winds that flow parallel to isobars are called
A) geostrophic winds.
B) NE trades winds.
C) easterlies.
D) westerlies.
E) Hadley cells.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
18
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
36)
Three physical forces that produce winds: pressure gradient, Coriolis, and friction.
The figure shows examples of
A) a high pressure center (anticyclone).
B) winds influenced by the pressure gradient force only.
C) wind movement based on the frictional force only.
D) geostrophic winds.
E) winds influenced by the Coriolis force only.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
37) Which of the following is true of high pressure areas?
A) Air ascends and converges.
B) Air descends and diverges.
C) Air ascends and diverges.
D) Air descends and converges.
E) They are called cyclones.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
19
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
38) Air flow in a Northern Hemisphere high pressure zone is
A) downward, outward and clockwise.
B) downward, outward and counterclockwise.
C) inward, upward and clockwise.
D) inward, upward and counterclockwise.
E) downward, inward and clockwise.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
39) Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?
A) Air converges and ascends.
B) Air diverges and ascends.
C) Air converges and descends.
D) Air diverges and descends.
E) The air movement is called anticyclonic.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
40) In the Northern Hemispheres, winds spiraling counterclockwise into a low pressure area are
A) cyclonic.
B) anticyclonic.
C) geostrophic..
D) meridional.
E) Coriolis.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
20
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
41) Which of the following matches is incorrect relative to air circulation?
A) anticyclone – high pressure center
B) cyclone – low pressure center
C) anticyclone – clockwise circulation in the Southern Hemisphere
D) cyclone – counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere
E) cyclone – clockwise circulation in the Southern Hemisphere
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
42) Which of the following is an example of primary circulation?
A) migratory high and low pressure systems
B) the monsoons
C) general circulation of the atmosphere
D) land and sea breezes
E) Santa Ana winds
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
43) Which of the following is an example of secondary circulation?
A) migratory high and low pressure systems
B) weather patterns
C) general circulation of the atmosphere
D) mountain and valley breezes
E) Santa Ana winds
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
21
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
44) Which of the following is an example of tertiary circulation?
A) migratory high and low pressure systems
B) subtropical high pressure systems
C) general circulation of the atmosphere
D) weather patterns
E) land-sea breezes
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
45) Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than
dynamic factors?
A) subtropical high and subpolar low
B) equatorial low and polar high
C) equatorial low and Bermuda High
D) Aleutian Low and Icelandic Low
E) Azores High and Icelandic Low
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
46) Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by dynamic factors, rather than
thermal factors?
A) subtropical high and subpolar low
B) equatorial low and polar high
C) equatorial low and Bermuda high
D) polar high and Icelandic Low
E) Azores High and equatorial low
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
22
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
47) During the winter, the Bermuda High migrates to the ________ and becomes the ________.
A) east; Aleutian Low
B) west; Pacific High
C) west; Aleutian Low
D) west; Azores High
E) east; Azores High
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
48) The Aleutian low and Icelandic low are
A) dominant in the winter and weaken or disappear in the summer.
B) dominant in the summer and weaken or disappear in the winter.
C) dominant in the spring and fall and weaken or disappear in the summer and winter.
D) dominant year-round, but tend to be strongest in the summer.
E) dominant in the summer and winter and weaken or disappear in the spring and fall.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
49) The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by
A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air.
B) convergence and subsidence of cold surface air.
C) divergence and uplift of warm surface air.
D) divergence and subsidence of cold surface air.
E) low rainfall and cool conditions.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
23
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
50) Which of the following is not true of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)?
A) Constant high Sun altitude and daylength create energy surpluses.
B) Warm, moisture-laden airs converge along the ITCZ.
C) A band of precipitation is associated with the ITCZ.
D) Lighter, less dense air, rising air characterize the ITCZ.
E) The ITCZ is stationary throughout the year.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
51) The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is associated with
A) the horse latitudes.
B) the principal midlatitude circulations.
C) the equatorial low-pressure trough.
D) subtropical high-pressure development.
E) year-round exceptionally dry conditions.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
52) The winds converging at the equatorial low are known as
A) polar easterlies.
B) westerlies.
C) doldrums.
D) jet streams.
E) trade winds.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
24
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
53) Calm winds associated weak pressure gradient and the vertical ascent of air in the ITCZ are
known as
A) Hadley cells.
B) the horse latitudes.
C) the doldrums.
D) westerlies.
E) Azores High.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
54) The tropical atmospheric circulation associated with rising winds along the intertropical
convergence zone (ITCZ) and descending air in the subtropics are called
A) polar cells.
B) Ferrel cells.
C) Rosby waves.
D) Hadley cells.
E) jet streams.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
55) Which of the following is true of Hadley cells?
A) They dominate the polar circulation.
B) Upper-air flow moves northward and southward into the subtropics.
C) They are associated with the subpolar low pressure systems.
D) They occur at great depth in the oceans.
E) The westerlies emerge as a result of these cells.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
25
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
56) Winds that blow predominantly from the northeast and the southeast and converging at the
ITCZ are the
A) westerlies.
B) polar easterlies.
C) horse latitudes.
D) trade winds.
E) jet streams.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
57) On Earth between 30° north and the equator, winds flow from the ________ as they flow out
of the ________ pressure zone toward the ITCZ.
A) NE; subtropical high
B) NW; subtropical high
C) SE; subtropical high
D) SW; subtropical high
E) NE; polar high
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
58) Between 20° to 35° north and 20° to 35° south are
A) the largest zone of water surpluses in the world.
B) warm and wet conditions, and the world’s great tropical forests.
C) the world’s arid and semi-arid desert regions.
D) cyclonic systems of low pressure.
E) converging winds resulting in moist, warm rising air.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
26
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
59) Which of the following is associated with the Sahara and the Arabian Deserts?
A) subpolar lows
B) world’s equatorial rain forests
C) subtropical high pressure
D) major agricultural regions
E) intertropical convergence zone
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
60) Regions of windless, hot, dry air in the subtropical highs are colloquially known as
A) Hadley cells.
B) the doldrums.
C) the horse latitudes.
D) westerlies.
E) ITCZ.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
61) Light and variable winds-which caused difficulties for mariners in the days of sailing ships-
occur under the
A) subpolar low and equatorial low.
B) subpolar low and subtropical high.
C) equatorial low and subtropical high.
D) equatorial low and subpolar low.
E) westerlies and trade winds.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
27
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
62)
Subtropical high-pressure system in the Atlantic
The subtropical high pressure system in the Atlantic and associated cool and warm currents
A) bring cool waters to the eastern shores of the United States.
B) influence the warm and dry conditions in the Bahamas.
C) circulate warm ocean currents along the western African coast.
D) contribute west African deserts (dry, stable climate).
E) result in heavy rainfall on the western side of continents.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
28
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
63)
Subtropical high-pressure system in the Atlantic
The western side of subtropical high pressure cells
A) tends to be cool and moist.
B) produces surface winds that pass over warm ocean currents.
C) has strong subsidence resulting in dry, semi-arid and arid surface conditions.
D) remains in the same position all year; i.e., they do not migrate with the high Sun.
E) corresponds with Earth’s major desert regions.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
29
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
64) The dominant surface winds from the subtropics to high latitudes are the
A) westerlies.
B) trade winds.
C) polar easterlies.
D) geostrophic winds.
E) jet streams.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
65) On Earth between 30° and 60° north, winds flow from the ________ as they flow out of the
________ pressure zone toward the ________ pressure zone.
A) northeast; subtropical high; subpolar low
B) west-southwest; subtropical high; subpolar low
C) northeast; subpolar low; subtropical high
D) west-southwest; subpolar low; subtropical high
E) southeast; ITCZ; subtropical high
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
66) The area of conflict between colder and warmer air masses in the subpolar region
A) is most distinctive during summer months in each respective hemisphere.
B) is unrelated to the formation of cyclonic storms.
C) is termed the polar front.
D) is referred to as the subtropical contact zone.
E) encircles Earth at about the latitude of the polar high.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
30
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
67) The polar high pressure system is best characterized as
A) converging and ascending cool air.
B) cold and dry with weak anticyclonic high pressure.
C) strong cyclonic activity during the long summer months.
D) cool and moist year-round.
E) an area of contrast between cold and warm air.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
68) The polar high pressure cells
A) are the strongest of the four primary pressure areas.
B) are cyclonic in nature.
C) produce the weak, variable polar easterlies.
D) are more pronounced at the North Pole than at the South Pole.
E) are associated with the polar front.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
69) Which association is incorrect?
A) Equatorial low – Hot/Dry
B) Polar High – Cold/Dry
C) Subpolar low – 60° N/S
D) Subtropical High – 20-35° N/S
E) ITCZ – 20-35° N/S
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
31
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
70) Which is true of upper atmospheric circulation?
A) It refers to the winds in the thermosphere.
B) These winds are unrelated to surface weather patterns and of no consequence to the
atmosphere’s general circulation.
C) Middle and upper tropospheric circulation is an important component of the atmosphere’s
general circulation.
D) These winds flow principally from the east in the mesosphere.
E) These stratospheric winds are responsible for the movement of CFCs to the poles,
contributing to ozone depletion.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
71) ________ are waving undulations within the upper-air westerly wind flow.
A) Hadley cells
B) Rossby waves
C) The jet stream
D) Monsoons
E) Ferrel cells
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
72) The 2014 winter storm dubbed the “polar vortex” was associated with ________ moving
further south than usual.
A) Hadley cells
B) Rossby waves
C) the jet stream
D) monsoons
E) Ferrel cells
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
32
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
73) The most prominent movement in the upper-level westerly geostrophic wind flows are the
A) Rossby waves.
B) jet streams.
C) cyclones.
D) anticyclones.
E) Ferrel cells
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
74) Which of the following is false regarding the jet streams?
A) Core speeds can exceed 300 kmph (190 mph).
B) They weaken during each of the hemisphere’s summer and strengthen during its winter.
C) They occur above the subtropics and the polar front.
D) They have no known effect on surface weather systems.
E) They can be several hundred kilometers wide and over 2 km thick.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
75) Sea-breezes
A) result from water heating and cooling faster than land surfaces.
B) form because of higher pressure over the land than the sea.
C) involve onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon.
D) occur because warmer air is denser and settles to the surface of the land.
E) tend to cause higher temperatures on land as winds blow towards the sea.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
33
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
76) Mountain and valley breezes
A) are characterized by warmer air descending mountain slopes during the day and valley air
ascending the mountain slopes at night.
B) are caused by valley floors heating more quickly than valley slopes during the day and
cooling more rapidly at night.
C) involve warm air rising upslope during the day, creating an area of low pressure; at night it is
reversed with a low pressure area forming on the valley floor.
D) are secondary wind systems.
E) result from daytime high pressure systems developing upslope.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
77) During the day along the coast, the wind tends to blow toward the ________ because
________.
A) land; land heats more rapidly than water
B) land; land heats more slowly than water
C) water; water heats more slowly than land
D) water; water heats more rapidly than land
E) areas of highest pressure; land and water have similar specific heat
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
78) Santa Ana winds
A) bring cool, moisture-laden air from the east to the southern California coast.
B) are not associated with pressure gradients in the way other winds are.
C) flow from lower to higher elevation, expanding and cooling in the process.
D) blow eastward, bringing moisture laden air from the Pacific Ocean to the Great Basin.
E) create wildfire conditions by bringing heat and dryness as they flow southwest.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
34
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
79) Katabatic winds are
A) localized winds associated with sea-breezes.
B) another name for mountain-valley breezes.
C) unrelated to pressure differences.
D) regional-scale, gravity-driven winds that bring high density air downslope.
E) usually weaker than local winds, but significant due to the area they cover.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
80) Dry, warm downslope winds occurring on the leeward side of Cascades and Rockies are
called
A) bora.
B) mistral.
C) chinooks.
D) taku.
E) monsoons.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
81) Seasonally shifting wind systems associated with the annual cycle of returning precipitation
are known as
A) sea breezes.
B) Santa Ana winds.
C) chinook winds.
D) katabatic winds.
E) monsoons.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
35
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
82) Monsoonal winds are
A) katabatic in nature.
B) regional wind systems that seasonally vary.
C) limited to the Indian subcontinent.
D) a form of mountain-valley wind.
E) the Asian equivalent of Santa Ana winds.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
83) Which of the following is not associated with the Asian monsoon pattern?
A) unequal heating between the Asian landmass and Indian Ocean
B) shifting migration of the ITCZ bringing moisture-laden air to the area during the summer
C) summer low pressure zones over the ocean and high pressure zone over land
D) high amounts of precipitation, including record-breaking rainfall
E) hot moisture-laden winds flowing towards and uplifted by the Himalayas
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
84) Which of the following is not true regarding human influence on monsoon pattern?
A) Most scientists concur that human activity will have little effect on monsoonal patterns.
B) Warming temperatures caused by increased greenhouse gases may increase monsoon
precipitation.
C) Rising concentrations of aerosols may cause an overall drop in monsoon precipitation.
D) The relationships are complex and further compounded by natural oscillations in global
circulation.
E) Reduced heating of land areas from aerosols and rising sea surface temperatures may decrease
pressure differences between land and water.
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N14 How human actions modify the physical environment.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
36
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
85) A monsoon climate is characterized by ________ summers and ________ winters.
A) dry; dry
B) dry; wet
C) wet; dry
D) wet; wet
E) moderately humid; moderately humid
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
86) Which of the following is true of India’s weather patterns?
A) Monsoonal rains are heaviest in winter from December to February.
B) The shifting of the intertropical convergence zone and upper air circulation brings heavy
precipitation in summer from June to September.
C) Dry winds desiccate the land during each summer.
D) They are characterized by an even distribution of precipitation throughout the year.
E) They are an example of primary atmospheric circulation.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
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Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
87)
Wind-speed map of the contiguous United States
Within the United States, the areas best suited for wind energy development based on predicted
average wind speeds is
A) the West Coast.
B) the East Coast.
C) the South, particular along the Florida peninsula.
D) the Great Plains (central U.S.).
E) the Appalachian Mountains.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N15 How physical systems affect human systems.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
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Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
88) Which of the following is not true about electricity generated by wind?
A) It is cost-competitive with electricity generated by coal, oil, and nuclear.
B) Turbines have been installed in over 81 countries.
C) It could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
D) There are numerous economic and social benefits associated with wind energy.
E) It is non-renewable and has been linked to adverse human health effects.
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N15 How physical systems affect human systems.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
89) Which country currently has the highest installed wind energy capacity?
A) Germany
B) The United States
C) Ethiopia
D) China
E) El Salvador
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.3 Atmospheric Patterns of Motion
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N15 How physical systems affect human systems.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
90) Which of the following is not important in shaping ocean currents?
A) the frictional drag of winds
B) the Coriolis force and water density differences
C) land-sea breezes
D) configuration of continents and the ocean floor
E) density differences caused by temperature and salinity
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
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91) The great circulations in the ocean basins occur around the ________ pressure systems and
are known as ________.
A) subpolar low; ocean streams
B) subtropical high; ocean streams
C) subpolar low; gyres
D) ITCZ; Eckman transport
E) subtropical high; gyres
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
40
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
92)
Major ocean currents and the five subtropical gyres. [After the U.S. Naval Oceanographic
Office.]
In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents move ________ about high-pressure cells; in the
Southern Hemisphere ocean currents move ________ about high-pressure cells.
A) counterclockwise; clockwise
B) parallel; perpendicular
C) clockwise; counterclockwise
D) perpendicular; parallel
E) perpendicular; clockwise
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
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Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
93) Trade winds drive ocean surface waters
A) northward.
B) southward.
C) eastward.
D) westward.
E) northeasterly.
Answer: D
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
94) The equatorial currents are driven by
A) the upper-level easterlies.
B) the trade winds.
C) salinity differences in the ocean.
D) monsoon winds.
E) polar jet stream.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
95) The western intensification causes water to pile up ________, forcing water to flow
________ in strong currents.
A) against eastern shore of continents; northward and southward
B) at the equator; eastward and westward
C) along western shores of continents; downward, then eastward
D) around the subtropical highs; in all directions
E) at the tropics; equatorward
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
42
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96) Where surface water is swept away from a coast, ________ occurs, bringing cold, nutrient
rich waters to the surface.
A) intensification
B) downwelling
C) thermohaline circulation
D) gyres
E) upwelling
Answer: E
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
97) Which of the following is true of thermohaline circulation?
A) Thermohaline currents travel at greater speeds than surface currents.
B) Thermohaline currents are largely wind driven.
C) Thermohaline currents are deep currents caused by differences in temperature and salinity.
D) Due to their depths, thermohaline currents carry limited volumes of water.
E) The circulation has a definitive beginning and end, at the equator and poles, respectively.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
43
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
98) The El Niño-Southern Oscillation
A) occurs every year around Christmas time in the southern Pacific Ocean.
B) is a periodic shift of high and low pressure zones over the western and eastern Pacific,
respectively, usually occurring every 2 to 12 years.
C) is a pattern of sea surface, air pressure, and wind shifts between the northern and tropical
western Pacific.
D) is a north-south fluctuation of high and low pressure zones in the North Atlantic Ocean.
E) has weakened throughout the 20th Century and is expected to disappear completely in the first
couple of decades of the 21st century.
Answer: B
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.
44
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
99)
Normal and El Niño conditions in the Pacific
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation is associated with the following except
A) drier conditions over the western Pacific and wetter conditions in the eastern Pacific.
B) slowing of upwelling along the South American Coast.
C) cooler than normal ocean along the west coast of South America.
D) higher pressure than normal over the western Pacific and lower pressure over the eastern
Pacific.
E) a weakening to reversal of the trade winds.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.
45
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
100)
Normal and El Niño conditions in the Pacific
Which of the following is associated with an ENSO event?
A) enhanced upwelling in the Humboldt (Peru) current
B) increased thermocline in the eastern Pacific
C) cooler than normal sea surface temperatures along the western South American coast
D) higher pressure over the western Pacific and lower pressure over the eastern Pacific
E) stronger than normal trade winds
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.
46
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
101)
Global impacts of El Niño (top) and La Niña (bottom) from December––February
(Northern Hemisphere winter).
Which of the following is associated with a La Niña-ENSO Phase?
A) stronger hurricanes in the eastern Pacific
B) droughts in South Africa, India, Australia, and the Philippines
C) wetter conditions throughout Indonesia, the South Pacific, and northern Brazil
D) dryer conditions in the western Pacific and across Indonesia
E) warmer conditions in parts of Canada
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
47
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Applying/Analyzing
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.
102) Which natural oscillation in global circulation is associated with shifts in patterns of sea
surface temperatures, air pressure, and winds between the northern and tropical western Pacific?
A) El Niño-Southern Oscillation
B) La Niña
C) Pacific Decadal Oscillation
D) North Atlantic Oscillation
E) Arctic Oscillation
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.
103) Which of the following is not a human impact on atmospheric and oceanic circulation?
A) Melting sea ice in the Arctic leads to weakening of the jet stream.
B) Asian air pollution affects monsoonal wind flow.
C) ENSO affects global weather patterns and human lives.
D) Climate change may affect ocean currents and thermohaline circulation.
E) Climate change affects natural oscillations in circulation.
Answer: C
Diff: 1
Chapter/Section: 5.6 The Human Denominator
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remembering/Understanding
Geo Standard: N14 How human actions modify the physical environment.
Global Sci. LO: G7 Demonstrate the ability to make connections across Geography.
LO: NO Learning Objective
48
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
104) Discuss how and why Torricelli developed the mercury barometer, along with an
explanation of the barometer itself and the physical processes behind its function. Also discuss
how an aneroid barometer works.
Answer: A pupil of Galileo’s, Torricelli noted that pumps in mines were able to pull water
upward to a height of about 10 m. However, the level fluctuated day to day. Torricelli
hypothesized that the weight of the air varied with weather conditions and that the weight
determined the height in the pipe. To simulate, he used mercury and a 1 m glass tube. He sealed
the tub at one end, filled it with mercury, inverted it into a dish containing mercury forming a
vacuum. He found the average height of mercury in the tube was 760 mm depending on the
weather. Thus was born the first mercury barometer. An aneroid barometer doesn’t use liquid,
instead by a chamber, attached to a gauge, containing a small amount of air. As air pressure
increase, it presses inward on the chamber and when it decreases, it relieves pressure on the
chamber. These changes cause the needle on the gauge to move.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.1 Wind Essentials
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.1 Define wind and air pressure and describe instruments that measure each.
105) List and briefly describe the four forces that shape the speed and direction of winds.
Answer: Gravity: compresses the atmosphere; counteracts the outward centrifugal force acting
on the Earth’s spinning surface. Pressure gradient force: drives air from areas of higher pressure
to areas of lower pressure. Coriolis force: deflects wind relative to the rotation of the Earth.
Friction force: drags on the wind as it moves across the Earth’s surface, extends to a height of
500 m.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
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106) Examine in detail the various ways in which wind speed and direction are determined by
the pressure gradient force, the Coriolis force, and friction.
Answer: If air moved in response to pressure gradients alone, it would travel perpendicular to
isobars. The greater the pressure gradient, the stronger the winds. With the addition of the
Coriolis force, winds in the Northern Hemisphere flow counter clockwise around low pressure
areas and clockwise around high pressure areas, flowing parallel to isobars (geostrophic winds).
The friction force adds a countering force to Coriolis, producing winds that spiral out of a high
pressure area and into a low-pressure areas.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
107) Examine and explain the effect of the Coriolis force on wind speed and direction.
Answer: The Coriolis force makes wind traveling in a straight path appear to be deflected in
relation to Earth’s rotating surface. On a non-rotating Earth, surface wind would move in a
straight line from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. On a rotating Earth, though,
the Coriolis force deflects anything that flies or flows across the surface from a straight path.
Because Earth rotates eastward, objects appear to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere
and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.2 Explain the driving forces within the atmosphere-gravity, pressure gradient force,
Coriolis force, and friction force-that affect wind.
108) Describe the four main pressure areas of the Northern Hemisphere and discuss their effects
on major wind patterns.
Answer: Equatorial low-thermal-10° N to 10° S-warm/wet air temperature and moisture;
subtropical high-dynamic-20° – 35° N/S-hot/dry air temperature and moisture; subpolar low-
dynamic-60° N/S -cool/wet temperature and moisture; polar high-thermal-900° N/S -cold/dry
temperature and moisture. These four pressure areas drive the major wind patterns of the trade
winds, westerlies, and polar easterlies.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
50
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109) Discuss the formation of the ITCZ and the typical weather patterns found within it.
Answer: The ITCZ forms as a result of the equatorial low. Trade winds converge along the
entire extend of at the equatorial low and ascend. This converging air is extremely moist and full
of latent energy. As it rises, it condenses, bringing heavy rainfall. Vertical thunder clouds also
form.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G3 Read and Interpret Graphs and Data.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
110) Describe the formation of ridges and troughs in the upper atmosphere and how they are
connected with weather patterns.
Answer: High pressure ridges typically bend poleward, while low pressure troughs bend
equatorward. The pattern of ridges and troughs in the upper-air wind flow is important in
sustaining surface cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation. Along ridges, winds slow and converge,
along troughs, winds accelerate and diverge. Divergence is important to cyclonic circulation at
the surface, while divergence is important to anticyclonic circulation.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.3 Locate the primary high- and low-pressure areas and principal winds on Earth.
111) Discuss the formation of Rossby waves.
Answer: Rossby waves occur along the polar front where colder air meets warmer air. The
development begins with undulations that then increase in amplitude to form waves. As these
mature, circulation patterns form in which warmer air and colder air mix along distinct fronts.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
51
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112) Describe the characteristics of Northern Hemisphere jet streams.
Answer: The polar jet stream meanders between 30° and 70° N at the tropopause along the polar
front. The subtropical jet stream meanders near the tropopause at latitudes between 20° and 50°
N. Sometimes, both the polar jet stream and subtropical jet stream can occur over North America
simultaneously. The two may actually merge for brief episodes.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.4 Describe upper-air circulation and define the jet streams.
113) Explain the occurrence of land and sea breezes and mountain and valley breezes.
Answer: Land and sea breezes are caused by the differential heating of water and land. During
the day, the land heats up much faster than the water, creating a relatively low pressure area. As
a result, winds blow from the higher pressure area over the water to the land. During the night,
land cools off quicker than water, forming a high pressure area over land. As a result, air moves
from land to water. Similarly, during the day, valley slopes heat faster than the valley floor. As a
result, air moves from the high pressure valley floor to the lower pressure valley slopes. At night,
the slopes cool quicker, forming a high pressure zone. As a result, air moves from the slopes to
the valley floor.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
114) Describe and explain the formation and effects of the monsoon winds of southern Asia.
Answer: The unequal heating between the Indian Ocean and Asian land mass drives the
southern Asia monsoon. As a result of continentality and the movement of the ITCZ, a large
difference between summer and winter temperatures of the Asian land mass exists. During the
Northern Hemisphere winter, an intense high pressure cell dominates the continent, while the
ITCZ is over the central part of the Indian Ocean. This carries cold, dry winds from the Asian
interior southward across India, dessicating the landscape. During the summer, the ITCZ shifts
northward over southern Asia, developing a low pressure system over the land. Meanwhile, a
subtropic high pressure dominates over the Indian Ocean. The pressure gradients results in hot,
subtropical air sweeping over the Indian Ocean towards India, producing high evaporation rates
and bringing moisture laden air to the continent.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.2 Driving Forces within the Atmosphere
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.5 Explain several types of local and regional winds, including the monsoons.
52
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
115) Describe the formation and characteristics of both surface ocean currents and deep ocean
currents.
Answer: The driving force of surface ocean currents is the frictional drag of winds. Differences
in temperature and salinity produce density differences, leading to the thermohaline circulation.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.4 Oceanic Currents
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.6 Sketch the basic pattern of Earth’s major surface ocean currents and deep thermohaline
circulation.
116) Describe deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Discuss the relationship between
thermohaline circulation and global climate change.
Answer: Differences in temperature and salinity produce density differences, leading to the
thermohaline circulation. These currents flow at slower rates than surface circulation, but hauls
great volumes of water. Ocean surface waters undergo “freshening” in the polar regions because
water releases salt when frozen and is, therefore, salt free when it melts. This ocean freshening is
being accelerated by climate change.
Diff: 3
Chapter/Section: 5.5 Natural Oscillations in Global Circulation
Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluating/Creating
Geo Standard: N7 The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth’s surface.
Global Sci. LO: G8 Communicate effectively in writing.
LO: 5.7 Summarize the El Niño and La Niña oscillation pressure and circulation in the Pacific
Ocean.

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