Essentials Of Sociology A Down to Earth Approach 10th Edition by James M. Henslin – Test Bank

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Chapter 5    Social Groups and Formal Organizations

5.1    True/False Questions

 

1) Because primary groups are essential to our emotional well-being, they have been called “the springs of life.”

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Knowledge

2) Although larger than primary groups, secondary groups are as informal, personal, and intimate as primary groups.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Application

3)  Because in-groups are an essential part of society, they have virtually no negative consequences.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 129

Skill: Application

4)  Reference groups are reserved for members of professional networks and are utilized almost exclusively by people with career aspirations.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 130

Skill: Knowledge

5)  Social networking, by definition, breaks down social inequality and leads to a more egalitarian society, regardless of the culture or the nature of the network.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 133

Skill: Application

6) The U.S. Postal Service is an example of a bureaucracy.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 133

Skill: Comprehension

7) A division of labor, written rules, and impersonality are some of the key features common to bureaucracies.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 133-134

Skill: Knowledge

8)   Bureaucracies tend to perpetuate their existence, even after their initial purpose has been fulfilled, through a process called bureaucratic ritualism.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Knowledge

9)   A classic example of goal displacement is the shift in NATO’s mission from protecting Europe against a Soviet invasion to being a rapid response force to fight terrorism.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 136

10) According to Marx, alienation refers to a worker’s loss of ownership of the product of his or her labor.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 137-138

Skill: Knowledge

11) When members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence, this is referred to as the Peter principle.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Knowledge

12) The most intimate of all groups is the dyad.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Knowledge

13) As the size of a group decreases, the likelihood for diffusion of responsibility also decreases.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 143

Skill: Application

14) Leaders tend to be more talkative and express greater determination and self-confidence.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Knowledge

15) Sociologists generally agree that leaders are born with characteristics that propel them to the forefront of a group.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Knowledge

16) An expressive leader is a task-oriented leader who keeps a group moving towards its goals.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Knowledge

17) No single type of leadership is inherently best, as situations change and different types of leaders are needed.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 146

Skill: Knowledge

18) The Asch experiment demonstrated that people will submit to a person in authority, even if ordered to perform tasks against their best judgment.

Answer:   FALSE

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 147

Skill: Knowledge

19) When experiencing groupthink, people take on a collective tunnel vision and are convinced there is only one right viewpoint with a single course of action.

Answer:   TRUE

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 149

Skill: Application

 

5.2    Multiple Choice Questions

1) In Professor Jones’s social problems course, the students interact freely with one another, think of themselves as “Dr. J’s class,” and feel they are significant because of their mutual interest in social reform. Which concept BEST describes Dr. Jones’s class?

  1. A) aggregate
  2. B) category
  3. C) social frame
  4. D) group

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Application

2)  Sociologically, what term BEST applies to a group of people who share no common destination taking an elevator from the first floor of a large high rise?

  1. A) a social frame
  2. B) a category
  3. C) an aggregate
  4. D) a clique

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Knowledge

3)  There are New York Yankee fans in every state in America, throughout Canada, and in nations all over the world. Sociologically, which concept BEST describes these fans?

  1. A) They are a group.
  2. B) They are a social group.
  3. C) They are an aggregate.
  4. D) They are a category.

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Application

4)  Which phrase BEST describes primary groups as Charles Cooley envisioned them?

  1. A) the springs of life
  2. B) the cornerstone of self-development
  3. C) the miracle of society
  4. D) the blessing of friendship

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Knowledge

5)  A group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation is referred to as a ________.

  1. A) secondary group
  2. B) clique
  3. C) primary group
  4. D) community

Answer:   C

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Comprehension

 

6)  Of the following groups, the ________ plays the MOST significant role in the development of the self.

  1. A) in-group
  2. B) primary group
  3. C) out-group
  4. D) secondary group

Answer:   B

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Comprehension

 

7)  If a secondary group does not satisfy one’s need for intimate association, which of the following is most likely to occur?

  1. A) The individual will cease to exist.
  2. B) The secondary group will break down into primary groups.
  3. C) The secondary group will develop into an out-group.
  4. D) The secondary group will develop into a reference group.

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 128

Skill: Application

8)  Kody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan’s Slaves. Kody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Kody, these two rival gangs would be considered ________.

  1. A) reference groups
  2. B) social networks
  3. C) secondary groups
  4. D) out-groups

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 129

Skill: Application

9)  Because of our sense of belonging and loyalty to in-groups, we often judge our own group’s traits as virtues, but view the same traits in other groups as vices. This judgment of superiority is an example of ________.

  1. A) subcultural relativity
  2. B) objectivity
  3. C) a double standard
  4. D) a lack of judgment

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 129

Skill: Application

10) For many college professors, their own teachers served as role models. Kody Scott looked up to older gang members as his idols. In both cases, former teachers and older gang members qualify as being ________.

  1. A) generalized others
  2. B) secondary groups
  3. C) social others
  4. D) reference groups

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 130

Skill: Application

11) Jane, Mark, Courtney, and Kelly are enrolled in the 8:00 a.m. sociology course at their college. After studying together for the first test, they started sitting together in class and chose to work together on group projects. During spring break, they decided to go on a trip as a group. These four students would be considered members of a(n) ________.

  1. A) aggregate
  2. B) reference group
  3. C) clique
  4. D) secondary group

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 131

Skill: Application

12) ________ are the social ties that radiate outward from the self and link people together like a spider’s web.

  1. A) Cyber socializations
  2. B) Secondary societies
  3. C) Social networks
  4. D) Electronic communities

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 131

Skill: Application

13) Which phrase became synonymous with the research Stanley Milgram conducted on “the small world phenomenon”?

  1. A) the world is a stage
  2. B) six degrees of separation
  3. C) society as the sum of its parts
  4. D) situations defined as real are real in their consequences

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Knowledge

14) Milgram’s experiment involving the “small world phenomenon” utilized two groups. He referred to these two groups as the ________ and the ________.

  1. A) in-group; out-group
  2. B) starters; targets
  3. C) givers; takers
  4. D) primary; secondary

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Knowledge

15) Sociologist Judith Kleinfeld felt Milgram “stacked the deck” in his “small world phenomenon” experiment because ________.

  1. A) he only used men as the target population
  2. B) he violated the ethical standards of research
  3. C) many of his targets and starters shared a common interest
  4. D) most of his sample lived in the same geographic area

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Knowledge

16) When criticizing Milgram’s experiment on small group phenomenon, Kleinfeld made the analogy that “we live in a world that looks a lot like ________.”

  1. A) a tossed salad
  2. B) a bowl of lumpy oatmeal
  3. C) an ice cream sundae
  4. D) a pan of baked lasagna

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Application

17) Samantha works for an organization that is hierarchical and has a division of labor, written rules, communications, and records. This organization’s administration treats workers impersonally. Based on these characteristics, we can conclude that Samantha works for a(n) ________.

  1. A) nonprofit organization
  2. B) voluntary association
  3. C) bureaucracy
  4. D) oligarchy

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 133-134

Skill: Application

18) In the bureaucratic structure of a medium-sized university, approximately where would one find the instructor for this course, provided that he or she is NOT the chair of the sociology department?

  1. A) at or near the top of the chart
  2. B) in the upper third of the chart
  3. C) in the middle of the chart
  4. D) at or near the bottom of the chart

Answer:   D

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 135

Skill: Comprehension

19) When the former Soviet Union collapsed, NATO forces were no longer needed to protect Europe from a communist invasion. Rather than disband NATO, it was turned into a “rapid response force” to fight terrorism. Sociologists would call this shift in focus an example of ________.

  1. A) the Thomas theorem
  2. B) goal displacement
  3. C) the Peter principle
  4. D) bureaucratic ritualism

Answer:   B

Diff: 3           Page Ref: 135

Skill: Application

20) Which sociologist is given credit for coining the concept of the “McDonaldization of Society”?

  1. A) Jeffrey Reiman
  2. B) Douglas Massey
  3. C) Howard Winet
  4. D) George Ritzer

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Knowledge

21) The McDonaldization of society refers to ________.

  1. A) the perfect world model
  2. B) a comparative society
  3. C) a university system
  4. D) the standardization of everyday life

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Knowledge

22) The university’s administration has increased class size without receiving input from the faculty or considering that some courses need to have low enrollments. In view of this, what is the most probable reaction the professors will take to this latest administrative decision?

  1. A) The faculty will call a wildcat strike to protest the insensitivity of the administration.
  2. B) The faculty will stage a “blue flu” and call in sick on the first day of class.
  3. C) More faculty members will feel they have lost ownership of their classes and are just “employees.”
  4. D) More faculty members will apply to be administrators to ensure this type of action will not be repeated.

Answer:   C

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 137-138

Skill: Synthesis

23) The experience of being cut off from the product of one’s labor, which results in a feeling of powerlessness, is called ________.

  1. A) anomie
  2. B) alienation
  3. C) displacement
  4. D) rationalization

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 137-138

Skill: Knowledge

24) Patti and her colleagues often gather in the employee lunch room to talk about their families. This is an example of __________.

  1. A) protesting change
  2. B) group dissolution
  3. C) bureaucratic displacement
  4. D) resisting alienation

Answer:   D

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Application

25) Tom works as an agent for a large insurance company. At his work station, he has taped pictures of his wife and granddaughter and of last year’s Caribbean vacation. Sociologists would see these pictures as an attempt by Tom to ________.

  1. A) resist alienation
  2. B) bond with his supervisor, who is also a grandparent
  3. C) promote his “all-American” status to his colleagues
  4. D) simply decorate his office

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Application

 

26) Nick was a promising caseworker for an social services agency. After earning several lower-level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick’s abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the ________.

  1. A) Kanter syndrome
  2. B) Weber effect
  3. C) Peter principle
  4. D) Ouchi theorem

Answer:   C

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Comprehension

27) Sam, an aspiring and talented young attorney, has been promoted every year since he joined the law firm of Howard, Howard, and Fine. Unfortunately, Sam feels he cannot handle the responsibilities of his latest promotion. In an effort to keep his newly acquired job title, Sam has begun to take credit for the work done by the employees he supervises. Sam’s behavior is an example of ________.

  1. A) the iron law of oligarchy
  2. B) the Ouchi theorem
  3. C) bureaucratic ritualism
  4. D) the Peter principle

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Application

28) According to Rosabeth Moss Kanter, why do “hidden values” exist in an organization?

  1. A) to assist women and minorities in gaining promotions
  2. B) to help the organization be successful
  3. C) as a means to promote teamwork
  4. D) as self-fulfilling stereotypes to direct the organization

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 139

Skill: Application

 

29) __________ refer(s) to preconceived ideas of what someone is like— that in turn leads the person to behave in ways that match them.

  1. A) The Peter principle
  2. B) Humanizing
  3. C) Emotional integrations
  4. D) Self-fulfilling stereotypes

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 139

Skill: Knowledge

30) As diversity in the workplace continues to increase, more than half of U.S. workers include which three groups?

  1. A) older adults, minorities, and women
  2. B) minorities, immigrants, and women
  3. C) immigrants, the Amish, and older adults
  4. D) working class, homosexuals, and young adults

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 139

Skill: Knowledge

 

31) Most major companies sponsor “diversity training” lectures and workshops for their employees.  What is the ultimate purpose of these efforts?

  1. A) to stimulate an understanding of cultural differences
  2. B) to professionally develop staff
  3. C) to increase company profits and competitiveness
  4. D) to emphasize the qualities that will lead to a worker’s success

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 140

Skill: Knowledge

32) With respect to group dynamics, what is the defining characteristic of a small group?

  1. A) All members of the group can interact directly with one another.
  2. B) All members of the group are intimately involved with one another.
  3. C) It is composed of no more than three members.
  4. D) The group is stable.

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 141

Skill: Application

33) How groups influence individuals and how individuals influence groups is referred to as ________.

  1. A) the Hawthorne Effect
  2. B) social solidarity
  3. C) group dynamics
  4. D) small group phenomenon

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 141

Skill: Knowledge

34) According to Georg Simmel, which of the following groups is the MOST unstable?

  1. A) triad
  2. B) secondary group
  3. C) dyad
  4. D) primary group

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Knowledge

35) In any group of three members, two of the three may have a tendency to alienate the third member and dominate the decision making for the group the trio represents. When this occurs, what term BEST applies to the two unified members?

  1. A) an aggregate
  2. B) an oligarchy
  3. C) an aristocracy
  4. D) a coalition

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Application

36) How does the structure and function of groups change as they grow in size?

  1. A) Members tend to form more informal relationships.
  2. B) Group members become more active in the decision-making process.
  3. C) Group members feel more strongly bonded to each other.
  4. D) Groups tend to develop a more formal social structure.

Answer:   D

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 142

       Skill: Analysis

 

37)  In which group would there be the greatest number of relationships?

  1. A) a traditional marriage
  2. B) a panel of three
  3. C) the starting five on a basketball team
  4. D) the starting nine on a baseball team

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Application

38) In which group would diffusion of responsibility be the greatest concern?

  1. A) a married couple
  2. B) the graduating class of a large university
  3. C) a football team
  4. D) a basketball team

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 143

Skill: Application

39) A phenomenon of group dynamics that results in a decrease in one’s willingness to help others as the size of the group increases is referred to as ________.

  1. A) diffusion of responsibility
  2. B) small group phenomenon
  3. C) the Hawthorne Effect
  4. D) Klinefelter’s syndrome

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 143

Skill: Knowledge

40) A leader of a group whose responsibility would be to keep the group moving towards its goal is classified as a(n) ________ leader.

  1. A) expressive
  2. B) instrumental
  3. C) authoritarian
  4. D) democratic

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Application

41) A(n) ________ leadership style has the tendency to encourage either aggressive or apathetic behavior among group members with aggressive members growing increasingly hostile toward their leader.

  1. A) authoritarian
  2. B) democratic
  3. C) laissez-faire
  4. D) expressive

Answer:   A

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Application

 

42) Groups in which members take personal responsibility and work at a steady pace, even without supervision, are most likely headed by which classification of leader?

  1. A) laissez-faire leader
  2. B) authoritative leader
  3. C) dictatorial leader
  4. D) democratic leader

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Application

43) Which group is MOST notable for its lack of achievement and effectiveness in decision making?

  1. A) expressive
  2. B) authoritarian
  3. C) democratic
  4. D) laissez-faire

Answer:   D

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 146

Skill: Application

44) Different situations require that different styles of leadership be used to meet the primary goals of the group. Imagine a tour group that is lost in the desert. Which type of leadership would be BEST for the tour guide to adopt?

  1. A) democratic leader
  2. B) authoritarian leader
  3. C) laissez-faire leader
  4. D) expressive leader

Answer:   B

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 146

Skill: Application

45) Who conducted the classic experiment addressing the power of peer pressure that included six stooges and one actual test subject viewing cards with lines of varying length?

  1. A) Stanley Milgram
  2. B) Robert Merton
  3. C) Philip Zimbardo
  4. D) Solomon Asch

Answer:   D

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 146-147

Skill: Knowledge

46) What did Solomon Asch’s experiment on group conformity demonstrate?

  1. A) Because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
  2. B) Americans are highly individualistic and reluctant to conform to group pressure.
  3. C) Women are more susceptible to group pressure than men.
  4. D) Younger people are more susceptible to group pressure than older adults.

Answer:   A

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 146-147

Skill: Comprehension

 

47) What did Stanley Milgram’s teacher-learner experiment demonstrate?

  1. A) A substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
  2. B) Most people conform to social norms, even when told to deviate from them by persons in authority.
  3. C) Group conformity is the most important social relationship people seek to achieve.
  4. D) Individualism is among the most cherished personal qualities one can possess.

Answer:   A

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 147-149

Skill: Knowledge

48) The concept of “groupthink” was developed by ________.

  1. A) Solomon Asch
  2. B) Stanley Milgram
  3. C) Irving Janis
  4. D) Georg Simmel

Answer:   C

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 149

Skill: Knowledge

49) In group decision making, a form of tunnel vision that develops in which there is only one “right” viewpoint and suggested alternatives are perceived as signs of disloyalty is called ________.

  1. A) brainwashing
  2. B) groupthink
  3. C) mental programming
  4. D) group polarization

Answer:   B

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 149

Skill: Knowledge

50) All of the following historical situations involved elements of groupthink, as mentioned in the text, EXCEPT for which one?

  1. A) the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor
  2. B) the Normandy Invasion (D-Day)
  3. C) the Columbia space shuttle disaster of 2003
  4. D) the North Vietnamese military during the Vietnam War

Answer:   B

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 149-150

Skill: Analysis

51) How would an organization minimize the occurrence of groupthink?

  1. A) using a highly authoritative leader
  2. B) hiring the most intelligent applicants
  3. C) giving free rein to diverse opinions
  4. D) submitting to public review and scrutiny

Answer:   C

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 150

Skill: Application

5.3    Short Answer Questions

1) Why don’t aggregates and categories qualify as social groups?

Answer:   Members of aggregates and categories do not interact in a meaningful way. They either have nothing in common (aggregate) or are separated physically even though they may share a characteristic (category).

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Evaluation

2) Why are secondary groups essential to the functioning of society?

Answer:   Secondary groups allow societies to get important things done, such as educating the masses, making a living, acquiring needed possessions, and engaging in leisure activities.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 126-128

Skill: Comprehension

3) What is the difference between a primary and secondary group?

Answer:   A primary group is a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation. A secondary group is larger than a primary group, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal. In the secondary group, interaction is based on specific statuses.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 126-128

Skill: Evaluation

4) What are some of the dysfunctions of an in-group?

Answer:   unhealthy rivalries, discrimination, hatred, and even murder

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 129-130

Skill: Analysis

5) What is the difference between a social network and a clique?

Answer:   A social network refers to people who are linked to one another where the social ties radiate outward from the self that link people together. A clique is a type of social network that is a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 131

Skill: Evaluation

6) What is the “small world phenomenon”?

Answer:   The “small world phenomenon” is the belief that, on average, just six individuals separate everyone in the United States.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Knowledge

7) How do social networks perpetuate inequality?

Answer:   When people learn of opportunities they share the information with others in their own network. We network with others whose characteristics are similar to our own. Therefore, opportunities tend to circulate within the same social groups.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 132

Skill: Analysis

8) What are the five characteristics of bureaucracies as identified by Weber?

Answer:   (1) clear levels, with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward;
(2) division of labor;
(3) written rules;
(4) written communications and records;
(5) impersonality and replaceability

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 133-134

Skill: Knowledge

9)  Why do bureaucracies practice goal displacement?

Answer:   to perpetuate their existence by changing their goal or reason for existence after they have achieved their original goal and no longer have a reason to continue

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 135

Skill: Knowledge

 

10)  What did George Ritzer mean when he coined the phrase the “McDonaldization of society”?

Answer:   the standardization of everyday life, including the robot-like assembly of food, one-stop shopping at malls, packaged vacation tours, and short news blips

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Comprehension

11) What causes bureaucratic alienation?

Answer:   Workers are often perceived in terms of roles, rules and functions instead of as individuals. This alienation is the result of workers being cut off from the end product of their labor.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 137-138

Skill: Comprehension

12) What are the dysfunctions of bureaucracies?

Answer:   red tape (“a rule is a rule”); bureaucratic alienation; worker resistance to alienation; bureaucratic                   incompetence

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 137-138

Skill: Knowledge

13) How do workers resist alienation?

Answer:   They resist alienation by forming primary groups at work and banding together in informal settings. They also express approval, appreciation, and sympathy for one another. They decorate their personal workplace with photos of family, vacations, pets, and personal accomplishments and interests.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Application

14) What is the Peter principle?

Answer:   the tendency for members of an organization to be promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Knowledge

15) What is the relationship between group size, intimacy, and stability?

Answer:   As a small group grows larger, it becomes more stable, but its intensity or intimacy decreases.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Analysis

 

16) In what group is a coalition impossible?

Answer:   a dyad

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Knowledge

17) What are the two types of leaders?

Answer:   (1) instrumental leaders;
(2) expressive leaders

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Knowledge

18) What are the three leadership styles?

Answer:   (1) authoritarian leader;
(2) democratic leader;
(3) laissez-faire leader

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

Skill: Knowledge

 

19) What leadership style is BEST?

Answer:   No single leadership style is best. The situation, the time allotted to accomplish a task, the number of people involved, and other factors determine which leadership style should be used.

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 146

Skill: Knowledge

20) Why is groupthink dangerous to an organization?

Answer:   It discourages alternative points of view, stifles creativity, and promotes blindly following leaders, regardless of their competence.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 149-150

Skill: Evaluation

 

 

5.4    Essay Questions

1) Compare and contrast aggregate, category, and social group. Give examples of each.

Answer:   Aggregates are individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together. An aggregate might be a group of people waiting for a bus or a group of people in an elevator car of a high rise going to different floors for different reasons.  A category refers to people who share a common characteristic, regardless of where they may physically be located. Examples of categories include all Pittsburgh Steelers fans, all left-handed people, and all university women. A social group requires two or more people interacting with one another who have something in common and believe what they have in common is significant. Aggregates do not share a common interest and do not interact in a meaningful way. A category may share an interest but fail to interact because of physical separation.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 126

Skill: Analysis

2) Define a group and explain the differences between primary and secondary groups.

Answer:   Groups are people who interact, have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant. Primary groups are small, relatively permanent groups that are characterized by intimate face-to-face interaction and cooperation. These groups fill the emotional needs of people by providing feelings of high self-esteem, a sense of belonging and being appreciated, and sometimes love. Secondary groups are larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal and impersonal. These groups are based on some interest or activity, and people usually interact on the basis of specific roles.

Diff: 1          Page Ref:126

Skill: Knowledge

3) Discuss the consequences of dividing our world into in-groups and out-groups.

Answer:   In-groups exert a high degree of social control over their membership. This often leads members to do things they may not otherwise do and some things they may even dislike. In-groups also foster ethnocentrism. As a member of an in-group begins to judge his or her own accomplishments and characteristics, a sense of superiority over others develops. This can result in prejudice and discrimination and create a double standard. Traits and behaviors that are a part of one’s in-group are seen as virtues while the same traits are viewed as vices in out-groups. Dividing the world into “us” and “them” can result in acts against the out-groups, ranging from friendly rivalries to very destructive or violent acts.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 129-130

Skill: Comprehension

 

4) What is the “small world phenomenon”? How does this phenomenon relate to social networks?

Answer:   The “small world phenomenon” refers to the closeness that all members of a society share, even one as extensive as the population of the United States. In the “small group phenomenon” experiment, Milgram showed there are only six degrees of separation among total strangers who have never met. The “small group phenomenon” demonstrates the potential vastness of a social network. While we may interact within relatively small groups composed of friends and family, one’s potential social network is almost limitless. In many cases, the linkages that are possible between ourselves and our immediate social groups can connect us to persons who are both geographically and socially distant.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 131-132

Skill: Application

5) What was the conclusion reached by Stanley Milgram following his small group phenomenon experiment involving “starters” and “targets”? What is the major criticism of the results reached by Milgram?

Answer:   The conclusion of Milgram’s experiment was that, on average, just six individuals separate everyone in the United States from knowing everyone else. The critics of Milgram point out that some of the individuals Milgram used as “starters” and “targets” had a mutual interest in the stock market, which tainted the results. When Milgram’s research was replicated, the “starters” were successful in reaching their “targets,” on average, only 30 percent of the time with some success rates as low as 5 percent. In the replicated studies, only 384 of 24,000 “targets” were eventually reached by the “starters.”

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 131-132

Skill: Knowledge

 

6) Stanley Milgram’s small world experiment came to the remarkable conclusion that people in the United States are linked to all other people in the country through chains of relationships that are, on average, only six links long. How does social structure influence how many people someone is effectively connected to and the number of links that may be necessary to establish a network contact?

Answer:   A person’s education would influence the kind of job they held. The kind of job they held would, in turn, influence how much they traveled, the variety of other people they would meet, under what conditions, and the frequency of their contacts. Income would also influence the extent a person traveled and met others in nonbusiness situations. People with less income and education have less opportunity to travel and meet people, and would therefore have a smaller social network.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 131-132

Skill: Application

 

7) What are the characteristics of bureaucracies? How does a university reflect these characteristics?

Answer:   The characteristics of bureaucracies are (1) clear levels with assignments flowing downward and accountability flowing upward; (2) a division of labor; (3) written rules; (4) written communications and records; and (5) impersonality and replaceability. The university bureaucratic structure flows neatly and logically from the board of governors to the faculty and maintenance staff. There is a clear and enforced division of labor. Faculty members do not paint offices, and electricians do not teach courses. All universities have a host of written rules, including student handbooks, how to apply for grants, and other guidelines for students, faculty, and staff. The computerization of records has virtually eliminated “written” records but has increased the volume of data stored. If faculty members suffer debilitating injuries or illnesses, they are replaced within a few days. Additional defense of the university as a bureaucracy may be applied.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 133-134

Skill: Analysis

8) What is “McDonaldization”?  Describe some of its positive as well as negative consequences for social life.

Answer:   George Ritzer uses the term “McDonaldization” to refer to the standardization of everyday life that results in the robot-like assembly of food, one-stop shopping, familiar franchises, and packaged vacation tours—all the outward signs of an efficient and highly dependable, but predictable lifestyle. While McDonaldization can increase efficiency and predictability, it also results in a reduction of spontaneity and creativity, thus producing a bland sameness and further entrapping individuals in Weber’s “iron cage.”

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Knowledge

9) How do bureaucracies perpetuate themselves through goal displacement? Provide an example of goal displacement.

Answer:   Goal displacement is the adoption of new goals by an organization when the organization’s original goals have been met or are no longer needed. By changing its purpose, the organization can continue to exist. In many cases, once the bureaucracy has become established, there are benefits to its continuation. These benefits include salaries for officers and directors, support services, and the accumulation of property and capital. To dissolve the bureaucracy means a loss in paid positions, company cars, personal expense accounts, and other benefits, as well as a discontinuation of fees paid to others for services. Examples of goal displacement: the March of Dimes’ goal changed from finding a cure for polio to fighting birth defects after Jonas Salk discovered a cure for polio; NATO’s purpose changed from protecting Western Europe from Soviet invasion to acting as a rapid deployment force to combat terrorism.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Application

10)  Why are workers generally not promoted to their “level of incompetence,” as predicted by the Peter principle?

Answer:   The worker or supervisor may recognize the highest level at which the worker can perform competently, so the worker is promoted no further. Not all workers aspire to be promoted as high as they can because they are satisfied with lower-level jobs. The number of positions declines as one moves up in a bureaucracy, so not enough positions exist for everyone who is eligible to be promoted. Many workers may be reluctant to accept promotions to jobs if they have to leave behind or supervise their current coworkers.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 138-139

Skill: Evaluation

11) Discuss group dynamics and the variables that affect it.

Answer:   Group dynamics refer to how groups influence us and how we affect groups. The smallest group possible is a dyad, composed of two people, but there is no maximum number of participants in a “large” group.  As a small group grows larger, it becomes more stable, but its intensity or intimacy decreases. When some members of a group align themselves against other members of the group, they produce a coalition.  At least a triad is required for a coalition to exist. As the number of members in a group increases, the number of relationships increases at an accelerated rate. In a two-person group, there is one relationship; in a triad, three relationships; in a four-person group, six relationships; in a seven-person group, twenty-one relationships; and so on. As groups increase in size, there is also a diffusion of responsibility or a lack of personal accountability by each member of the group to the overall welfare of the group.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Comprehension

12) Identify an example of a small group. Explain how the size of this group affects its members’ attitudes and behaviors and what role leadership plays.

Answer:   There are an exhaustive number of examples that can be used to answer this question. A good answer would include a discussion of size, stability, diffusion of responsibility, and what leadership styles are employed. It might also address the effectiveness of this leadership style.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 142-146

Skill: Analysis

13) List three leadership styles and briefly describe the characteristics of each. Which style is the BEST one to adopt?

Answer:   The three leadership styles are authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. A democratic leadership style tries to lead by building a consensus among group members. An authoritarian leadership style leads by giving orders to group members. A laissez-faire leadership style emphasizes a permissive approach, which allows group members to choose their own options with minimum input from the actual leader. A laissez-faire leader is actually relinquishing power to his or her subordinates. No single leadership style can be considered “best.” All other factors remaining equal, the “best” style is dependent upon the situation and the immediate and long-term objectives of the group. In a life-threatening or emergency situation, an authoritative style would be most effective. If new products are being developed, a more democratic or laissez-faire style will foster greater insight and creativity. Democratic and laissez-faire styles also encourage staff development.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 145-146

Skill: Analysis

14) How did Solomon Asch conduct his classic experiment on group conformity? Why did many of the subjects in Solomon Asch’s experiment give answers that they knew to be incorrect?

Answer:   Asch picked one student to participate in an experiment who was joined by six others. The six others, however, were “stooges“ that made choices during the exercise that were preset by the experimenter (Asch). Each of these six participants was instructed to give the wrong answer. In the experiment, the seven subjects were shown a card with a single line on it. A second card was then displayed with three lines on it, one that was obviously the same length as the first and two other lines. The students participating in the experiment were then asked to choose the line on the second card that matched the line on the first. All six of the pre-selected participants picked the same wrong answer, which encouraged the only true participant in the experiment to also choose the same incorrect answer. The subjects gave incorrect answers because they did not trust their own judgment when other people (who were confederates of the experimenter) around them gave different answers. The subjects were afraid to appear foolish by giving answers that were different from not just one or two other participants, but all of them.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 146-147

Skill: Evaluation

15) Discuss groupthink. Although usually criticized, in what situations would the concept of groupthink be beneficial?

Answer:   Groupthink is the narrowing of thought by a group of people, leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer. To even suggest alternatives becomes a sign of disloyalty. Usually a group looks to explore alternatives in every situation, but there are situations when there is simply not time to explore or discuss alternatives. Although such situations are rare, they do occur during emergencies and when time and resources are severely limited. In addition, some organizations have a member who opposes any option decided upon by the group leader. There are occasions when the choice made is the best choice and for everyone to agree is not a sign of weakness or submission to authority, but simply sound management.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 149-150

Skill: Synthesis

 

5.5    Open Book Questions

1) The photograph on page 130 shows an African American police officer at a public Ku Klux Klan rally in Jasper, Texas. Address all of the various group memberships illustrated by this photograph for both the Klansmen and police officer.

Answer:   For the Klansmen, the Klan serves as a primary group, an in-group, and a reference group. If the officer is representative of African Americans, he serves as a reference group for the Klansmen as well, but as a group that the Klan does not wish to adopt as its model. The African American as an individual and the police as a secondary group will also be representative of an out-group for the Klan. For the police officer, the police department serves as a secondary group and a reference group. The Klan serves as a reference group in the negative sense and it also serves as an out-group for the officer.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 129-130

Skill: Application

2) How could fictional characters from a movie, book, video game, or TV show be members of a person’s reference group? Provide an example to illustrate your answer.

Answer:   A reference group is composed of people by whose standards a person evaluates himself. A fictional character may embody qualities that a person perceives as highly desirable. The person could then evaluate himself according to the standards that the fictional character embodies, or the standards that the person imagines the fictional character embodies. At an early age, a child may use someone such as Spiderman or Xena as his or her reference group. They are both self-reliant, help others in need, and uphold values highly prized in society. An older, more mature individual may identify with Andy Sipowicz from NYPD Blue because of his dedication to the job, his mentoring role, and his no-nonsense approach to life. It is noted, however, that most adult men would not openly admit to using Sipowicz as a role model and reference group, even though they may privately do so.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 130

Skill: Application

3) Discuss the concept of social networks as it applies to those individuals linked to one another in your own life. How are social networks different from a clique?

Answer:   Social network refers to people who are linked to one another. Examples of a social network would be friends, family, coworkers, and colleagues.  Friends of friends are also a part of an individual’s social network, so long as these individuals are linked to those people connected to the individual. A clique is a small group of individuals within a larger social network. Examples of a clique would be a group of friends who consider themselves the jocks, preppies, loners, or stoners at a school.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 131

Skill: Synthesis

4) What have been your personal experiences with Facebook, chat rooms, or Twitter?  Give examples of how these types of interactions bind people together as a group. Do you feel that these relationship(s) are real or superficial?  If you have not engaged in Facebook, chat rooms, or Twitter, explain why not and also answer the second part of the question.

Answer:   Facebook is a type of online yearbook where people share similar interests. Experiences on Facebook can be positive and negative. It greatly expands social networks but also makes a person vulnerable. People on Facebook can also falsify information and use the site for illicit purposes. Individuals may elect not to use Facebook because they are “old-fashioned,” do not spend all day on their computer, or do not trust this option of the Internet. For some individuals, interaction with other people through the Internet may be their only means of communication or association with a group.  Some people consider this type of group participation real, while others may feel the group encounters are superficial.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 131

Skill: Comprehension

 

5) Is goal displacement functional or dysfunctional for society?

Answer:   Goal displacement is functional in as much as it permits organizations to continue to exist, making efficient use of organizational structures and resources that would otherwise be abandoned. Goal displacement is dysfunctional when it redirects resources from work that is beneficial for society to work that merely gives jobs to workers who otherwise would be displaced. One of the major points in assessing whether goal displacement is functional or dysfunctional is the exact reason for the shift in the organization’s mission. For example, if the move simply perpetuates an organization that now has limited efficiency, or is not needed, it is dysfunctional. If the change creates an organization that has been needed, but up until this time has been unaffordable, the change may be functional.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 135-136

Skill: Evaluation

6) In Down-to-Earth Sociology, The McDonaldization of Society, the concept of the “McDonaldization” of education is described (and lamented). What are the potential advantages and disadvantages of a completely rationalized, standardized college education?

Answer:   The advantages might include the elimination of poor professors and courses; the tailoring of courses to the precise career needs of students; the exact matching of instructional methods with the learning styles of students to maximize efficiency of learning; and the reduction in cost of instruction as information is packaged and delivered in standard, efficient, computerized form. The disadvantages might include the abandonment of attempts to provide stimulating, intellectually challenging relationships between students and individual professors; the loss of spontaneity and creativity in the process of learning; and the sharp reduction in variability of ideas and information taught and learned.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 136

Skill: Synthesis

7) People devise many strategies for resisting alienation at their jobs. If you wanted to determine the degree of alienation created by a work setting, what kinds of signs or activities would you look for?

Answer:   Since workers try to overcome alienation through informal means, the degree of alienation could be determined by the extent and variety of informal devices that reduce alienation created by workers. The extent to which workers decorate their work areas, the amount of informal socializing at work, and the content of informal conversations at work (whether they involve psychologically escaping the workplace) might all be indicators of efforts to overcome alienation.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 138

Skill: Evaluation

8) Why are workers generally NOT promoted beyond their “level of incompetence,” as predicted by the Peter principle?

Answer:   The worker or supervisor may recognize the highest level at which the worker can perform competently, so the worker is promoted no further. Not all workers aspire to be promoted as high as they can because they are satisfied with lower-level jobs. The number of positions declines as one moves up in a bureaucracy, so not enough positions exist for everyone who is eligible to be promoted. Many workers may be reluctant to accept promotions to jobs if they have to leave behind or supervise their current coworkers.

Diff: 6          Page Ref: 138-139

Skill: Evaluation

9) After reading Thinking Critically, Managing Diversity in the Workplace, what are some of the negative ramifications to providing diversity training and sponsoring activities or projects that appeal to special interest groups? Are there alternatives to such a movement that would have similar benefits?

Answer:   People who are required to take sensitivity training may feel they are being singled out for views they do not actually hold or are being punished for something they have been rumored to have done. In some cases, this training interrupts the work schedule of employees, which makes them wonder if the “bottom line” is not to get the job done but to cater to special interest groups. For every special interest group a corporation makes an effort to support, such as advocating same-sex marriage, there is another group that will be offended by the movement. Where is the end to the special interest sponsorship? A corporation could become overwhelmed with requests, and as soon as one request is denied, it becomes a target rather than a support system. Alternatives may include making sensitivity training voluntary or a first-stage alternative for disciplining problem employees. Promoting activities without regard to race, religion, sexual orientation, or other personal characteristics can be very effective, such as offering mammograms to all employees and other community members who cannot afford them, or sponsoring a soup kitchen for the needy.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 139-140

Skill: Analysis

10) As the leader of a growing organization, you recognize the tendency for members of such groups to feel less intimacy and less responsibility as the number of members in your organization increases. What strategies could you adopt to counteract these trends while your organization continues to grow?

Answer:   Since small groups are characterized by greater intimacy and individual acceptance of responsibility, the leader could divide the organization into smaller groups with the small-group members accountable to one another and to the whole organization. The leader could then add more small subdivisions as the organization grows. Seminars, staff training, retreats, and even social activities could be developed to bring people together, to share in planning and decision making, and to get to know one another personally as well as professionally.

Diff: 5          Page Ref: 141-142

Skill: Synthesis

 

5.6    Line Art Questions

 

1) Using as your model “The Typical Bureaucratic Structure of a Medium-Sized University” as shown in Figure 5.1, construct a similar diagram of the college football team or other sports team.

Answer:   At the head of the diagram should be the college president, since the coach serves at the pleasure of the president. Below that would be the coach, and then the assistant coaches. Trainers, team managers, and other support personnel would be side boxes to the diagram. If a football team is used, players may assume boxes beneath the offensive coordinator, defensive coach, and special teams coach.

Diff: 3          Page Ref: 135

Skill: Application

2) Figure 5.1 “The Typical Bureaucratic Structure of a Medium-Sized University” is scaled down. Even so, how does it show the impersonality of the bureaucracy?

Answer:   Each boxed position of the model carries with it a distinct set of goals and expectations as part of the division of labor of the organization. Positioning faculty members in their own “box” at the lowest level of the model indicates that there is little official interaction with members of other departments and even less interaction than in positions identified higher in the model. In reality, each box in the model resembles a division of labor, and the vertical position of the boxes reflects their level of responsibility and authority in the overall structure of the organization.

Diff: 2          Page Ref: 135

Skill: Comprehension

 

 

3) How does Figure 5.2 “The Effects of Group Size on Relationships” effectively demonstrate that the larger a group becomes the more stable it is?

Answer:   In the dyad, the smallest group, there is a single relationship. If this relationship breaks up, the group is dissolved. Even in a triad, although there are three potential relationships, it is possible for all three to break up, thus dissolving the group. But as the group becomes larger, the number of relationships escalates. In a group of seven, for example, there are twenty-one possible relationships. Although it is possible for two, three, or even more of the relationships to break up, it is unlikely that all twenty-one would disappear. In addition, with every additional group member, the group gains additional expertise and support which strengthens it.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 142

Skill: Analysis

 

4) Figure 5.3 “Asch’s Cards” shows the two cards used in the Asch Experiment. Three lines were used on the second card from which the participants were to pick the line that matched the single line on Card One. Why do you think Dr. Asch used lines and not figures or pictures?

Answer:   Line length is probably the simplest difference to detect. The length of lines is totally objective. For example, using “Which dog is different?” to test the difference could be more difficult to demonstrate in any detail unless an entirely different canine were used, such as a Chihuahua and two Great Danes.  Slight differences could turn into a subjective call by the participants.

Diff: 4          Page Ref: 146-147

Skill: Analysis

  • Matching Questions

Skill: Knowledge

Match the term with the definition.

  1)  group

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126

2)  Peter principle

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 138

3)  goal displacement

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 135

4)  bureaucracy

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 133-134

5)  primary group

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126

6)  secondary group

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 126, 128

7)  social network

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 131

8)  clique

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 131

9)  group dynamics

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 141

10) coalition

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 142

11) instrumental leader

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

12) expressive leader

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

13) authoritarian leader

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

14) laissez-faire leader

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 145

15) groupthink

Diff: 1          Page Ref: 149

  A)  the social ties radiating outward from the self that link people together

B)  the alignment of some members of a group against others

C)  a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor

D)  a narrowing of thought by several people leading to the perception that there is only one correct answer or solution

E)  a group that is relatively large, temporary, anonymous and formal; based on some interest or activity

F)  an individual who increases harmony and minimizes conflict in a group

G)  a cluster of people within a larger group who choose to interact with one another

H)  a group characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation

I)   an individual who leads by being highly permissive  J)  people who think of themselves as belonging together and who interact with one another K)       an individual who tries to keep the group moving toward its goals

L)  an individual who leads by giving orders

M) the ways in which individuals influence groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals

N)  the adoption of new goals by an organization

O)  a tongue-in-cheek observation that the members of an organization are promoted for their accomplishments until they reach their level of incompetence

1) J; 2) O; 3) N; 4) C; 5) H; 6) E; 7) A; 8) G; 9) M; 10) B; 11) K; 12) F; 13) L; 14) I; 15) D

 

 

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