Essentials of Negotiation 6th Edition by Roy J Lewicki Irving -Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Ethics in Negotiation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. ____________ can be defined as individual and personal beliefs for deciding what is right and wrong.

________________________________________

 

2. The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

________________________________________

 

3. Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ___________.

________________________________________

 

4. Negotiation is based on information dependence—the exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator.

________________________________________

 

5. The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponent’s networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ___________.

________________________________________

 

6. There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it.

________________________________________

 

7. Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.

________________________________________

 

8. The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiator’s ______________ in the bargaining environment.

________________________________________

 

9. The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics.

________________________________________

 

10. When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic’s use.

________________________________________

 

11. A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act _____________.

________________________________________

 

12. Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for one’s own conduct.

________________________________________

 

13. Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ___________.

________________________________________

 

14. “Calling” the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ___________.

________________________________________

 

15. If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation.

________________________________________

 

16. In general, the “respond in kind” approach is best treated as a ________________________ strategy.

________________________________________

 

 


True / False Questions

17. The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

True    False

 

18. The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

True    False

 

19. The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics.

True    False

 

20. Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth.

True    False

 

21. Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process.

True    False

 

22. Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common-value issue.

True    False

 

23. Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission.

True    False

 

24. Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uninformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high.

True    False

 

25. Real consequences—rewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using it—should not only motivate a negotiator’s present behavior, but also affect the negotiator’s predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future.

True    False

 

26. One’s own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well.

True    False

 

27. Explanations allow the negotiator to convince others that conduct that would ordinarily be wrong in a given situation is acceptable and are looked upon as self-serving for one’s own conduct.

True    False

 

28. The use of silence by a negotiator creates a “verbal vacuum” that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

29. The concept of “duty ethics” states that

A. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

 

B. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

 

C. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

D. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

 

E. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

 

30. Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define

A. what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other.

 

B. what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation.

 

C. what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct.

 

D. what the law defines as acceptable practice.

 

E. All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct.

 

31. Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies?

A. End-result ethics.

 

B. Duty ethics.

 

C. Social context ethics.

 

D. Personalistic ethics.

 

E. Reasoning ethics.

 

32. Which of the following arguments refutes Carr’s claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy?

A. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions.

 

B. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business.

 

C. Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception.

 

D. Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest.

 

E. None of the above arguments refute Carr’s claim.

 

33. What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?

A. We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.

 

B. We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their dishonesty.

 

C. We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

D. We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level.

 

E. None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust.

 

34. Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?

A. Traditional Competitive Bargaining

 

B. Emotional Manipulation

 

C. Misrepresentation to Opponent’s Networks

 

D. Bluffing

 

E. All of the above

 

35. Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?

A. misrepresentation

 

B. bluffing

 

C. misrepresentation to opponent’s network

 

D. inappropriate information collection

 

E. All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics.

 

36. Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common-value issue?

A. misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission

 

B. misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission

 

C. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission

 

D. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission

 

E. None of the above forms of deception is used in misrepresenting the common-value issue.

 

37. McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when

A. they had a distant relationship with the subject.

 

B. the information at stake was unimportant.

 

C. lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship.

 

D. the victim had used deceptive tactics as well.

 

E. Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases.

 

38. When using the justification that “the tactic was unavoidable,” the negotiator is saying that

A. the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible.

 

B. what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant.

 

C. the tactic helped to avoid greater harm.

 

D. the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences.

 

E. The justification that “the tactic was unavoidable” implies all of the above.

 

39. When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

 

B. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

 

C. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

 

D. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic.

 

40. When using the “altered information” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie.

 

B. exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to “correct” the statement.

 

C. point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying.

 

D. indicate one’s true concern for the other’s welfare.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic.

 

41. Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks”?

A. ignoring the tactic

 

B. “calling” the tactic

 

C. responding in kind

 

D. discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors

 

E. None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party’s dirty tricks.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

42. Define ethics.

 

 

 

 

43. According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation?

 

 

 

 

44. How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker?

 

 

 

 

45. What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?

 

 

 

 

46. Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponent’s networks?

 

 

 

 

47. What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics?

 

 

 

 

48. When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate?

 

 

 

 

49. As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on:

 

 

 

 

50. What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process?

 

 

 

 

51. What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks?”

 

 

 

 

52. Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someone’s face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women?

 

 

 

 

53. Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic?

 

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Ethics in Negotiation Answer Key

Fill in the Blank Questions

1. ____________ can be defined as individual and personal beliefs for deciding what is right and wrong.

Morals

 

2. The concept of ____________ ethics states that the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

end-result

 

3. Most of the ethical questions in negotiation are about standards of ___________.

truth telling

 

4. Negotiation is based on information dependence—the exchange of information to learn the true ____________ and ____________ of the other negotiator.

preferences; priorities

 

5. The six categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics are: 1) competitive bargaining, 2) emotional manipulation, 3) misrepresentation, 4) misrepresentation to opponent’s networks, 5) inappropriate information gathering, and 6) ___________.

bluffing

 

6. There is a positive relationship between an attitude toward the use of each specific tactic and the ______________ to use it.

intention

 

7. Misrepresentation by ____________ is defined as failing to disclose information which would benefit the other.

omission

 

8. The purpose of using ethically ambiguous negotiating tactics is to increase the negotiator’s ______________ in the bargaining environment.

power

 

9. The ____________ of a negotiator can clearly affect the tendency to use deceptive tactics.

motivation

 

10. When a negotiator has used a tactic that may produce a reaction the negotiator must prepare to ____________ the tactic’s use.

defend

 

11. A negotiator who judges a tactic on the basis of its consequences is making judgments according to the tenets of act _____________.

utilitarianism

 

12. Explanations and justifications are self-serving ____________ for one’s own conduct.

rationalizations

 

13. Asking questions can reveal a great deal of information, some of which the negotiator may intentionally leave ___________.

undisclosed

 

14. “Calling” the tactic indicates to the other side that you know he is ____________ or ___________.

bluffing; lying

 

15. If you are aware that the other party is bluffing or lying, simply ______________ it, especially if the deception concerns a relatively minor aspect of the negotiation.

ignore

 

16. In general, the “respond in kind” approach is best treated as a ________________________ strategy.

“last resort”

 

 

True / False Questions

17. The fundamental questions of ethical conduct arise only when we negotiate in distributive bargaining situations.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

18. The concept of “personalistic ethics” states that the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

19. The rightness of an action is determined by considering obligations to apply universal standards and principles is the definition of end-result ethics.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

20. Most of the ethics issues in negotiation are concerned with standards of truth telling and how individuals decide when they should tell the truth.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

21. Questions and debate regarding the ethical standards for truth telling are central and fundamental in the negotiating process.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

22. Misrepresentation by omission is defined as actually lying about the common-value issue.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

23. Studies show that subjects were more willing to lie by omission than by commission.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

24. Individuals are more willing to use deceptive tactics when the other party is perceived to be uninformed or unknowledgeable about the situation under negotiation; particularly when the stakes are high.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

25. Real consequences—rewards and punishments that arise from using a tactic or not using it—should not only motivate a negotiator’s present behavior, but also affect the negotiator’s predisposition to use similar strategies in similar circumstances in the future.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

26. One’s own temptation to misrepresent creates a self-fulfilling logic in which one believes one needs to misrepresent because the other is likely to do it as well.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

27. Explanations allow the negotiator to convince others that conduct that would ordinarily be wrong in a given situation is acceptable and are looked upon as self-serving for one’s own conduct.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

28. The use of silence by a negotiator creates a “verbal vacuum” that makes the other uncomfortable and helps determine whether the other party is acting deceptively.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

29. The concept of “duty ethics” states that

A. the rightness of an action is determined by evaluating the pros and cons of its consequences.

 

B. the rightness of an action is determined by existing laws and contemporary social standards that define what is right and wrong and where the line is.

 

C. the rightness of an action is based on the customs and norms of a particular society or community.

 

D. the rightness of an action is based on one’s conscience and moral standards.

 

E. None of the above defines “duty ethics.”

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

30. Ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct define

A. what is wise based on trying to understand the efficacy of the tactic and the consequences it might have on the relationship with the other.

 

B. what a negotiator can actually make happen in a given situation.

 

C. what is appropriate as determined by some standard of moral conduct.

 

D. what the law defines as acceptable practice.

 

E. All of the above are defined by ethical criteria for judging appropriate conduct.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

31. Only one of the approaches to ethical reasoning has as its central tenet that actions are more right if they promote more happiness, more wrong as they produce unhappiness. Which approach applies?

A. End-result ethics.

 

B. Duty ethics.

 

C. Social context ethics.

 

D. Personalistic ethics.

 

E. Reasoning ethics.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

32. Which of the following arguments refutes Carr’s claim that business strategy is analogous to poker strategy?

A. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions.

 

B. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business.

 

C. Most games do not legitimize deception, and therefore business should not be analogous to a game that does legitimize deception.

 

D. Bluffing, exaggeration and concealment are legitimate ways for corporations to maximize their self interest.

 

E. None of the above arguments refute Carr’s claim.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

33. What is the implication of the dilemma of trust?

A. We believe everything the other says and can be manipulated by their dishonesty.

 

B. We do not believe anything the other says and therefore are immune to their dishonesty.

 

C. We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

D. We never reveal our requirements and limits in negotiation, and therefore are able to far exceed that minimum level.

 

E. None of the above describes the implication of the dilemma of trust.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

34. Which is a Category of Marginally Ethical Negotiating Tactics?

A. Traditional Competitive Bargaining

 

B. Emotional Manipulation

 

C. Misrepresentation to Opponent’s Networks

 

D. Bluffing

 

E. All of the above

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

35. Which tactic is seen as inappropriate and unethical in negotiation?

A. misrepresentation

 

B. bluffing

 

C. misrepresentation to opponent’s network

 

D. inappropriate information collection

 

E. All of the above are seen as inappropriate and unethical tactics.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

36. Research has shown that negotiators use what two forms of deception in misrepresenting the common-value issue?

A. misrepresentation by omission and misrepresentation by commission

 

B. misrepresentation by permission and misrepresentation by omission

 

C. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by permission

 

D. misrepresentation by admission and misrepresentation by commission

 

E. None of the above forms of deception is used in misrepresenting the common-value issue.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

37. McCornack and Levine found that victims had stronger emotional reactions to deception when

A. they had a distant relationship with the subject.

 

B. the information at stake was unimportant.

 

C. lying was seen as an unacceptable type of behavior for that relationship.

 

D. the victim had used deceptive tactics as well.

 

E. Research found that victims did not have strong emotional reactions in any of the above cases.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

38. When using the justification that “the tactic was unavoidable,” the negotiator is saying that

A. the negotiator was not in full control of his or her actions and hence should not be held responsible.

 

B. what the negotiator did was really trivial and not very significant.

 

C. the tactic helped to avoid greater harm.

 

D. the quality of the tactic should be judged by its consequences.

 

E. The justification that “the tactic was unavoidable” implies all of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

39. When using the “intimidation” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. emphasize the futility and impending danger associated with continued deceit.

 

B. lie to the other to make them believe you have uncovered their deception.

 

C. play down the significance of any deceptive act.

 

D. make a “no-nonsense” accusation of the other.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the intimidation tactic.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

40. When using the “altered information” tactic to detect deception, one should

A. try to get the other to admit a small or partial lie about some information and use this to push for admission of a larger lie.

 

B. exaggerate what you believe is the deception and state it, hoping that the other will jump in to “correct” the statement.

 

C. point out behaviors you detect in the other which might be an indication they are lying.

 

D. indicate one’s true concern for the other’s welfare.

 

E. None of the above actions would be used as part of the altered information tactic.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

41. Which of the following tactics is the least preferable method of responding to another party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks”?

A. ignoring the tactic

 

B. “calling” the tactic

 

C. responding in kind

 

D. discussing what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors

 

E. None of the above tactics should be used to respond to another party’s dirty tricks.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
 

 

Short Answer Questions

42. Define ethics.

Broadly applied social standards for what is right or wrong in a particular situation, or the process for setting those standards.

 

43. According to Hitt, what are the four standards for evaluating strategies and tactics in business and negotiation?

(1) Choose a course of action on the basis of results I expect to achieve; (2) Choose a course of action on the basis of my duty to uphold appropriate rules and principles; (3) Choose a course of action on the basis of the norms, values, and strategy of my organization or community; and, (4) Choose a course of action on the basis of my personal convictions.

 

44. How does Carr argue that strategy in business is analogous to strategy in a game of poker?

He advocates that business ought to play its game as poker players do. Because good poker playing often involves concealing information and bluffing or deception, these rules ought to apply to business transactions. If an executive refuses to bluff periodically – if he or she feels obligated to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth all the time – he or she is probably ignoring opportunities permitted under the “rules” of business and is probably at a heavy disadvantage in business dealings.

 

45. What is the implication of the dilemma of honesty?

We tell the other party our exact requirements and limits in negotiation, and it is likely that we will never do better than this minimum level.

 

46. Considering the categories of marginally ethical negotiating tactics, what is the difference between misrepresentation and misrepresentation to opponent’s networks?

Misrepresentation is distorting information or negotiation events in describing them to others, while misrepresentation to opponent’s networks is corrupting your opponent’s reputation with his peers.

 

47. What is the purpose of using marginally ethical ambiguous negotiating tactics?

To increase the negotiator’s power in the bargaining environment.

 

48. When were negotiators significantly more likely to see the marginally ethical tactics as appropriate?

If they anticipated that the other would be competitive rather than cooperative.

 

49. As a result of employing an unethical tactic, the negotiator will experience positive or negative consequences. These consequences are based on:

Whether the tactic is effective, how the other party evaluates the tactic, and how the negotiator evaluates the tactic.

 

50.
(p. 174)
What is/are the risks associated with frequent use of the self-serving process?

The more frequently negotiators engage in this self-serving process, the more their judgments about ethical standards and values will become biased, diminishing their ability to see the truth for what it is.

 

51. What actions can a negotiator take to respond to the other party’s distributive tactics or “dirty tricks?”

(1) Ask probing questions; (2) phrase questions in different ways; (3) force the other party to lie or back off; (4) test the other party; (5) “call the tactic”; (6) ignore the tactic; (7) discuss what you see and offer to help them change to more honest behaviors; and, (8) respond in kind.

 

52. Some people continue to believe that they can tell by looking into someone’s face if that person is inclined to be dishonest or truthful on a regular basis. What could study participants tell by photographs of aging men and women?

Study participants were able to correctly identify the most honest men in the group as they aged, but their assessment of women was largely inaccurate. The researchers concluded that men’s faces accurately reflected their tendency toward honesty, but women’s faces were not particularly valid indicators of their truthfulness.

 

53. Negotiators who are considering the use of deceptive tactics should ask themselves what three questions in order to evaluate the desirability of the tactic?

(1) Will this tactic really enhance my power and achieve my objective? (2) How will the use of these tactics affect the quality of my relationship with the other party in the future? (3) How will the use of these tactics affect my reputation as a negotiator?

 

 

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