Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition By Hoeger – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

True / False

 

1. Proper nutrition, a sound exercise program, and the cessation of smoking (for those who smoke) are the three factors that do the most for health, longevity, and quality of life.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.9 A Lifetime Commitment to Wellness
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.6 – Learn dietary guidelines for Americans.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

2. Pregnant or breastfeeding women should not consume seafood.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.8 Dietary Guidelines
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.6 – Learn dietary guidelines for Americans.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

3. Bulimia nervosa is more prevalent than anorexia nervosa.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.7 Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.4 – Become familiar with eating disorders and with their associated medical problems and behavior patterns.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

4. Increased fiber intake lowers the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.Increased fiber intake lowers the risk for coronary heart disease and stroke.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

5. Refined grains are often enriched primarily to add fiber back into the product.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

6. Omega-3 fatty acids include linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

7. The DVs are based on a 1,500-calorie diet.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.2 Nutrition Standards
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

8. Studies have shown that vitamin C may offer benefits against heart disease, cancer, and cataracts.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

9. Vitamin D may help fight depression.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

10. Each gram of carbohydrate provides the human body with seven calories.​

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Multiple Choice

 

11. Which nutrient is the most concentrated energy source?​

  a. ​fats
  b. ​protein
  c. ​vitamins
  d. ​carbohydrates
  e. ​minerals

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

12. Which type of vegetarian includes eggs and milk products in their diet but excludes red meat, fish, or poultry?​

  a. ​ovovegetarian
  b. ​lactovegetarian
  c. ​semivegetarian
  d. ​ovolactovegetarian
  e. ​vegan

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

13. Which food most likely contains probiotics?​

  a. ​orange juice
  b. ​yogurt
  c. ​broccoli
  d. ​spinach
  e. eggs​

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.6 Benefits of Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

14. Fruits and vegetables are the sole source of____.​

  a. ​glucose
  b. ​probiotics
  c. ​sterols
  d. ​creatine
  e. ​phytonutrients

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

15. Strict vegans need a supplement of ____.​

  a. vitamin E​
  b. ​vitamin D
  c. ​calcium
  d. ​vitamin B12
  e. ​iron

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

16. Which carbohydrate is a monosaccharide?​

  a. ​fructose
  b. ​sucrose
  c. ​lactose
  d. ​maltose
  e. ​glycogen

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

17. Soluble fiber ____.​

  a. ​binds to water in the digestive tract
  b. ​creates a bulkier stool
  c. ​has been shown to decrease blood cholesterol
  d. ​is found primarily in the skins of fruits
  e. ​raises blood sugar levels

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

18. Studies have shown that high ____ intake during early pregnancy can prevent serious birth defects.​

  a. ​vitamin C
  b. ​folate
  c. ​calcium
  d. ​vitamin A
  e. ​vitamin B6

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

19. What is the body’s storage form of glucose?​

  a. glycogen​
  b. ​starch
  c. ​galactose
  d. ​dextrin
  e. ​maltose

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

20. Which food most likely contains trans fatty acids?​

  a. ​trout
  b. ​walnuts
  c. ​fried chicken
  d. ​soybean oil
  e. ​cereal

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

21. Trans-fat consumption has been associated with an increased risk of ____.​

  a. multiple sclerosis​
  b. ​all-cause mortality
  c. ​rheumatoid arthritis
  d. ​osteoporosis
  e. ​constipation

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

22. Which fat decreases the risk for heart attack, abnormal heart rhythms, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, macular degeneration, and joint degeneration?​

  a. ​omega-6 fatty acids
  b. ​monounsaturated fatty acids
  c. ​saturated fatty acids
  d. ​omega-9 fatty acids
  e. ​omega-3 fatty acids

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

23. More than 95 percent of the stored fat in the human body is in the form of ____.​

  a. ​cholesterol
  b. ​monoglycerides
  c. ​diglycerides
  d. ​triglycerides
  e. ​phospholipids

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

24. Which food is a considered a complete protein?​

  a. ​kale
  b. ​black beans
  c. ​oatmeal
  d. ​almonds
  e. ​quinoa

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

25. Data indicate that when consumed during the same meal, ____ and calcium interact and help improve bone health.​

  a. ​iron
  b. ​protein
  c. ​carbohydrates
  d. ​vitamin C
  e. ​sterols

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

26. Proteins are ____.​

  a. ​used as stored energy
  b. ​used as an insulator to preserve body heat
  c. ​the major source of calories the body uses to provide energy for work
  d. ​used to build and repair tissues
  e. ​used to carry vitamins A, D, E, and K

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

27. Which nutrition standard is the amount of nutrient that is estimated to meet the nutrient requirement of half the healthy people in specific age and gender groups?​

  a. ​Estimated Average Requirements
  b. ​Recommended Dietary Allowances
  c. ​Adequate Intakes
  d. ​Dietary Reference Intakes
  e. ​Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.2 Nutrition Standards
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

28. Which vitamin is created in the body by intestinal bacteria?​

  a. ​niacin
  b. ​thiamin
  c. ​A
  d. ​D
  e. ​K

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

29. Which nutrition standard is the daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of nearly all healthy people in the United States?​

  a. ​Estimated Average Requirements
  b. ​Adequate Intakes
  c. ​Recommended Dietary Allowances
  d. ​Dietary Reference Intakes
  e. ​Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.2 Nutrition Standards
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

30. Which fish is most likely lower in mercury?​

  a. ​shark
  b. ​wild salmon
  c. ​pike
  d. ​bass
  e. ​king mackerel

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.6 Benefits of Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

31. One drawback of nuts is that they are ____.​

  a. ​high in saturated fat
  b. ​low in fiber
  c. ​lacking in minerals
  d. ​high in calories
  e. ​low in vitamins

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

32. What percentage of total calories should come from protein?​

  a. ​10–35
  b. ​15–40
  c. ​20–45
  d. ​25–50
  e. ​30–55

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.3 Macronutrient Composition Guidelines
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

33. Carrots, squash, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables are a good source of which antioxidant?​

  a. ​beta-carotene
  b. ​selenium
  c. ​vitamin E
  d. ​vitamin C
  e. ​vitamin D

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

34. Medical problems associated with ____ include cardiac arrhythmias, amenorrhea, kidney and bladder damage, ulcers, colitis, tearing of the esophagus or stomach, tooth erosion, gum damage, and general muscular weakness.​

  a. anorexia nervosa​
  b. ​bulimia nervosa
  c. ​binge-eating disorder
  d. ​orthoxia
  e. ​anorexia athletica

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.7 Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.4 – Become familiar with eating disorders and with their associated medical problems and behavior patterns.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

35. About 2 percent of American adults are afflicted with ____ in a 6-month period.​

  a. bulimia nervosa​
  b. ​anorexia nervosa
  c. ​binge-eating disorder
  d. ​pregorexia
  e. ​drunkorexia

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.7 Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.4 – Become familiar with eating disorders and with their associated medical problems and behavior patterns.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

36. The benefits of soy lie in its high protein content and plant chemicals, known as ____, which act as antioxidants and are thought to protect against estrogen-related cancers.​

  a. ​lignans
  b. ​carotenoids
  c. ​phospholipids
  d. ​glutamines
  e. ​isoflavones

 

ANSWER:   e
REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

37. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by ____.​

  a. uncontrollable episodes of eating excessive amounts of food within a relatively short time​
  b. ​recurring inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain
  c. ​a sense of lack of control
  d. ​an intense fear of gaining weight
  e. ​maintenance of recommended body weight

 

ANSWER:   d
REFERENCES:   5.7 Eating Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.4 – Become familiar with eating disorders and with their associated medical problems and behavior patterns.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

38. Broiling, grilling, and ____ create the highest levels of AGEs.​

  a. ​frying
  b. ​steaming
  c. ​roasting
  d. ​boiling
  e. ​poaching

 

ANSWER:   a
REFERENCES:   5.6 Benefits of Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

39. Consumption of ____ should be limited.​

  a. ​oils
  b. ​legumes
  c. ​processed red meat
  d. ​soy products
  e. ​eggs

 

ANSWER:   c
REFERENCES:   5.8 Dietary Guidelines
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.6 – Learn dietary guidelines for Americans.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

40. The ____ diet has been linked to lower risk for metabolic syndrome and stroke, improved brain health and cognitive function, and lower risk for Alzheimer’s disease.​

  a. ​South Beach
  b. ​Mediterranean
  c. ​Zone
  d. ​Volumetrics
  e. ​Paleo

 

ANSWER:   b
REFERENCES:   5.9 A Lifetime Commitment to Wellness
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.6 – Learn dietary guidelines for Americans.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Matching

 

Select the key term that is most associated with the description below. Each term is used only once.

a. ​AGEs
b. ​amino acids
c. ​antioxidants
d. ​calorie
e. ​megadoses
f. ​minerals
g. ​nutrients
h. ​phytonutrients
i. ​substrates
j. ​vitamins

 

REFERENCES:   Introduction
5.1 The Essential Nutrients
5.5 Balancing the Diet
5.6 Benefits of Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.1 – Define nutrition and describe its relationship to health and well-being.
FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
FITW.HOEG.17.5.5 – Identify myths and fallacies regarding nutrition.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

41. ​foods that are used as energy sources

ANSWER:   i

 

42. ​the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°

ANSWER:   d

 

43. ​for most vitamins, 10 times the RDA or more

ANSWER:   e

 

44. ​inorganic elements needed by the body

ANSWER:   f

 

45. ​the basic building blocks of protein

ANSWER:   b

 

46. ​compounds found in vegetables and fruits with cancer-fighting properties

ANSWER:   h

 

47. ​organic substances essential for normal bodily metabolism, growth, and development

ANSWER:   j

 

48. ​substances found in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues

ANSWER:   g

 

49. ​derivatives of glucose-protein and glucose-lipid interactions that are linked to aging and chronic diseases

ANSWER:   a

 

50. ​compounds that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances it might damage

ANSWER:   c

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

51. What is the most important nutrient? Discuss why it is the most important nutrient and list some sources.

ANSWER:   Water is the most important nutrient because it is involved in almost every vital body process: in digesting and absorbing food, in producing energy, in the circulatory process, in regulating body heat and electrolyte balance, in removing waste products, in building and rebuilding cells, in transporting essential nutrients, and in cushioning joints and organs. Water is contained in almost all foods, but primarily in liquid foods, fruits, and vegetables. Caffeine-containing drinks are also acceptable as a water source
REFERENCES:   5.1 The Essential Nutrients
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.2 – Learn the functions of nutrients in the human body.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

52. How are free radicals formed? Discuss whether or not they are harmful.​

ANSWER:   Oxygen is utilized during metabolism to change carbohydrates and fats into energy. During this process oxygen is transformed into stable forms of water and carbon dioxide. A small amount of oxygen, however, ends up in an unstable form, referred to as oxygen free radicals.

Free radicals attack and damage proteins and lipids, in particular cell membranes and DNA. This damage is thought to contribute to the development of conditions such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, cataracts, Parkinson’s disease, and premature aging. Environmental factors that seem to encourage the formation of free radicals include solar radiation, cigarette smoke, air pollution, radiation, some drugs, injury or infection, and chemicals (such as pesticides), among others.

REFERENCES:   5.5 Balancing the Diet
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

Essay

 

53. Discuss how you can decrease AGEs in your diet.

ANSWER:   1. Limit cooking meats at high temperatures.

2. Avoid high-fat foods (whole milk products and meats).

3. Increase intake of fruits, vegetables, grains, fish, and low-fat milk products.

4. Choose unprocessed over processed foods by cooking fresh foods from scratch.

5. Eat at home most of the time and avoid prepackaged and fast foods as much as possible.

6. Avoid browning because the process of browning sugars and proteins on food surfaces increases the formation of AGEs.

REFERENCES:   5.6 Benefits of Foods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

54. What are the current recommended guidelines by the NAS for carbohydrates, fats, and protein? Explain how you think your diet is different and describe steps that you can take to achieve a more balanced diet.

ANSWER:   The recommended guidelines by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) state that daily caloric intake should be distributed so that 45 percent to 65 percent of the total calories come from carbohydrates (20–40% complex carbohydrates and less than 25% from simple carbohydrates), 20 to 35 percent from fat, and 10 to 35 percent from protein. Saturated fat should constitute less than 6 percent, whereas polyunsaturated fat can be up to 10 percent, and monounsaturated fat up to 20 percent of total daily calories.

Answers will vary.

REFERENCES:   5.3 Macronutrient Composition Guidelines
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

55. What are the DRIs? Additionally, list and describe all the nutrition standards.

ANSWER:   To help people meet dietary guidelines, the National Academy of Sciences has developed a set of dietary nutrient intakes for healthy people in the United States and Canada, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The DRIs are based on a review of the most current research on adequate amounts and maximum safe nutrient intakes of healthy people. Within the umbrella of DRI are four types of reference values for planning and assessing diets:

1. The Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) is the amount of nutrient that is estimated to meet the nutrient requirement of half the healthy people in specific age and gender groups. At this nutrient intake level, the nutritional requirements of the upper 50 percent of the people are not met.

2. The Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) set forth the daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of nearly all healthy people in the United States. The RDA is set well above the EAR and covers about 98 percent of the population. The RDA could be considered a goal for adequate intake.

3. When data are insufficient or inadequate to set an EAR, an Adequate Intakes (AI) value is determined instead of the RDA. The AI value is derived from approximations of observed nutrient intakes by a group or groups of healthy people. The AI value for children and adults is expected to meet or exceed the nutritional requirements of a specific healthy population.

4. The Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), which eventually will be available for all nutrients, establish the highest level of nutrient intake that seems to be safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse effects. As intakes increase above the UL, so does the risk for adverse effects. Generally speaking, the optimum nutrient range for healthy eating is between the RDA and the UL.

REFERENCES:   5.2 Nutrition Standards
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   FITW.HOEG.17.5.3 – Become familiar with nutrients, food groups, and nutrient standards, and learn how to achieve a balanced diet through the use of the USDA MyPlate guidelines.
OTHER:   Bloom’s: Remember

 

 

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