Essentials of Marketing 16th Edition By Perreault – Test Bank

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Essentials of Marketing, 16e (Perreault)

Chapter 5  Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior

 

1) The economic-buyer theory assumes that consumers know all the facts and logically compare choices.

 

2) Most economists assume that consumers are economic buyers who logically evaluate choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

 

3) Economic needs include such things as self-respect, accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

 

4) The economic buyer view of consumers says that individuals will only buy the cheapest goods and services available, regardless of quality.

 

5) Economic needs are concerned only with getting the best quality at the lowest price.

 

6) The median income of U.S. families in 2015 was about $56,516.

 

7) In 2015, half of all American households earned more than $75,442.

 

8) After taking inflation into account, the median income in the U.S. has been flat over the last decade.

 

9) In 2015, 50 percent of U.S. families received less than $56,516 in income.

 

10) Discretionary income is what is left after paying taxes.

 

11) Discretionary income is the income from investments.

 

12) Discretionary income is the income adjusted to take out the effects of inflation.

 

13) Discretionary income is an elusive concept because the definition of necessities varies from family to family and over time.

 

14) Most marketing managers think that the economic-buyer theory explains buyer behavior very well.

 

15) Consumer buying decisions are influenced by economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, and the purchase situation.

 

16) Motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, trust, and lifestyle are psychological variables that affect consumer buying.

 

17) Family, social class, reference groups, and culture are the psychological variables that affect a consumer’s buying decisions.

18) Wants are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something.

19) Wants are needs that are learned during a person’s life.

 

20) A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need.

 

21) Food, liquid, sex, and rest are examples of physiological needs.

 

22) Examples of personal needs include accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

 

23) The “hierarchy of needs” model suggests that most products must fill more than one need at the same time.

 

24) According to the hierarchy of needs, consumers are motivated to first satisfy their higher-order needs; then they will focus on their lower-level needs.

 

25) The hierarchy of needs suggests that a consumer would not try to satisfy physiological and safety needs until social and personal needs have been completely satisfied.

 

26) The hierarchy of needs suggests that only one need can be satisfied at a time.

 

27) Consumers do not usually see or hear all the stimuli that come their way.

 

28) In selective exposure we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

 

29) Selective exposure refers to a person’s ability to screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

 

30) Learning is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience.

 

31) A cue is likely to result in a consumer response only if there is a drive to satisfy.

 

32) Reinforcement of a response decreases the likelihood of the same response the next time the drive occurs.

 

33) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.

 

34) Adding lemon scent to Pledge furniture polish is an example of using a positive cue.

 

35) A perfume ad that suggests that people who use the product have more appeal to the opposite sex is an example of a positive cue.

 

36) That “new car” smell that includes an aroma of leather and wood is an example of using a positive cue.

 

37) Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned.

38) Americans’ preoccupation with deodorants is an example of a culturally learned need.

 

39) An attitude is a person’s point of view about something, and usually involves liking or disliking.

 

40) The main difference between attitudes and beliefs is that beliefs always involve liking or disliking, but attitudes don’t necessarily involve liking or disliking.

 

41) Beliefs are not as action-oriented as attitudes.

 

42) Beliefs are more action-oriented than attitudes.

 

43) Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes but don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

 

44) A consumer’s belief about a product may have a positive or negative effect on his or her attitude about the product.

 

45) Attitudes are very good predictors of intention to buy.

 

46) An expectation is a future outcome or event that a person anticipates will happen.

 

47) Consumers may evaluate a product not just on how well it performs, but on how it performs relative to their expectations.

 

48) In light of the relationships between consumer expectations and satisfaction, it’s usually best for promotion to slightly “over promise” what the firm can actually deliver.

 

49) Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of another person, brand, or company.

 

50) Highly trusted people, brands, and companies have many disadvantages in the marketplace.

 

51) Activities, interests, and opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

 

52) Attitudes, income, and opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

 

53) Psychographics is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions.

 

54) Marital status, age, and the age of any children in a household are the three demographic dimensions that determine the stage of family life cycle.

55) The stage of family life cycle is usually determined by two demographic dimensions: income and number of children.

56) Singles and young couples seem less willing to try new products because they earn less.

 

57) Younger families with no children are a good market for durable goods such as automobiles and furniture.

 

58) Older people seem to be more open to new products and brands than younger people.

 

59) Families with teenagers tend to spend more on durables than younger families.

 

60) Teens play an increasingly minor role in shaping family purchases.

 

61) Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

 

62) Empty nesters is a term that refers to young couples with no children.

 

63) Consumer buying decisions are affected by social influences such as motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, and personality.

 

64) Buying responsibility and purchase influence between husband and wife vary greatly depending on the product and the specific family.

 

65) Income by itself is usually a pretty good measure of social class.

 

66) According to the text, the U.S. social class system is much more rigid than social systems in other countries.

 

67) According to the text, the U.S. social class system is usually measured in terms of occupation, education, and housing arrangements.

 

68) People who have the same amount of income but who are in different social classes tend to spend their income in the same way.

 

69) Given the same income, consumers in different social classes will handle themselves and their money very differently.

 

70) The group of people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic is his or her reference group for that topic.

 

71) A person normally has several reference groups.

72) Reference group influence is likely to be greater for products that will not be seen by other individuals.

 

73) Reference groups are more important when others will be able to “see” which product or brand we’re using.

74) An opinion leader is usually wealthier and better educated than the people he or she influences.

 

75) Opinion leaders for one subject or product are also usually opinion leaders for many other subjects or products.

 

76) Marketers who want to aim at people within several different cultures are usually able to use the same marketing mix for all of them.

 

77) In the U.S., the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a faster rate than the rest of the United States.

 

78) Both the birthrate and the buying power of ethnic groups in the U.S. are increasing.

 

79) Among ethnic minorities in the U.S., the birthrate is lower than the overall population.

 

80) Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the U.S.

 

81) Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group in the United States.

 

82) Of all the major ethnic groups in the U.S., Asian Americans have the highest average household income.

 

83) African Americans have the highest median family income of the major ethnic groups.

 

84) By 2019, the buying power of Hispanics and African Americans will each exceed $1 trillion a year.

 

85) Planning for cultural differences in international markets is easier than in domestic markets.

 

86) The reaction of Italian women to Swiffer is an example of cultural influence.

 

87) Needs, benefits sought, attitudes, motivation, and even how a consumer selects certain products all vary depending on the purchasing situation.

 

88) Different purchase situations may require different marketing mixes, even when the same target market is involved.

89) The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need.

 

90) As part of the basic problem-solving steps, a consumer searches for information, identifies alternatives and what factors are important, and then evaluates one or more product before deciding how best to meet a need.

 

91) How much effort is put into a buying decision depends on economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, purchase situation, and the amount of risk involved.

92) Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put even limited effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

 

93) Consumers use limited problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

 

94) Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

 

95) A consumer interested in making a low involvement purchase is most likely to use limited problem solving, rather than one of the other levels of problem solving.

 

96) Limited problem solving is used when the consumer has a lot of experience in meeting a need and has no need for additional information.

 

97) Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases.

 

98) When she finds her favorite brand of shampoo temporarily out of stock, a supermarket shopper is more likely to take part in routinized response behavior than limited problem solving.

 

99) The idea of a decision process implies that consumers always apply rational processes in their buying decisions.

 

100) Dissonance takes place when an individual is not confident about the rightness of a decision.

 

101) After making a purchase, buyers often wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

 

102) The power of negative purchase experiences is greater than that of positive experiences.

 

103) Adoption process refers to the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea.

104) The steps in the adoption process are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

 

105) In the evaluation stage of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

 

106) In the confirmation stage of the adoption process, the adopter continues to rethink the decision and searches for support for the decision.

 

107) In the adoption process, the confirmation step usually precedes the decision step.

 

 

 

108) To monitor how a new idea is being adopted by the market, a marketing manager may use marketing analytics.

 

109) Which of the following would be most helpful for predicting why a final consumer selects one of several similar brands?

  1. A) population data
  2. B) consumer spending patterns
  3. C) behavioral principles
  4. D) consumer income
  5. E) All of these would be equally helpful.

 

110) Which of the following is true of consumer behavior?

  1. A) Specific behaviors vary a great deal for different people, products, and purchase situations.
  2. B) Understanding consumer behavior is a simple and a straightforward procedure.
  3. C) Cataloging all the possibilities for consumer behavior is easy to do.
  4. D) Psychological variables are not relevant in the consumer decision process.
  5. E) In today’s global markets, variations in specific behaviors are not very common.

 

111) Which of the following is NOT a need that affects the buying behavior of economic buyers?

  1. A) economy of purchase or use
  2. B) convenience
  3. C) dependability in use
  4. D) motivation
  5. E) efficiency in operation or use

 

112) Discretionary income is the portion of a person’s income that pays for

  1. A) rent.
  2. B) food.
  3. C) luxuries.
  4. D) taxes.
  5. E) insurance.

113) Of the following appeals, the one that has the most relevance to an economic buyer is

  1. A) “I’m lovin’ it” (McDonald’s).
  2. B) “Expect great things” (Kohl’s).
  3. C) “Live for now” (Pepsi).
  4. D) “Who doesn’t want 50% more cash?” (Capital One Rewards Card).
  5. E) “Relentlessly protecting your identity” (LifeLock).

 

114) An economic buyer is a person who

  1. A) compares choices to get the best deal.
  2. B) makes buying decisions based only on price.
  3. C) will not pay extra for convenience.
  4. D) always buys products at the lowest price possible.
  5. E) is averse to spending time and money.

 

115) An economic buyer is a person who

  1. A) makes buying decisions based on behavioral needs rather than economic needs.
  2. B) logically compares choices to get the greatest satisfaction from expenditures of time and money.
  3. C) always buys the product that has the lowest price.
  4. D) is not willing to pay extra for convenience.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

116) Economists’ economic-buyer theory assumes that

  1. A) income data are very useful for predicting consumer behavior.
  2. B) buyers logically compare choices in order to maximize their satisfaction.
  3. C) consumers should purchase only low-priced products.
  4. D) buyers focus primarily on price.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

117) ________ are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money—as the consumer judges it.

  1. A) Economic needs
  2. B) Psychological needs
  3. C) Social influences
  4. D) Behavioral influences
  5. E) Perceptual needs

 

118) Which of the following is an economic need?

  1. A) desire for self-satisfaction and convenience
  2. B) desire for efficiency in the consumer’s investment plans
  3. C) desire for efficiency in the use of the consumer’s time and money
  4. D) desire for prestige and paying a high price for the best quality
  5. E) desire for status and paying a high price for the best quality

119) Which of the following is NOT an economic need?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) hunger
  3. C) economy of use
  4. D) convenience
  5. E) efficiency in use

 

120) Which of the following is NOT an economic need of consumers?

  1. A) convenience
  2. B) dependability in use
  3. C) economy of purchase
  4. D) efficiency
  5. E) hunger

 

 

 

121) At Home Depot, a customer can purchase a gallon of one-coat paint that contains the ingredients for both a primer and a color. What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this type of paint?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) economy of purchase
  3. C) improvement of earnings
  4. D) convenience

 

122) A magazine ad for GEICO car insurance shows the GEICO gecko lying down while the copy reads, “Don’t take high car insurance rates lying down.” What primary economic need is being satisfied in this magazine ad?

  1. A) convenience
  2. B) improvement of earnings
  3. C) dependability in use
  4. D) economy of purchase
  5. E) efficiency in operation

 

123) An app for the iPhone that includes voice directions for a built-in GPS system can be helpful in finding a motel that is “off the beaten track.” What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this app?

  1. A) economy of purchase
  2. B) dependability in use
  3. C) efficiency in use
  4. D) convenience
  5. E) improvement of earnings

124) In a television commercial for Maytag appliances, the spokesperson “Old Lonely” acts bored because no one is calling him to schedule a repair of their appliances. What is the primary economic need being illustrated in this TV ad?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) convenience
  3. C) economy of purchase
  4. D) improvement of earnings
  5. E) efficiency in operation

 

125) A busy mom stops at a 7-Eleven store on the way home from work to purchase some bread, milk, and ice cream. What primary economic need is being satisfied by the 7-Eleven?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) economy of purchase
  3. C) efficiency in operation
  4. D) convenience

 

 

 

126) The economists’ view of buyers

  1. A) puts a great deal of emphasis on differences in buying behavior related to individual differences among consumers.
  2. B) is based on the idea that consumers value time and select the first alternative they learn about.
  3. C) assumes that consumers always buy the lowest-price alternative.
  4. D) emphasizes psychological variables rather than social influences.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

127) In 2015, ________ percent of households reported an income of less than $25,000.

  1. A) 22
  2. B) 77
  3. C) 29
  4. D) 10
  5. E) 5

 

128) The median family income in the U.S. in 2015 was a little over

  1. A) $35,000.
  2. B) $45,000.
  3. C) $55,000.
  4. D) $75,000.
  5. E) $100,000.

129) Discretionary income is defined as

  1. A) total market value of goods and services produced.
  2. B) gross domestic product per capita.
  3. C) income available after taxes.
  4. D) income available before taxes.
  5. E) income available after taxes and necessities.

 

130) Discretionary income is a family’s

  1. A) income after taxes.
  2. B) total purchasing power.
  3. C) income spent on durable goods.
  4. D) income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

 

131) The amount of income a family has left after paying taxes and paying for its necessities is called its ________ income.

  1. A) personal
  2. B) discretionary
  3. C) marginal
  4. D) family
  5. E) modified

 

 

 

132) What is left of income after paying for taxes and paying for necessities?

  1. A) net income
  2. B) real income
  3. C) deductible income
  4. D) gross income
  5. E) discretionary income

 

133) Misty Hancock is a sales rep for a computer producer. Her salary last year was $30,000, and she earned another $5,000 in sales commissions. She paid $6,000 in taxes, and spent $8,000 on food, housing, a car, and other “necessities.” What is Misty’s discretionary income?

  1. A) $21,000
  2. B) $34,000
  3. C) $15,000
  4. D) $24,000
  5. E) $8,000

134) A young working couple earned $55,000 last year. They paid $16,000 in taxes and $20,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. What was their discretionary income for the year?

  1. A) $39,000
  2. B) $55,000
  3. C) $30,000
  4. D) $35,000
  5. E) $19,000

 

135) A young working couple earned $35,000 last year and paid $10,000 in taxes. They spent $13,000 on rent, food, insurance, and other “necessities.” What is their discretionary income?

  1. A) $12,000
  2. B) $35,000
  3. C) $22,000
  4. D) $25,000

 

136) Keith McPherson earned $20,000 last year as a carpenter. He paid $6,000 for food, rent, medical expenses, and other “necessities.” There was little construction work in February, so he took a trip to the Caribbean and spent $4,000. What was Keith’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $4,000
  2. B) $20,000
  3. C) $10,000
  4. D) $12,000
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

 

 

 

137) As the owner of a women’s clothing store, Caroline Lipscomb has an income of $75,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $17,000 per year for grocery bills, home mortgage payments, and car payments. Last year she went on a holiday to Italy and spent an additional $4,000. What was Caroline’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $45,000
  2. B) $75,000
  3. C) $26,000
  4. D) $28,000
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

138) A young working couple earned $50,000 last year. Of that, they paid $16,000 in taxes and $15,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. Their discretionary income for the year was

  1. A) $35,000.
  2. B) $50,000.
  3. C) $19,000.
  4. D) $34,000.
  5. E) $15,000.

 

139) Ginny Paulson was just promoted to marketing manager for her company. She also gets a big raise with the promotion. Because Ginny’s discretionary income will increase, which of the following products/services is most likely to see additional spending?

  1. A) furnace repairs
  2. B) automobile insurance
  3. C) a smart TV
  4. D) medical services
  5. E) grocery staples

 

140) As the owner of a Bluetooth specialties store, Alicia Fountainbleau has an income of $72,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $22,000 per year in grocery bills, house mortgage, and car payment. Last year she spent an additional $4,000 on a two-week vacation at a Club Med in Rio de Janeiro. What was Alicia’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $20,000
  2. B) $4,000
  3. C) $42,000
  4. D) $26,000
  5. E) $50,000

 

 

 

141) Bart Thunderheart has an annual income of $75,000 a year. He pays $25,000 in taxes and spends another $15,000 on his home, car, food, and other “necessities.” Last year, he decided to really enjoy his annual vacation, so he spent $5,000 to go skiing in Austria. What was Bart’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $20,000
  2. B) $5,000
  3. C) $35,000
  4. D) $30,000
  5. E) $50,000

142) Manuel Acala is a marketing analyst, but he made only $28,000 last year because he was employed only part of the year. He paid $5,000 in taxes and spent another $10,000 for food, housing, a car, and other “necessities.” Manuel’s discretionary income was

  1. A) $28,000.
  2. B) $13,000.
  3. C) $23,000.
  4. D) $18,000.
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

 

143) Kira Johannson’s salary as a sales rep was reduced to $32,000 last year, but she earned an additional $10,000 in sales commissions. Her tax bill was $14,000, and bills covering other necessities such as food, housing, and transportation amounted to $11,000. Kira’s discretionary income last year was

  1. A) $17,000.
  2. B) $11,000.
  3. C) $32,000.
  4. D) $28,000.
  5. E) $42,000.

 

144) Alberto Romez earned $100,000 last year as a Mercedes sales rep. He paid $10,000 in taxes and another $25,000 on food, housing, and other necessities. Alberto’s discretionary income was

  1. A) $75,000.
  2. B) $65,000.
  3. C) $55,000.
  4. D) $45,000.
  5. E) $35,000.

 

145) The economic-buyer theory

  1. A) says that most consumers do not know the economic value of the products they purchase.
  2. B) explains why people behave the way they do.
  3. C) includes psychological variables and social influences.
  4. D) is too simplistic to explain consumer behavior.
  5. E) assumes that consumers always buy the lowest-price alternative.

 

 

 

146) The economic-buyer model

  1. A) is seen as too simplistic by most marketing managers.
  2. B) assumes that consumers are affected by psychological variables and social influences.
  3. C) suggests that men and women behave differently as buyers.
  4. D) assumes that buyers don’t have enough information to make logical choices and, as a result, buy products that are not a good value.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

147) ADT commercials that advertise the value of having a home burglar alarm system appeals to consumers’

  1. A) personal needs.
  2. B) economic needs.
  3. C) social needs.
  4. D) safety needs.
  5. E) physiological needs.

 

148) Of the following, the firms most likely to attract consumers by making an appeal to social needs are

  1. A) tire companies.
  2. B) online dating sites.
  3. C) tax preparation services.
  4. D) banks.
  5. E) electric companies.

 

149) Many consumers mentally block out marketing messages that do not interest them. This phenomenon is part of a person’s

  1. A) motivation.
  2. B) needs.
  3. C) perception.
  4. D) attitudes.
  5. E) learning.

 

150) Marketers cannot assume that a product that meets consumer needs in one country will do so in another. This is because

  1. A) some people do not have physiological or safety needs.
  2. B) many needs are culturally learned.
  3. C) economic needs do not influence purchases in many regions of the world.
  4. D) the purchase situations may be different.
  5. E) family life cycles may be different.

 

151) ________ is one of the psychological variables that affects a person’s buying behavior.

  1. A) Perception
  2. B) Family
  3. C) Social class
  4. D) Reference groups
  5. E) Convenience

152) Which of the following lists includes only psychological variables that affect consumer buying?

  1. A) motivation, learning, perception, attitudes
  2. B) culture, learning, perception, attitudes
  3. C) culture, personality, perception, attitudes
  4. D) attitudes, personality, learning, culture
  5. E) perception, personality, learning, culture

 

153) Which of the following is NOT a psychological variable?

  1. A) attitudes
  2. B) social class
  3. C) motivation
  4. D) learning
  5. E) perception

 

154) Regarding consumer motivation, the text states that

  1. A) wants are the basic forces that motivate people to do something.
  2. B) all needs and wants are caused by drives.
  3. C) wants are learned needs.
  4. D) the terms needs and wants mean the same thing.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

155) What are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something?

  1. A) desires
  2. B) drives
  3. C) actions
  4. D) aspirations
  5. E) needs

 

156) Wants are

  1. A) an effort to satisfy a drive.
  2. B) more basic than needs.
  3. C) strong stimuli that encourage action to reduce a need.
  4. D) needs that are learned during a person’s life.
  5. E) unchanging during a person’s life.

 

157) Marci Bello is status-oriented. When she buys clothing she only considers items with well-known labels that her friends will notice. This behavior illustrates

  1. A) satisfaction of a need.
  2. B) satisfaction of a want.
  3. C) satisfaction of a belief.
  4. D) the economic buyer model of buyer behavior.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

 

158) A ________ is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce or satisfy a need.

  1. A) want
  2. B) motivation
  3. C) drive
  4. D) desire
  5. E) deed

 

159) When a consumer actually purchases a particular product, it is the direct result of a

  1. A) need.
  2. B) want.
  3. C) drive.
  4. D) desire for physical well-being.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

160) Good marketing managers know that

  1. A) marketing strategies can’t influence consumer “wants.”
  2. B) marketers can’t create internal drives in consumers.
  3. C) it is not that difficult to develop a marketing strategy that gets consumers to do what they don’t want to do.
  4. D) None of these answers is correct.

 

161) After working for 18 hours, Katrina arrived home exhausted and wanted to go straight to sleep. Katrina’s need to sleep is a ________ need.

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) social
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) behavioral
  5. E) emotional

 

162) Frustrated by a lack of freedom to make decisions at her work, Betty quit her job to find one with greater independence. What type of need motivated Betty’s actions?

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) social
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) economic
  5. E) cultural

 

163) The four-level PSSP hierarchy of needs includes

  1. A) psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, and personal needs.
  2. B) physiological needs, safety needs, personal needs, and social needs.
  3. C) psychological needs, financial needs, social needs, and personal needs.
  4. D) physiological needs, psychological needs, social needs, and financial needs.
  5. E) physiological needs, psychological needs, safety needs, and personal needs.

 

 

164) As ranked from lowest level to highest level, the hierarchy of needs model includes

  1. A) personal, social, safety, and physiological needs.
  2. B) physiological, safety, social, and personal needs.
  3. C) safety, personal, social, and psychological needs.
  4. D) social, personal, safety, and psychological needs.
  5. E) physiological, safety, personal, and social needs.

 

165) According to the hierarchy of needs model, the first needs most people try to satisfy are their ________ needs.

  1. A) safety
  2. B) personal
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) social
  5. E) Any of these may be correct, depending on the culture.

 

166) Physiological needs are concerned with

  1. A) protection and physical well-being.
  2. B) love, friendship, status, and esteem.
  3. C) an individual’s need for personal satisfaction.
  4. D) biological needs.
  5. E) responsibility and independence.

 

167) ________ needs are concerned with things that involve a person’s interaction with others.

  1. A) Physiological
  2. B) Safety
  3. C) Biological
  4. D) Personal
  5. E) Social

 

168) Needs such as accomplishment and relaxation, which are unrelated to what others think or do, are known as

  1. A) physiological needs.
  2. B) safety needs.
  3. C) social needs.
  4. D) personal needs.
  5. E) biological needs.

 

169) Which of the following are examples of personal needs?

  1. A) food, liquid, and rest
  2. B) accomplishment, fun, and freedom
  3. C) solutions, protection, and physical well-being
  4. D) love and friendship
  5. E) status and connecting with others

 

 

170) L’Oreal advertises its hair color with the popular tagline, “So it costs a bit more. But I’m worth it!” Here, L’Oreal’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social needs
  2. B) safety needs
  3. C) physiological needs
  4. D) personal needs

 

171) Newman’s Own (a salad dressing brand) donates 100 percent of its after-tax profits to progressive causes. Newman’s Own is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social needs
  2. B) personal needs
  3. C) safety needs
  4. D) physiological needs

 

172) Hallmark advertises its gift items with the popular tagline, “When you care enough to send the very best.” Here, the marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal
  5. E) psychological

 

173) Harley Owners Group connects motorcycle riders to one another. This group is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) safety
  2. B) physiological
  3. C) social
  4. D) personal

 

174) Allstate Insurance promotes its auto and home insurance by telling consumers, “You’re in good hands with Allstate.” Which of the following types of needs is Allstate trying to satisfy?

  1. A) personal needs
  2. B) social needs
  3. C) physiological needs
  4. D) safety needs
  5. E) behavioral needs

 

 

175) The American Heart Association promotes its awareness campaign with the popular tagline, “Learn and Live.” Here, The American Heart Association’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal

 

176) On its website, Tylenol identifies the top headache triggers and offers solutions to headache sufferers. Tylenol is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) physiological needs
  2. B) behavioral needs
  3. C) personal needs
  4. D) safety needs
  5. E) social needs

 

177) In the PSSP hierarchy of needs model, which level is illustrated by a Fidelity campaign on TV that proclaims its individual retirement account (IRA) is a sound investment for the future?

  1. A) personal needs
  2. B) physiological needs
  3. C) social needs
  4. D) safety needs

 

178) The Cleveland Water Department promotes its safe water with a catchy tagline, “The label says Fiji because it’s not bottled in Cleveland.” Here, the Cleveland Water Department’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) physiological
  2. B) social
  3. C) safety
  4. D) personal

 

179) The California Dairy Association promotes its milk campaign with the popular tagline, “Got milk?” Here, the California Dairy Association’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal
  5. E) psychological

180) In the PSSP hierarchy of needs model, which level is illustrated by a “Got Milk?” magazine campaign that encourages customers to drink more milk?

  1. A) physiological needs
  2. B) safety needs
  3. C) social needs
  4. D) personal needs

181) Which of the following statements about “needs” is true?

  1. A) A higher-level need may develop before lower-level needs are all satisfied.
  2. B) If lower-level needs are reasonably satisfied, those at higher levels become more dominant.
  3. C) A particular product may satisfy more than one need at the same time.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

 

182) When studying consumer needs, a marketer should

  1. A) know that a product may be a want or a need depending on what the consumer has learned during his or her life.
  2. B) try to understand how the marketing mix can satisfy a set of needs, rather than only one.
  3. C) realize that he or she cannot create needs, merely identify them.
  4. D) All these answers are correct.

 

183) ________ refers to how we gather and interpret information from the world around us.

  1. A) Retention
  2. B) Perception
  3. C) Attitude
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Lifestyle analysis

 

184) What selective processes are used in gathering and interpreting marketing stimuli around us?

  1. A) selective exposure, selective perception, and selective attention
  2. B) selective attention, selective perception, and selective retention
  3. C) selective exposure, selective attention, and selective reception
  4. D) selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention

 

185) Which of the following is NOT one of the selective processes?

  1. A) selective perception
  2. B) selective distribution
  3. C) selective exposure
  4. D) selective retention

186) The way our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us is called

  1. A) conscious cognition.
  2. B) selective exposure.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) preconscious perception.
  5. E) selective perception.

 

 

 

187) Selective ________ refers to processes that screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

  1. A) exposure
  2. B) learning
  3. C) retention
  4. D) attention
  5. E) perception

 

188) When consumers screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs, it is called

  1. A) cognitive perception.
  2. B) selective perception.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) conscious perception.
  5. E) selective exposure.

 

189) Consumers remembering only what they want to remember is called

  1. A) conscious response.
  2. B) selective retention.
  3. C) selective exposure.
  4. D) cognitive learning.
  5. E) selective perception.

 

190) While planning a vacation, Betty Jo visited the website of a package tour provider and closed a pop-up ad without even noticing what it was for. This is an example of selective

  1. A) retention.
  2. B) exposure.
  3. C) perception.
  4. D) learning.
  5. E) action.

191) When listening to music on the radio, many consumers automatically switch stations when commercials begin to run, and they search until they find another station that is playing music. This tendency is an example of selective

  1. A) exposure.
  2. B) perception.
  3. C) retention.
  4. D) learning.
  5. E) reception.

 

 

 

192) Tammi Soloft has itchy eyes and a stuffy nose, and she suddenly becomes aware of many TV ads for allergy products that she never noticed before. This illustrates selective

  1. A) exposure.
  2. B) perception.
  3. C) retention.
  4. D) cognition.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

193) Carmela Sanchez is planning to buy a pair of running shoes. Recently, she has been noticing more Adidas advertising in magazines. This is an example of

  1. A) a physiological need.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) need satisfaction.
  4. D) selective exposure.
  5. E) a consumer expectation.

 

194) On his way to a GM dealership to pick up a new truck he has purchased, Ian Mann hears a Ford ad that says that Ford trucks have more power than Chevy trucks. Ian thought that the ad said that the Chevys had more power. This illustrates

  1. A) selective perception.
  2. B) learning.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) reinforcement.
  5. E) selective exposure.

 

195) After his Political Science class, Andre only remembered the parts of his professor’s lecture that he agreed with. This is an example of selective

  1. A) retention.
  2. B) exposure.
  3. C) information.
  4. D) attention.
  5. E) action.

196) ________ is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience.

  1. A) Selective retention
  2. B) Processing
  3. C) Wanting
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Perception

 

197) Which of the following is NOT a major step in the learning process?

  1. A) dissonance
  2. B) drive
  3. C) response
  4. D) cues
  5. E) reinforcement

198) The order of the steps in the learning process is

  1. A) drive, cue, response, reinforcement.
  2. B) cue, response, drive, reinforcement.
  3. C) cue, response, reinforcement, drive.
  4. D) drive, response, reinforcement, cue.
  5. E) reinforcement, drive, cue, response.

 

199) Which of the following statements about the learning process is true?

  1. A) A cue is a strong stimulus that drives an individual.
  2. B) Learning occurs only when a drive is satisfied.
  3. C) Cues are the causes of drives.
  4. D) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between a cue and a response.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

200) Which of the following statements about learning is FALSE?

  1. A) Satisfaction with a product purchase is reinforcement.
  2. B) Repeated reinforcement is likely to lead to routine buying.
  3. C) A marketing manager can use a package as a cue.
  4. D) Reinforcement in the learning process weakens the relationship between a cue and a response.
  5. E) Almost all consumer behavior is learned.

 

201) Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is FALSE?

  1. A) Reinforcement of the learning process occurs when the response is followed by satisfaction.
  2. B) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.
  3. C) Reinforcement leads to satisfaction and an increase in the drive.
  4. D) Repeated reinforcement leads to development of a habit.
  5. E) If an experience is satisfactory, positive reinforcement occurs.

202) Which of the following observations about learning is FALSE?

  1. A) Learning is rarely based on direct experience.
  2. B) Consumer learning may result from things that marketers do.
  3. C) Learning can be based on indirect experience or associations.
  4. D) Consumer learning may result from stimuli that have nothing to do with marketing.
  5. E) Almost all consumer behavior is learned.

 

203) A movie theater runs a film clip that shows pictures of candy, popcorn, and soft drinks prior to running the featured movie. The intent is to get theater patrons to make purchases at the concession stand in the theater lobby. This process is an example of which of the following behavioral influences on buying behavior?

  1. A) attitudes
  2. B) beliefs
  3. C) selective processes
  4. D) learning
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

 

 

204) In the learning process, ________ can be in the form of products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment.

  1. A) reinforcement
  2. B) responses
  3. C) signals
  4. D) retention
  5. E) cues

 

205) Which of the following is an example of using a cue to attract consumers?

  1. A) using a label with red, white, and blue colors to stir patriotic feelings
  2. B) adding lemon scent to a soap
  3. C) using a package that looks like the one for a popular brand
  4. D) adding pine scent to a cleansing fluid
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

206) When Taco Bell shows a large close-up of a chicken taco in a television ad, it is

  1. A) encouraging selective retention.
  2. B) hoping to encourage extensive problem solving by the audience.
  3. C) appealing to the social needs of the audience.
  4. D) appealing to the economic needs of the audience.
  5. E) using a cue to encourage a particular response to the hunger drive.

207) A divorced dad commuting to work on a major highway notices a billboard for McDonald’s any-size $1 soft drink. This billboard is an example of a(n)

  1. A) reinforcement.
  2. B) response.
  3. C) drive.
  4. D) cue.
  5. E) attitude.

 

208) A grocery store sprays an aerosol scent that smells like fresh baked bread near its packaged bakery items. This is

  1. A) a case of a manager developing a need.
  2. B) likely to have no effect because selective retention will eliminate any effect of the smell.
  3. C) a case of linking a response with a drive.
  4. D) an example of trying to link a cue with a marketing mix.
  5. E) a violation of the selective processes.

 

209) An attitude is

  1. A) the same as an intention to buy.
  2. B) a person’s point of view about something.
  3. C) easy to change.
  4. D) the same as a belief.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

 

 

210) A(n) ________ is a person’s point of view toward a product, an advertisement, a salesperson, a firm, or an idea.

  1. A) attitude
  2. B) belief
  3. C) preference
  4. D) impression
  5. E) cue

 

211) Attitudes are

  1. A) things we believe strongly enough to be willing to take some action.
  2. B) more action-oriented than beliefs.
  3. C) reasonably enduring points of view about something.
  4. D) usually thought of as involving liking or disliking.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

212) Which of the following statements about consumer buying behavior is true?

  1. A) Attitudes affect the selective processes, learning, and buying decisions.
  2. B) Many consumers with a favorable attitude toward a product may have no intention to buy it.
  3. C) Beliefs are less action-oriented than attitudes.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

213) Some marketers stretch the meaning of “attitude” to include

  1. A) intention to buy.
  2. B) needs.
  3. C) beliefs.
  4. D) psychographics.
  5. E) actual purchasing behavior.

 

214) Consumers’ attitudes can be learned from

  1. A) exposure to the attitudes of others.
  2. B) promotion that is directed toward them.
  3. C) previous experiences.
  4. D) family and friends.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

215) Which of the following observations concerning beliefs is FALSE?

  1. A) Beliefs don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.
  2. B) A belief is a person’s opinion about something.
  3. C) Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes.
  4. D) Beliefs are more action-oriented than attitudes.

 

 

 

216) The statement “I like Southwest Air” is an example of a(n)

  1. A) belief.
  2. B) intention.
  3. C) attitude.
  4. D) drive.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

217) The statement “Almond Joy is made with real almonds” is an example of a(n)

  1. A) belief.
  2. B) intention.
  3. C) attitude.
  4. D) cue.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

218) The statement “I plan to see the new Tom Hanks movie” is an example of

  1. A) a drive.
  2. B) reinforcement.
  3. C) an attitude.
  4. D) a belief.
  5. E) an intention.

219) Which of the following would be the most difficult task facing a marketing manager?

  1. A) discovering the attitudes of the firm’s target market
  2. B) changing existing negative attitudes
  3. C) creating new attitudes toward his or her brand
  4. D) promoting existing attitudes
  5. E) strengthening existing positive attitudes

 

220) When dealing with consumer attitudes, marketers should know that

  1. A) it is usually easier to change a negative attitude about a product than to reinforce a positive attitude.
  2. B) consumer attitudes tend to be enduring.
  3. C) attitudes are very good predictors of how people will behave.
  4. D) consumer attitudes are less action-oriented than consumer beliefs.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

221) A(n) ________ is an outcome or event that a person anticipates or looks forward to.

  1. A) response
  2. B) need
  3. C) desire
  4. D) expectation
  5. E) attitude

 

 

 

222) An expectation is

  1. A) an event that a person likes to remember.
  2. B) a positive cue.
  3. C) an unfulfilled need.
  4. D) an outcome that a person looks forward to.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

223) Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of

  1. A) another person.
  2. B) a brand.
  3. C) a company.
  4. D) a recommender.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

224) Psychographics may also be called

  1. A) personality analytics.
  2. B) social group dynamics.
  3. C) lifestyle analysis.
  4. D) opinion insight.
  5. E) attitude measures.

225) The AIO items used in lifestyle analysis include

  1. A) activities, intentions, and opinions.
  2. B) attitudes, intentions, and opinions.
  3. C) attitudes, income, and opinions.
  4. D) activities, interests, and opinions.
  5. E) attitudes, interests, and opinions.

 

226) Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, analyzes an individual’s

  1. A) opinions.
  2. B) demographics.
  3. C) activities.
  4. D) interests.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

227) Psychographics is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s

  1. A) safety, social, and personal needs.
  2. B) actions, interests, and occupation.
  3. C) activities, interests, and opinions.
  4. D) culture, beliefs, and attitudes.
  5. E) psychological and physiological needs.

 

 

 

228) Studying a consumer’s psychographic characteristics will help marketers understand the target audience’s hobbies, politics, and

  1. A) geographic area.
  2. B) age bracket.
  3. C) family size.
  4. D) income level.
  5. E) recreational interests.

 

229) In psychographics AIO analysis, all of the following are examples of activities EXCEPT

  1. A) age.
  2. B) entertainment.
  3. C) club membership.
  4. D) shopping.
  5. E) hobbies.

 

230) Consumer buying behavior is affected by

  1. A) opinion leaders.
  2. B) social class.
  3. C) physiological, safety, social, and personal needs.
  4. D) reference groups.
  5. E) All of these affect consumer buying behavior.

231) Which of the following social influences will likely have the greatest impact on a teenager’s purchase of a skateboard?

  1. A) family
  2. B) reference group
  3. C) culture
  4. D) ethnic group
  5. E) social class

 

232) Parents who spent years limiting purchases to home necessities and kids’ entertainment often embrace more luxury-oriented buying patterns later in life. This phenomenon is related to

  1. A) changes in purchase situation.
  2. B) selective retention.
  3. C) reinforcement.
  4. D) changed physiological needs.
  5. E) empty nester behavior.

 

233) The inclusion of multiple language options in automated bank teller machines illustrates how some marketers are responding to

  1. A) the growing singles market.
  2. B) emerging reference groups.
  3. C) situational buying.
  4. D) growing ethnic groups.
  5. E) social class fragmentation.

 

234) Marketers increasingly hire celebrities and even full-time bloggers to engage consumers in social media discussions about new products. A person who is able to influence followers to try products is a(n)

  1. A) channel captain.
  2. B) consumer advocate.
  3. C) marketer.
  4. D) figurehead.
  5. E) opinion leader.

 

235) ________ is a social influence that affects a person’s buying behavior.

  1. A) Perception
  2. B) Family
  3. C) Motivation
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Attitude

236) Which of the following dimensions affects family spending?

  1. A) income
  2. B) age of children
  3. C) age of the couple
  4. D) marital status
  5. E) All these dimensions affect family spending.

 

237) Which of the following is NOT a stage in the traditional flow of the family life cycle?

  1. A) young single
  2. B) young married without children
  3. C) young divorced with children
  4. D) middle-aged married without dependent children
  5. E) young married with children

 

238) The traditional family flow, according to the family life cycle, does NOT include people who are

  1. A) middle-aged divorced without dependent children.
  2. B) young married with children.
  3. C) middle-aged married with children.
  4. D) middle-aged married without dependent children.
  5. E) young married without children.

 

239) Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) Divorced families usually have more discretionary income than traditional families.
  2. B) Singles and young couples are less willing to try new products than are older couples.
  3. C) Empty nesters are frequently big spenders.
  4. D) Buying responsibility and influence vary little from one family to another.
  5. E) None of these statements is true.

 

 

 

240) Of the following, which are the most receptive to new products and new brands?

  1. A) families with small children
  2. B) older people with no children
  3. C) families with teenagers
  4. D) families whose children are grown
  5. E) younger people with no children

 

241) Of the following, which are the most receptive to new products and new brands?

  1. A) young people
  2. B) senior citizens
  3. C) empty nesters
  4. D) middle-aged people
  5. E) All are equally receptive to new products and new brands.

242) Regarding the family life cycle, singles and younger couples without children

  1. A) are more willing to try new products and brands.
  2. B) tend to be carefree shoppers who are not very price-conscious.
  3. C) often wait to buy basic durable goods until they have children.
  4. D) feel more financially squeezed than couples with young children.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

243) Ted and Amy Balderas were married last year, at age 24. They have no children, and both are currently working hard to build their careers. Couples like Ted and Amy

  1. A) are likely to be a poor target for firms that are trying to market a new brand or new product concept.
  2. B) usually focus on buying durables, such as furniture and appliances.
  3. C) usually don’t spend money on discretionary purchases.
  4. D) are unlikely to be careful, price-conscious shoppers.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

244) Which of the following statements is NOT true of the effect of marital status, age, and the age of any children in the family on how people spend their income.

  1. A) Singles and young couples are more willing than older married people to try new products and brands.
  2. B) Younger people usually earn more than older consumers but spend less on discretionary items.
  3. C) Only as children arrive and grow does family spending shift to soft goods and services.
  4. D) Young families with children often make more purchases on credit and save less of their income.

 

245) Teenagers

  1. A) have no influence on the buying behavior of their parents.
  2. B) are not an attractive market because they do not spend much money.
  3. C) have become a target for many firms.
  4. D) have essentially the same buying habits as they had before reaching their teen years.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

246) American teenagers

  1. A) are not interested in expensive clothes.
  2. B) are not involved in shopping.
  3. C) currently spend around $200 billion a year.
  4. D) develop recreation and education needs that are easy on the family budget.
  5. E) do not influence family purchases.

247) U.S. teenagers spend about ________ per year.

  1. A) $100 billion
  2. B) $150 billion
  3. C) $200 billion
  4. D) $250 billion
  5. E) $300 billion

 

248) Empty nesters

  1. A) are senior citizens.
  2. B) are people over 65 who live alone.
  3. C) often have high incomes and fewer required expenses.
  4. D) are singles and couples without children who have much discretionary income.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

249) Empty nesters

  1. A) are usually in the 30 to 44 age group.
  2. B) are not an attractive market for any items.
  3. C) spend a larger percentage of their income on child care.
  4. D) are people whose children are grown.
  5. E) disrupt the family life-cycle pattern.

 

250) HomeFront Construction Company built large, single-family homes for 25 years. Then there was a shift toward more demand for small luxury condominiums, and HomeFront changed its focus. The change in demand could be explained by

  1. A) the increasing number of empty nesters.
  2. B) the fact that consumers in urban areas generally have higher incomes.
  3. C) the increasing number of people whose children are grown.
  4. D) All these explanations could be relevant.

 

251) Current consumer research suggests that the family’s purchasing agent is now the

  1. A) husband.
  2. B) child or children.
  3. C) wife.
  4. D) It varies depending on the product and the family.

 

 

 

252) Peter Janca noticed, during his weekly grocery shopping, that 7-Up was on sale. Even though he could have saved money with the 7-Up, Peter bought Mountain Dew because that’s the brand his children prefer. Peter was responding to

  1. A) selective exposure.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) a marketing influence.
  4. D) a social influence.
  5. E) a drive.

253) Your social class level does NOT depend directly on your

  1. A) housing location.
  2. B) income level.
  3. C) occupation.
  4. D) education.
  5. E) type of housing.

 

254) The social class system in the United States

  1. A) does not affect how people spend, but it does affect how they save.
  2. B) may put people with the same income level in different social classes.
  3. C) is based on a person’s educational level.
  4. D) is much more rigid than in Europe and Asia.
  5. E) does not affect people’s attitudes.

 

255) Social class in the U.S. is usually measured in terms of

  1. A) income.
  2. B) occupation, education, and housing arrangements.
  3. C) income, occupation, and education.
  4. D) race, religion, and occupation.
  5. E) income, occupation, and religion.

 

256) In the United States, social class groupings are typically based on all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) type of housing.
  2. B) education.
  3. C) community participation.
  4. D) occupation.
  5. E) location of housing.

 

257) Which of the following statements about social class is FALSE?

  1. A) The various classes tend to have different attitudes.
  2. B) The various classes tend to save money in different ways.
  3. C) Income by itself can be a pretty good measure of social class.
  4. D) The various classes tend to have different beliefs.
  5. E) The various classes tend to borrow money in different ways.

 

 

 

258) Which of the following statements concerning social class is FALSE?

  1. A) Income by itself is usually a good measure of social class.
  2. B) In most countries, social class is closely related to a person’s occupation.
  3. C) In most countries, there is a general relationship between income level and social class.
  4. D) Almost every society has some social class structure.
  5. E) The U.S. class system is far less rigid than the class systems in most other countries.

259) Which of the following statements about social class is FALSE?

  1. A) People in different social classes tend to have different beliefs and feelings.
  2. B) People with the same income level are always in the same social class.
  3. C) Variables such as occupation, education, and type of housing form the basis of simple approaches for measuring social class.
  4. D) The U.S. class system is far less rigid than the class systems in most other countries.

 

260) ________ refers to the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

  1. A) Family
  2. B) Social class
  3. C) Ethnic group
  4. D) Focus group
  5. E) Reference group

 

261) Which of the following statements about reference groups is true?

  1. A) Reference group influence is so strong that a person normally has only one.
  2. B) Reference group influence is greatest for older people.
  3. C) Reference group influence is equally strong for all products and brands.
  4. D) Reference group members may not even know the people who influence their values and attitudes.
  5. E) None of these statements is true.

 

262) A good marketing manager knows that

  1. A) a consumer’s reference group may consist of people with whom the consumer has no face-to-face contact.
  2. B) most consumers have only one reference group.
  3. C) a consumer’s family is not a reference group.
  4. D) reference groups usually have the most influence on purchases of products that are not easily seen by others.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

263) Which of the following observations about reference groups is FALSE?

  1. A) Reference groups are people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.
  2. B) An individual usually has a single reference group for all topics.
  3. C) An individual may make buying decisions based on what the group thinks.
  4. D) Reference group influence is stronger for products that others “see.”
  5. E) Reference group influence is stronger for products that relate to status in the group.

264) Reference group influence would be WEAKEST for determining which particular ________ a person buys.

  1. A) watch
  2. B) cosmetics
  3. C) clothing
  4. D) laundry soap
  5. E) car

 

265) Reference group influence is likely to have the strongest effect on the particular brand of ________ purchased.

  1. A) dishwasher detergent
  2. B) frozen peas
  3. C) batteries
  4. D) watch
  5. E) Reference group influence would be about the same for each of these products.

 

266) Natasha Talbott was interested in a new set of golf clubs. She discussed the various types with some knowledgeable friends and relied on their advice. Natasha’s friends were acting as

  1. A) an economic influence.
  2. B) routinized decision-makers.
  3. C) a social class.
  4. D) a lifestyle group.
  5. E) a reference group.

 

267) In the Jockey underwear ads showing young people on the beach and the slogan, “Let ’em know you’re Jockey,” the company is hoping to use ________ groups to influence consumer behavior.

  1. A) cultural
  2. B) family
  3. C) opinion
  4. D) reference
  5. E) social

 

268) When Ariat gave boots away to popular rodeo riders, other riders began asking for the Ariat brand, and Western stores were eager to sell the boots. Ariat used ________ groups to influence consumer behavior.

  1. A) social
  2. B) family
  3. C) reference
  4. D) cultural
  5. E) opinion

 

 

269) Opinion leaders are

  1. A) usually better educated than others.
  2. B) usually wealthier than others.
  3. C) people who influence others.
  4. D) rarely involved in product-related discussions with the people who “follow” them.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

270) Which of the following statements about opinion leaders is true?

  1. A) Opinion leaders are usually wealthier and better educated than others.
  2. B) Opinion leaders on one subject aren’t necessarily opinion leaders on another.
  3. C) Firms always aim their marketing mixes at general consumers, not opinion leaders.
  4. D) Favorable publicity from opinion leaders rarely helps a marketing mix.
  5. E) Opinion leaders are the same as reference groups.

 

271) Which of the following is true of the impact that social media has on the consumer decision process?

  1. A) Marketing managers have direct control over social media influences.
  2. B) Social media limits consumers’ exposure to a wide range of reference groups.
  3. C) Social media amplifies the voices of opinion leaders.
  4. D) Consumer adoption of the web and social media has had no significant effect on the consumer decision process.
  5. E) Marketing managers do not need to monitor the use of social media by opinion leaders.

 

272) Which of the following examples illustrates social media’s amplification of the voice of opinion leaders?

  1. A) an e-commerce site providing attractive offers to its regular customers
  2. B) a retail store announcing a sweepstake on its company website
  3. C) a seasoned tourist posting a long, detailed, positive review at Hotels.com
  4. D) a podcast that receives thousand views and hits
  5. E) a brand sending a message about Twitter to its followers

 

273) A group of new-generation mothers blogging about products they like and dislike attracts a lot of readers, mainly those who are expecting a baby. These new-generation mothers are examples of

  1. A) message mediators.
  2. B) gatekeepers.
  3. C) liaisons.
  4. D) opinion leaders.
  5. E) category captains.

274) Websites use artificial intelligence to make recommendations by

  1. A) analyzing shopping behaviors.
  2. B) leveraging social influence.
  3. C) using social influencers.
  4. D) engaging opinion leaders.
  5. E) targeting reference groups.

275) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous group of people is a(n)

  1. A) culture.
  2. B) family.
  3. C) evoked set.
  4. D) social class.
  5. E) reference group.

 

276) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people is a(n)

  1. A) tradition.
  2. B) class.
  3. C) society.
  4. D) culture.
  5. E) ethnicity.

 

277) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people is called a(n)

  1. A) personal environment.
  2. B) culture.
  3. C) motivation.
  4. D) learned set.
  5. E) opinion set.

 

278) Which of the following statements about culture and consumer behavior is true?

  1. A) Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.
  2. B) Culture may exert many subtle influences on other aspects of consumer behavior.
  3. C) Different cultural subgroups are likely to require different marketing mixes.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

 

279) People from different ethnic groups

  1. A) create challenges for marketers, not opportunities.
  2. B) do not play an important role in the American marketplace.
  3. C) may be influenced by very different cultural variables.
  4. D) have common needs.
  5. E) have similar ways of thinking.

 

 

280) Which of the following statements is true of culture and international markets?

  1. A) Assuming cultural homogeneity across nations almost guarantees success in international markets.
  2. B) Planning strategies that consider cultural differences in international markets are simple and straightforward.
  3. C) Treating each foreign market as a separate market with its own submarkets and culture is a useful method in marketing.
  4. D) General human tendencies do not vary across cultures; therefore it is insignificant to consider cultural differences in international markets.
  5. E) Ignoring cultural differences is almost a guarantee of success in international markets.

 

281) U.S.-based Myva Foods Inc. is expanding its business to the Asian market. Which of the following will NOT be effective in the company’s efforts to expand to international markets?

  1. A) paying close attention to the cultural differences between Myva’s home country and the host countries
  2. B) finding new ways to blend the Four Ps of the marketing mix in the new market by making an effort to understand the local culture
  3. C) applying the same marketing mix Myva uses in the U.S. market to the Asian market
  4. D) putting more effort into planning strategies for the international markets, even though it has experienced success in the U.S. market

 

282) Which of the following statements regarding ethnic shifts in the American market is true?

  1. A) Estimates indicate that by 2019 the buying power of Hispanics will exceed a trillion and half dollars.
  2. B) Estimates indicate that by 2019 the buying power of African Americans will exceed 1 trillion dollars.
  3. C) Estimates indicate that by 2018 Asian Americans will have 1 trillion dollars in buying power.
  4. D) The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

283) Which of the following statements about ethnic dimensions of the U.S. market is true?

  1. A) Ethnic groups buy differently and have different needs.
  2. B) Many firms make the mistake of treating all consumers in an ethnic group as a single group.
  3. C) The number of ethnic consumers is growing at a faster rate than the overall society.
  4. D) The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

 

284) Ethnic markets are becoming more important to marketers because

  1. A) the buying power of ethnic submarkets has been decreasing.
  2. B) the median age of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics is much higher than that of whites.
  3. C) the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a much faster rate than the overall society.
  4. D) they make a clear segment with similar backgrounds and common language, religion, and culture.
  5. E) the birthrate of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics is lower than that of whites.

 

285) Which of the following statements by marketing managers is NOT logical and true?

  1. A) “We are planning to appeal more to Hispanic consumers, since this group has surged and is now over 15 percent of the population.”
  2. B) “We’re building supermarkets that will appeal to Hispanic consumers; it’s a big investment, but the Hispanic population in the U.S. spends more than $1 trillion a year.”
  3. C) “We are adapting our diaper promotion to target African American and Hispanic parents, since the birthrate in those groups is higher than for whites.”
  4. D) “We will target Asian Americans in California, New York, and Texas, since over half of their population in the U.S. is concentrated in those three states.”
  5. E) “We are going to appeal to the African American group because it is a large, homogeneous target market.”

 

286) The largest ethnic minority group in the United States is composed of

  1. A) African Americans.
  2. B) Asian Americans.
  3. C) Native Americans.
  4. D) Polish Americans.
  5. E) Hispanics.

 

287) Which of the followings statements about the Hispanic population is FALSE?

  1. A) More than half of all Hispanics in the United States live in three states.
  2. B) In 2015, over 25 percent of the U.S. population was Hispanic.
  3. C) In 2015, the Hispanic population of the United States was 56.6 million.
  4. D) Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States.
  5. E) By 2019, the buying power of U.S. Hispanics will exceed $1.5 trillion.

 

288) Compared to the other major ethnic groups in the United States, which of the following would an African American consumer be more likely to buy?

  1. A) a product tied to cultural traditions
  2. B) fragrances
  3. C) electronic goods
  4. D) dried grains
  5. E) a product sold online

 

 

289) Which of the following statements about Asian Americans is FALSE?

  1. A) Asian Americans are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States.
  2. B) One-third of all Asian Americans live in California.
  3. C) Asian Americans have the highest average household income of the major ethnic groups.
  4. D) Asian Americans make up 6 percent of the U.S. population.
  5. E) Asian Americans disproportionately buy more fresh produce, organic foods, and electronic goods, as compared with other groups.

 

290) A college student on her way to take an exam remembers that she doesn’t have a pencil with an eraser, which the instructor asked everyone to bring. The store where she stops doesn’t have regular pencils, but it does sell Scripto mechanical pencils priced at $2.95. That is what she buys. This case illustrates the effect of

  1. A) the personal environment.
  2. B) culture.
  3. C) the purchase situation.
  4. D) the learned set.
  5. E) dissonance.

 

291) A person who purchases flowers will select different floral arrangements for a retirement party, a funeral, and a Valentine’s Day date. This illustrates the impact of ________ on purchase decisions.

  1. A) economic needs
  2. B) psychological variables
  3. C) social influences
  4. D) the purchase situation
  5. E) extensive problem solving

 

292) Which of the following illustrates time and surroundings as factors of the purchase situation that can greatly stimulate buying behavior?

  1. A) routine trip to grocery store
  2. B) using mass transit to travel to and from work
  3. C) Black Friday shopping
  4. D) buying online
  5. E) paying a monthly cell phone bill

293) A salesperson driving to visit a client located two hours away has a tire blow out on the highway. He walks about a mile to the next exit, where he finds a service station. The owner of the station says he can replace the blown tire, but it will cost twice as much as it would to purchase a tire in the salesperson’s home city. The salesperson, not wanting to be late for his appointment, agrees to pay the higher price in order to get back on the road. This case illustrates the effect of ________ on buying behavior.

  1. A) cultural background
  2. B) social groups
  3. C) the purchase situation
  4. D) the learning situation
  5. E) reference groups

294) ________ is a time-related factor.

  1. A) Demographic intensity
  2. B) Urgency of a need
  3. C) Environmental viability
  4. D) Economy of purchase
  5. E) Sociological interest

 

295) When the need for a product or service is urgent, customers are

  1. A) less inclined to evaluate a range of options.
  2. B) more likely to downplay convenience.
  3. C) less likely to be stimulated by impulse.
  4. D) more likely to be involved in extensive problem solving.
  5. E) more likely to extend the adoption process.

 

296) In which of the following situations is time influencing the purchase situation the most?

  1. A) Jiah purchases a gift for his mother after viewing an online offer.
  2. B) Henry visits a discount store to compare the store’s pricing with other regular stores before purchasing a lawn mower.
  3. C) Kelly visits the city’s central mall and checks various brands of sunglasses before she decides to purchase one from the Lanezone brand.
  4. D) Beulah, on her way to work, realizes that her car has a flat tire. She gets it fixed at the nearest auto service station without evaluating other alternatives.
  5. E) Ronaldo reviews websites and a consumer magazine as he considers buying a new television.

297) An on-site auction may stimulate a different response than an online auction. This is an example of ________ affecting the purchase decision.

  1. A) demographics
  2. B) time
  3. C) surroundings
  4. D) task
  5. E) culture

 

298) The consumer decision process begins with

  1. A) a routinized response.
  2. B) need awareness.
  3. C) information search.
  4. D) problem solving.
  5. E) alternative evaluation.

 

299) For a home-based purchase of a furnace, the consumer decision process typically begins when

  1. A) home heating commercials create product awareness.
  2. B) a furnace sale is advertised in coupon mailings.
  3. C) the first cold day of winter sets in.
  4. D) a malfunction occurs in an older furnace.
  5. E) ten years have passed since the last purchase.

300) Which of the following would have the LEAST influence on a consumer purchase of a 5-gallon waterproof sealant for wood decks and fences?

  1. A) the purchase situation
  2. B) social influences
  3. C) economic needs
  4. D) psychological variables
  5. E) opinion of an opinion leader

 

301) A consumer who seeks to purchase an HDTV for the first time for a home entertainment theater is likely to

  1. A) use a routinized response behavior.
  2. B) engage in limited problem solving.
  3. C) engage in extensive problem solving.
  4. D) make a low-involvement purchase.
  5. E) seek the brand with the lowest prices.

302) Which of the following is an important problem-solving step for a consumer trying to satisfy a need?

  1. A) search for information
  2. B) identify alternatives
  3. C) set criteria
  4. D) evaluate alternatives
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

303) When consumers use a problem-solving process to make purchase decisions, what is the next step after they become aware of a problem?

  1. A) evaluating alternative solutions
  2. B) gathering information about possible solutions
  3. C) deciding on the appropriate solution
  4. D) evaluating the decision
  5. E) making the commitment to purchase a particular product or service

 

304) Alejandro Allende needs a new computer. He is researching the different brands by talking to friends, discussing it with his company’s IT department, and looking at different computer-company websites. In terms of consumer problem solving, Alejandro is

  1. A) searching for information.
  2. B) identifying alternatives.
  3. C) setting criteria.
  4. D) evaluating alternatives.
  5. E) recognizing needs.

 

 

 

305) Which of the following is NOT one of the levels of consumer problem solving discussed in the text?

  1. A) dissonance problem solving
  2. B) routinized response behavior
  3. C) extensive problem solving
  4. D) limited problem solving

 

306) When a consumer puts much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, the consumer engages in

  1. A) extensive problem solving.
  2. B) critical problem solving.
  3. C) routinized response behavior.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) intensive problem solving.

307) What is the likely level of involvement in a purchase decision for a new couch?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) low
  4. D) moderate
  5. E) routine

 

308) Extensive problem solving probably would be required by a recent college graduate in the purchase of

  1. A) living room furniture.
  2. B) a color TV set.
  3. C) a new home.
  4. D) a sports car.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

309) Extensive problem solving probably would NOT be required by young newlyweds in the purchase of a

  1. A) stereo system.
  2. B) soft drink.
  3. C) home.
  4. D) DVD player.
  5. E) car.

 

 

 

310) Lars Sorenson is a college student who needs to purchase a suit for job interviews. In the past his father has helped him buy suits. This time, he is the sole decision maker and is paying for the $450 suit with money he earned at his part-time job. Lars is concerned about good fit and good value, so he visits several stores before making his purchase. For Lars, this situation seems to be one of

  1. A) routinized response behavior.
  2. B) low-involvement purchasing.
  3. C) extensive problem solving.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) adoption purchasing.

 

311) Chelsea is buying her first flat panel television. She wants to make the right decision, so she consults several websites for product reviews, talks to friends and salespeople at electronics stores, determines several key criteria, and evaluates six different sets. For her flat panel purchase, Chelsea has used

  1. A) extensive problem solving.
  2. B) a focused information search.
  3. C) routinized response behavior.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) low-involvement buying.

312) Limited problem solving is used

  1. A) when consumers put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.
  2. B) for purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.
  3. C) by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.
  4. D) when consumers regularly select a particular way of satisfying a need when it occurs.
  5. E) mostly for impulse purchases.

 

313) Monica does not find her regular brand of shampoo at the store. She looks at the bottles of three other brands before deciding on the Shine-On brand. Monica has engaged in ________ problem solving.

  1. A) limited
  2. B) intensive
  3. C) routinized
  4. D) extensive
  5. E) analytical

 

314) What is the likely level of involvement in a purchase decision for a small kitchen appliance?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) low
  4. D) moderate
  5. E) routine

 

 

 

315) The purchase of which of the following items involves routinized response behavior?

  1. A) a laptop
  2. B) a mattress
  3. C) a new suit
  4. D) a silver ring
  5. E) a fast-food restaurant meal

 

316) Limited problem solving probably would be required by empty nesters in the purchase of

  1. A) sports clothes.
  2. B) a restaurant’s services.
  3. C) a plumbing repair service.
  4. D) a replacement garbage disposer.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

317) Eddie Falco went to a grocery store to buy his favorite brand of ice cream; however, the store was temporarily out of that brand, so he looked over the other familiar brands and decided to try one that is well-advertised. This case illustrates

  1. A) routinized response behavior.
  2. B) intensive problem solving.
  3. C) limited problem solving.
  4. D) extensive problem solving.
  5. E) low-involvement behavior.

 

318) Which type of problem solving is typical for a low-involvement purchase?

  1. A) extensive problem solving
  2. B) critical problem solving
  3. C) limited problem solving
  4. D) intensive problem solving
  5. E) routinized response behavior

 

319) Routinized response behavior

  1. A) is most likely when past purchases of similar products have not satisfied the consumer’s needs.
  2. B) is more likely when previous behavior has not yet been reinforced.
  3. C) is most common for purchases where the consumer has much experience in how to meet a need.
  4. D) increases the time required to make a purchase decision.
  5. E) is likely in a new purchase situation.

 

 

 

320) More than 600,000 loyal customers signed up in advance to purchase the iPhone 8 in an Apple store the first day it was available for sale in the U.S. What type of response behavior were these Apple followers demonstrating?

  1. A) low-involvement buying
  2. B) limited problem solving
  3. C) extensive problem solving
  4. D) routinized response
  5. E) dissonance response

 

321) When Corey runs out of shampoo, he buys whatever brand is on sale at his local CVS drugstore. What is his level of involvement in the purchase decision for shampoo?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) moderate
  4. D) modest
  5. E) routine

322) Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an example of routinized response behavior?

  1. A) buying a Coke
  2. B) purchasing a new pair of shoes
  3. C) buying soap at a convenient supercenter
  4. D) buying a burrito at Taco Bell
  5. E) filling the car with gasoline

 

323) Routinized response behavior would probably be used by many consumers in the purchase of

  1. A) soap.
  2. B) canned fruit.
  3. C) salt.
  4. D) milk.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

324) Which of the following products would probably involve the lowest-involvement purchase for most consumers?

  1. A) paper towels
  2. B) summer vacation
  3. C) smartphone
  4. D) sweater
  5. E) cough syrup

 

325) Dissonance is a

  1. A) tension caused by uncertainty about the rightness of a decision.
  2. B) conflict between opinion leaders.
  3. C) confirmation in the learning process.
  4. D) kind of belief.
  5. E) form of social influence.

326) Which of the following is true of dissonance?

  1. A) It discourages a consumer from considering information once a purchase is made.
  2. B) It is likely to result in a consumer buying the same product next time.
  3. C) It is more likely to occur with low-involvement products.
  4. D) It is less likely to occur when a consumer has repeatedly purchased the same product.
  5. E) It occurs in the adoption process after a consumer becomes interested in a product.

327) Laurie Michaels just bought a smartphone after spending several weeks considering all the possibilities. She likes the new phone, but she still wonders if another brand at a slightly higher price would have been better. This is an example of

  1. A) the relationships among drives, cues, and reinforcement.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) a reference group influence.
  4. D) the stimulus-response reaction.
  5. E) routinized response behavior.

 

328) After buying an expensive new mobile phone, Kevin experiences ________ when he has second thoughts and wonders if he made the right choice.

  1. A) attitude adjustment
  2. B) variance
  3. C) conflict
  4. D) dissonance
  5. E) evaluation

 

329) Billy Longstreet bought a new car and was a bit uncertain about whether or not he had done the right thing. Two days after he purchased it, he decided to take it back to the dealer for installation of some additional optional equipment. When Billy returned to the dealership to pick up the car after the installation, the salesman who sold Billy the car said, “You know, in the last two hours three different customers told me how much they liked the looks of your new car. One of them even wanted to know if it was for sale!” This attempt by the salesman to confirm the wisdom of Billy’s purchase decision seems to be aimed at reducing

  1. A) post-purchase regret.
  2. B) reference group influence.
  3. C) adoption jitters.
  4. D) a stimulus-response reaction.
  5. E) dissonance.

 

330) A consumer who purchases a new computer but encounters frustration with set up and technical support may experience

  1. A) limited problem solving.
  2. B) extensive problem solving.
  3. C) dissonance.
  4. D) evaluation.
  5. E) an information search.

 

 

331) For a long time, Jessica felt disappointment over a new pair of jeans that never fit quite right. Jessica experienced

  1. A) high-involvement purchasing.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) post-purchase regret.
  4. D) confirmation.
  5. E) selective feedback.

 

332) Which of the following refers to a marketer countering negative publicity to save a product’s image?

  1. A) perceptual mapping
  2. B) dissonance process
  3. C) adoption process
  4. D) information filtering
  5. E) damage control

 

333) Damage control is important for marketers because

  1. A) the Internet limits the rights of people to share their opinions about a product or service with a large audience.
  2. B) many consumers share opinions about their good and bad experiences with a product or service.
  3. C) consumers are more likely to share stories about being satisfied than dissatisfied.
  4. D) recommendations from friends and family have no effect on consumers’ purchase choices.
  5. E) car wrecks can be caused by shopping while driving.

 

334) Many firms use ________ to evaluate data in an attempt to forecast unknown future events.

  1. A) predictive analytics
  2. B) psychographics
  3. C) selective exposure
  4. D) market segmentation
  5. E) clustering techniques

 

335) Which of the following is an example of the use of predictive analytics?

  1. A) Spotify recommends a new artist based on past listening history.
  2. B) Dropbox introduces online storage to a target market.
  3. C) Netflix unveils a new advertising campaign to differentiate itself from its competitors.
  4. D) An in-store promotion makes sure that Hershey’s candy is put at point-of-purchase locations throughout the store.
  5. E) Sales associates at Nordstrom check out customers through the use of handheld devices so that customers do not need to wait in line.

 

 

336) Predictive analytics is used to

  1. A) anticipate outcomes.
  2. B) adopt ideas.
  3. C) confirm decisions.
  4. D) reduce dissonance.
  5. E) reinforce behavior.

 

337) The steps individuals go through in accepting or rejecting a new idea are known as

  1. A) the adoption process.
  2. B) the dissonance process.
  3. C) belief formation.
  4. D) information search.
  5. E) extensive problem solving.

 

338) A consumer who is interested in making the switch from a desktop computer to a tablet computer may require a prolonged learning and trial process known as

  1. A) the consumer decision process.
  2. B) limited problem solving.
  3. C) the adoption process.
  4. D) selective exposure.
  5. E) lifestyle analysis.

 

339) In the adoption process, an individual moves through six definite steps. These steps are

  1. A) awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  2. B) awareness, interest, involvement, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  3. C) involvement, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  4. D) evaluation, interest, awareness, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  5. E) evaluation, interest, involvement, trial, decision, and confirmation.

 

340) Which of the following gives the correct order of the steps in the adoption process?

  1. A) interest, awareness, trial, decision, evaluation, dissonance
  2. B) awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, confirmation
  3. C) awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, decision, dissonance
  4. D) awareness, interest, trial, decision, evaluation, confirmation
  5. E) awareness, interest, evaluation, decision, trial, confirmation

 

341) Consumers go through six steps when deciding to accept or reject a new idea. In this adoption process, the

  1. A) confirmation step follows the decision step.
  2. B) evaluation step follows the trial step.
  3. C) awareness step follows the interest step.
  4. D) trial step follows the awareness step.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

 

342) With regard to the adoption process,

  1. A) interest is the first step.
  2. B) decision is the final step.
  3. C) awareness follows interest.
  4. D) evaluation precedes trial.
  5. E) decision follows confirmation.

 

343) In the adoption process,

  1. A) interest is the first stage.
  2. B) confirmation is the last stage.
  3. C) trial precedes evaluation.
  4. D) evaluation precedes interest.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

344) The adoption process suggests that

  1. A) confirmation must come before the decision to adopt or reject.
  2. B) evaluation usually comes before trial and decision.
  3. C) the decision to reject may follow confirmation.
  4. D) confirmation comes from a satisfactory evaluation.
  5. E) decision usually follows trial and confirmation.

 

345) A marketing manager for a new brand of bar soap decides to mail free samples to consumers. The logic for using this approach is best explained by the

  1. A) economic buyer model.
  2. B) stimulus-response model.
  3. C) typical consumer’s adoption process.
  4. D) need to reduce dissonance.
  5. E) high level of problem solving required with such a product.

 

346) In the ________ step of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial by applying it to his or her personal situation.

  1. A) interest
  2. B) confirmation
  3. C) trial
  4. D) decision
  5. E) evaluation

347) Ken Prescott has noticed several television commercials for BestYet—a new brand of shampoo. While washing his hair, he thinks about what would happen if he replaced his current shampoo with BestYet. What stage in the adoption process has Ken reached?

  1. A) evaluation
  2. B) feedback
  3. C) decision
  4. D) interest
  5. E) awareness

 

348) In the ________ stage of the adoption process, the consumer may buy the product to experiment with it in use.

  1. A) interest
  2. B) awareness
  3. C) evaluation
  4. D) trial
  5. E) decision

 

349) A potential customer for a new Audi sedan takes the car for a two-hour test drive to see how it responds on the open road. This customer is at the ________ stage of the adoption process.

  1. A) awareness
  2. B) interest
  3. C) decision
  4. D) confirmation
  5. E) trial

 

350) In which step of the adoption process does the adopter continues to rethink the decision and search for support for the decision?

  1. A) interest
  2. B) evaluation
  3. C) trial
  4. D) confirmation
  5. E) awareness

 

 

 

Essentials of Marketing, 16e (Perreault)

Chapter 5  Final Consumers and Their Buying Behavior

 

1) The economic-buyer theory assumes that consumers know all the facts and logically compare choices.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The economic-buyer theory assumes that consumers are economic buyers—people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

2) Most economists assume that consumers are economic buyers who logically evaluate choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Most economists assume that consumers are economic buyers—people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

3) Economic needs include such things as self-respect, accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Some examples of economic needs are economy of purchase or use, efficiency in operation or use, dependability in use, improvement of earnings, and convenience.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

4) The economic buyer view of consumers says that individuals will only buy the cheapest goods and services available, regardless of quality.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Economic buyers are people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money. Some consumers look for the lowest price, but others will pay extra for convenience, etc. Some consumers may weigh price and quality for the best value.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

5) Economic needs are concerned only with getting the best quality at the lowest price.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Economic needs are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money, as the consumer judges it. Some economic needs are economy of purchase or use, efficiency in operation or use, dependability in use, improvement of earnings, and convenience.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

6) The median income of U.S. families in 2015 was about $56,516.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In 2015, 22 percent of households had income of less than $25,000, and the median income—where half the households earned more and half earned less—was $56,516.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

7) In 2015, half of all American households earned more than $75,442.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In 2015, 22 percent of households had income of less than $25,000, and the median income—where half the households earned more and half earned less—was $56,516.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

8) After taking inflation into account, the median income in the U.S. has been flat over the last decade.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  After taking inflation into account, the median income in the United States has been flat over the last decade and is about 2.5 percent less than its peak in 1999.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

9) In 2015, 50 percent of U.S. families received less than $56,516 in income.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In 2015, 22 percent of households had income of less than $25,000, and the median income—where half the households earned more and half earned less—was $56,516.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

10) Discretionary income is what is left after paying taxes.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

11) Discretionary income is the income from investments.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

12) Discretionary income is the income adjusted to take out the effects of inflation.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

13) Discretionary income is an elusive concept because the definition of necessities varies from family to family and over time.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Discretionary income is an elusive concept because the definition of necessities varies from family to family and over time. It depends on what they think is necessary for their lifestyle.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

14) Most marketing managers think that the economic-buyer theory explains buyer behavior very well.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Most marketing managers think that buyer behavior is not as simple as the economic-buyer model suggests.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

15) Consumer buying decisions are influenced by economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, and the purchase situation.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Consumer buying decisions are influenced by economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, and the purchase situation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

16) Motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, trust, and lifestyle are psychological variables that affect consumer buying.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Motivation, perception, learning, attitude, trust, and lifestyle are some of the psychological variables that affect consumer buying.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

17) Family, social class, reference groups, and culture are the psychological variables that affect a consumer’s buying decisions.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Motivation, perception, learning, attitude, trust, and lifestyle are some of the psychological variables which affect consumer buying.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

18) Wants are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Needs are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something. Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

19) Wants are needs that are learned during a person’s life.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life. Needs are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

20) A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need. In marketing, a product purchase results from a drive to satisfy some need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

21) Food, liquid, sex, and rest are examples of physiological needs.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs such as food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

22) Examples of personal needs include accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Personal needs are concerned with an individual’s need for personal satisfaction, unrelated to what others think or do. Examples include accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation, as well as a desire to make the world a better place.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

23) The “hierarchy of needs” model suggests that most products must fill more than one need at the same time.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A four-level “hierarchy of needs” model suggests that most products must fill more than one need at the same time. The lowest-level needs are physiological. After that come safety, social, and personal needs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

24) According to the hierarchy of needs, consumers are motivated to first satisfy their higher-order needs; then they will focus on their lower-level needs.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A four-level hierarchy of needs shows that the lowest-level needs (physiological) come first, and then come safety, social, and personal needs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

25) The hierarchy of needs suggests that a consumer would not try to satisfy physiological and safety needs until social and personal needs have been completely satisfied.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A four-level hierarchy of needs shows that the lowest level needs (physiological) come first, and then come safety, social, and personal needs. A person can be motivated by more than one need at the same time. Further, more than one need can be satisfied at a time.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

26) The hierarchy of needs suggests that only one need can be satisfied at a time.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The four-level hierarchy of needs suggests that more than one need can be satisfied at a time.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

27) Consumers do not usually see or hear all the stimuli that come their way.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  We are constantly bombarded by stimuli, like ads, products, and stores; yet we may notice only a small number of these.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

28) In selective exposure we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In selective exposure our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

29) Selective exposure refers to a person’s ability to screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In selective exposure our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us. In selective perception we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

30) Learning is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Learning is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience. Learning is often based on direct experience.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

31) A cue is likely to result in a consumer response only if there is a drive to satisfy.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Depending on the cues (products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment) an individual chooses some specific response. A response is an effort to satisfy a drive.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

32) Reinforcement of a response decreases the likelihood of the same response the next time the drive occurs.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Reinforcement occurs when the response is followed by satisfaction, that is, reduction in the drive. It may lead to a similar response the next time the drive occurs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

33) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Reinforcement of the learning process occurs when the response is followed by satisfaction, that is, reduction in the drive. Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

34) Adding lemon scent to Pledge furniture polish is an example of using a positive cue.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Sometimes marketers try to identify cues that have positive associations from some other situation and relate them to their marketing mix. Companies often add lemon scent to household cleaning products (Clorox bleach and Pledge furniture polish) because it has these associations.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

35) A perfume ad that suggests that people who use the product have more appeal to the opposite sex is an example of a positive cue.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Sometimes marketers try to identify cues that have positive associations from some other situation and relate them to their marketing mix. Firms like Calvin Klein use ads suggesting that people who use their products have more appeal to the opposite sex.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

36) That “new car” smell that includes an aroma of leather and wood is an example of using a positive cue.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Luxury-car makers try for a “new car” smell with an aroma of leather and wood, even though the car would really smell more like metal and adhesives as it comes off the production line in a factory. Marketers often use cues with positive associations in their marketing mix.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

37) Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

38) Americans’ preoccupation with deodorants is an example of a culturally learned need.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned. For example, Germans are less concerned about perspiration and many don’t buy or use antiperspirants, while Americans spend millions of dollars on such products.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

39) An attitude is a person’s point of view about something, and usually involves liking or disliking.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward something. Because attitudes are usually thought of as involving liking or disliking, they have some action implications.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

40) The main difference between attitudes and beliefs is that beliefs always involve liking or disliking, but attitudes don’t necessarily involve liking or disliking.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Attitudes are usually thought of as involving liking or disliking. Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes but don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

41) Beliefs are not as action-oriented as attitudes.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Because attitudes are usually thought of as involving liking or disliking, they have some action implications. Beliefs are not so action-oriented.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

42) Beliefs are more action-oriented than attitudes.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Because attitudes are usually thought of as involving liking or disliking, they have some action implications. Beliefs are not so action-oriented.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

43) Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes but don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes but don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

44) A consumer’s belief about a product may have a positive or negative effect on his or her attitude about the product.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Beliefs about a product may have a positive or negative effect in shaping consumers’ attitudes.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

45) Attitudes are very good predictors of intention to buy.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Managers who must forecast how much of their brand customers will buy are particularly interested in the intention to buy. Forecasts would be easier if attitudes were good predictors of intentions to buy; unfortunately, it’s not that simple.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

46) An expectation is a future outcome or event that a person anticipates will happen.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  An expectation is a future outcome or event that a person anticipates will happen.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

47) Consumers may evaluate a product not just on how well it performs, but on how it performs relative to their expectations.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Consumer expectations often focus on the benefits or value that the consumer expects from a firm’s marketing mix.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

48) In light of the relationships between consumer expectations and satisfaction, it’s usually best for promotion to slightly “over promise” what the firm can actually deliver.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A consumer is likely to be dissatisfied if his or her expectations are not met. Promotion that overpromises can create this problem.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

49) Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of another person, brand, or company.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of another person, brand, or company.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

50) Highly trusted people, brands, and companies have many disadvantages in the marketplace.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Highly trusted people, brands, and companies have many advantages in the marketplace. Consumers prefer to buy from and are more loyal to brands they trust.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

51) Activities, interests, and opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions, sometimes referred to as AIOs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

52) Attitudes, income, and opinions are the AIO variables used in lifestyle analysis.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions, sometimes referred to as AIOs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

53) Psychographics is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions, sometimes referred to as AIOs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

54) Marital status, age, and the age of any children in a household are the three demographic dimensions that determine the stage of family life cycle.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Marital status, age, and the age of any children in the family have an especially important effect on how people spend their income. Put together, these dimensions tell us about the life-cycle stage of a family.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

55) The stage of family life cycle is usually determined by two demographic dimensions: income and number of children.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Marital status, age, and the age of any children in the family have an especially important effect on how people spend their income. Put together, these dimensions tell us about the life-cycle stage of a family.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

56) Singles and young couples seem less willing to try new products because they earn less.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Singles and young couples seem to be more willing to try new products and brands, and they are careful, price-conscious shoppers.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

57) Younger families with no children are a good market for durable goods such as automobiles and furniture.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Younger families, especially those with no children, accumulate durable goods, such as automobiles and home furnishings.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

58) Older people seem to be more open to new products and brands than younger people.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Singles and young couples seem to be more willing to try new products and brands, and they are careful, price-conscious shoppers.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

59) Families with teenagers tend to spend more on durables than younger families.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Younger families, especially those with no children, accumulate durable goods, such as automobiles and home furnishings. Only as children arrive and grow does family spending shift to soft goods and services, such as education, medical, and personal care.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

60) Teens play an increasingly minor role in shaping family purchases.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Teenagers eat more, want to wear expensive clothes, like music, and develop recreation and education needs that are hard on the family budget.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

61) Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

62) Empty nesters is a term that refers to young couples with no children.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

63) Consumer buying decisions are affected by social influences such as motivation, perception, learning, attitudes, and personality.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A consumer’s family, social class, and reference groups are social variables that influence the consumer decision process.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

64) Buying responsibility and purchase influence between husband and wife vary greatly depending on the product and the specific family.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Buying responsibility and influence vary greatly depending on the product and the family.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

65) Income by itself is usually a pretty good measure of social class.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  People with the same income level may be in different social classes, so income by itself is usually not a good measure of social class.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

66) According to the text, the U.S. social class system is much more rigid than social systems in other countries.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The U.S. class system is far less rigid than those in most countries.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

67) According to the text, the U.S. social class system is usually measured in terms of occupation, education, and housing arrangements.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the United States, simple approaches for measuring social class groupings are based on a person’s occupation, education, and type and location of housing.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

68) People who have the same amount of income but who are in different social classes tend to spend their income in the same way.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Various classes have different attitudes toward spending and saving, even when they have the same income level.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

69) Given the same income, consumers in different social classes will handle themselves and their money very differently.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Various classes have different attitudes toward spending and saving, even when they have the same income level.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

70) The group of people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic is his or her reference group for that topic.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A reference group refers to the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

71) A person normally has several reference groups.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  People normally have several reference groups for different topics.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

72) Reference group influence is likely to be greater for products that will not be seen by other individuals.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Reference influence is stronger for products that others “see” and that relate to status in the group.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

73) Reference groups are more important when others will be able to “see” which product or brand we’re using.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Reference influence is stronger for products that others “see” and which relate to status in the group.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

74) An opinion leader is usually wealthier and better educated than the people he or she influences.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  An opinion leader is a person who influences others. Opinion leaders aren’t necessarily wealthier or better educated.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

75) Opinion leaders for one subject or product are also usually opinion leaders for many other subjects or products.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  An opinion leader is a person who influences others. Opinion leaders on one subject aren’t necessarily opinion leaders on another.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

76) Marketers who want to aim at people within several different cultures are usually able to use the same marketing mix for all of them.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  It is often useful to think of subcultures within cultural groupings. Failure to consider cultural differences, even subtle ones, can result in problems.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

77) In the U.S., the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a faster rate than the rest of the United States.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the U.S. the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a much faster rate than the rest of the United States.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

78) Both the birthrate and the buying power of ethnic groups in the U.S. are increasing.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Ethnic minorities in the United States have a higher birthrate, and the buying power of these ethnic groups is increasing rapidly.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

79) Among ethnic minorities in the U.S., the birthrate is lower than the overall population.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The growth of ethnic groups in the United States can be contributed to high birthrates.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

80) Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the U.S.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

81) Asian Americans are the largest ethnic group in the United States.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

82) Of all the major ethnic groups in the U.S., Asian Americans have the highest average household income.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Asian Americans have the highest average household income ($77,166) of the major ethnic groups.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

83) African Americans have the highest median family income of the major ethnic groups.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In 2015, African Americans had a median household income of $36,898. By comparison, the median household income of Hispanics was $45,148.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

84) By 2019, the buying power of Hispanics and African Americans will each exceed $1 trillion a year.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The buying power of ethnic groups is increasing rapidly. Estimates indicate that by 2019 Hispanics and African Americans will each spend more than $1 trillion a year.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

85) Planning for cultural differences in international markets is easier than in domestic markets.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Planning strategies that consider cultural differences in international markets can be a challenge, as each foreign market may need to be treated as a separate target market with its own submarket. Ignoring cultural differences almost guarantees failure in international markets.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

86) The reaction of Italian women to Swiffer is an example of cultural influence.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Products that make cleaning easier have popular appeal in the United States, but many Italian women doubt that something that works easily will meet their standards for cleanliness. So, for the Italian market, Swiffer was modified, and beeswax was added.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

87) Needs, benefits sought, attitudes, motivation, and even how a consumer selects certain products all vary depending on the purchasing situation.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Needs, benefits sought, attitudes, motivation, and even how a consumer selects certain products all vary depending on the purchase situation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

88) Different purchase situations may require different marketing mixes, even when the same target market is involved.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Different purchase situations may require different marketing mixes, even when the same target market is involved.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

89) The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need. The consumer’s problem-solving process then focuses on how best to meet that need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

90) As part of the basic problem-solving steps, a consumer searches for information, identifies alternatives and what factors are important, and then evaluates one or more product before deciding how best to meet a need.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A consumer may search for information, identify alternatives, decide what factors (criteria) are important, and then evaluate one or more alternative products that might meet the need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

91) How much effort is put into a buying decision depends on economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, purchase situation, and the amount of risk involved.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  How much effort is put into a buying decision depends in part on economic needs, psychological variables, social influences, culture, and purchase situation factors. It’s also tied to the amount of risk a buyer sees in making a wrong choice.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

92) Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put even limited effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need. Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

93) Consumers use limited problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need. Limited problem solving is used by consumers when only some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

94) Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need. This is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

95) A consumer interested in making a low involvement purchase is most likely to use limited problem solving, rather than one of the other levels of problem solving.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer, where less effort is required from the consumer.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

96) Limited problem solving is used when the consumer has a lot of experience in meeting a need and has no need for additional information.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking; Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

97) Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

98) When she finds her favorite brand of shampoo temporarily out of stock, a supermarket shopper is more likely to take part in routinized response behavior than limited problem solving.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Routinized response is typical when a consumer has considerable experience in how to meet a specific need and requires no new information. Here, the shopper needs to find a supermarket that has her favorite brand of shampoo in stock or she needs to choose another brand. Therefore she will take part in limited problem solving.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

99) The idea of a decision process implies that consumers always apply rational processes in their buying decisions.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The idea of a decision process does not imply that consumers always apply rational processes in their buying decisions.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

100) Dissonance takes place when an individual is not confident about the rightness of a decision.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Dissonance is a feeling of uncertainty about whether the correct decision was made.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

101) After making a purchase, buyers often wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  After making a purchase, buyers often have second thoughts and wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

102) The power of negative purchase experiences is greater than that of positive experiences.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  When a post-purchase experience fails to live up to expectations, a customer will be disappointed. And consumers are more likely to share stories about being dissatisfied than satisfied.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

103) Adoption process refers to the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The adoption process is the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

104) The steps in the adoption process are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

105) In the evaluation stage of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the evaluation step, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

106) In the confirmation stage of the adoption process, the adopter continues to rethink the decision and searches for support for the decision.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  In the confirmation step, the adopter continues to rethink the decision and searches for support for the decision—that is, further reinforcement.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

107) In the adoption process, the confirmation step usually precedes the decision step.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation, respectively.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

108) To monitor how a new idea is being adopted by the market, a marketing manager may use marketing analytics.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  A marketing manager may use marketing analytics to monitor how a new idea is being adopted by the market.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

109) Which of the following would be most helpful for predicting why a final consumer selects one of several similar brands?

  1. A) population data
  2. B) consumer spending patterns
  3. C) behavioral principles
  4. D) consumer income
  5. E) All of these would be equally helpful.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  There are general behavioral principles—frameworks—that marketing managers can apply to better understand their specific target markets.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Consumer Behavior: Why do they Buy What they buy?

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

110) Which of the following is true of consumer behavior?

  1. A) Specific behaviors vary a great deal for different people, products, and purchase situations.
  2. B) Understanding consumer behavior is a simple and a straightforward procedure.
  3. C) Cataloging all the possibilities for consumer behavior is easy to do.
  4. D) Psychological variables are not relevant in the consumer decision process.
  5. E) In today’s global markets, variations in specific behaviors are not very common.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Understanding consumer behavior can be a challenge. Specific behaviors vary a great deal for different people, products, and purchase situations. In today’s global markets, the variations are countless. That makes it impractical to catalog all the possibilities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Consumer Behavior: Why do they Buy What they buy?

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

111) Which of the following is NOT a need that affects the buying behavior of economic buyers?

  1. A) economy of purchase or use
  2. B) convenience
  3. C) dependability in use
  4. D) motivation
  5. E) efficiency in operation or use

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Motivation is not an economic variable but is a psychological variable.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

112) Discretionary income is the portion of a person’s income that pays for

  1. A) rent.
  2. B) food.
  3. C) luxuries.
  4. D) taxes.
  5. E) insurance.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  A family’s purchase of luxuries comes from discretionary income—what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

113) Of the following appeals, the one that has the most relevance to an economic buyer is

  1. A) “I’m lovin’ it” (McDonald’s).
  2. B) “Expect great things” (Kohl’s).
  3. C) “Live for now” (Pepsi).
  4. D) “Who doesn’t want 50% more cash?” (Capital One Rewards Card).
  5. E) “Relentlessly protecting your identity” (LifeLock).

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Since economic buyers seek a good value for the money they spend, the Capital One Cash Rewards Card appeal has the most relevance.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

114) An economic buyer is a person who

  1. A) compares choices to get the best deal.
  2. B) makes buying decisions based only on price.
  3. C) will not pay extra for convenience.
  4. D) always buys products at the lowest price possible.
  5. E) is averse to spending time and money.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Economic buyers are those people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

115) An economic buyer is a person who

  1. A) makes buying decisions based on behavioral needs rather than economic needs.
  2. B) logically compares choices to get the greatest satisfaction from expenditures of time and money.
  3. C) always buys the product that has the lowest price.
  4. D) is not willing to pay extra for convenience.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Economic buyers are those people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

116) Economists’ economic-buyer theory assumes that

  1. A) income data are very useful for predicting consumer behavior.
  2. B) buyers logically compare choices in order to maximize their satisfaction.
  3. C) consumers should purchase only low-priced products.
  4. D) buyers focus primarily on price.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Economists’ economic-buyer theory assumes that consumers are economic buyers, which are people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

117) ________ are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money—as the consumer judges it.

  1. A) Economic needs
  2. B) Psychological needs
  3. C) Social influences
  4. D) Behavioral influences
  5. E) Perceptual needs

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Economic needs are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money—as the consumer judges it.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

118) Which of the following is an economic need?

  1. A) desire for self-satisfaction and convenience
  2. B) desire for efficiency in the consumer’s investment plans
  3. C) desire for efficiency in the use of the consumer’s time and money
  4. D) desire for prestige and paying a high price for the best quality
  5. E) desire for status and paying a high price for the best quality

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Economic needs are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money—as the consumer judges it.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

119) Which of the following is NOT an economic need?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) hunger
  3. C) economy of use
  4. D) convenience
  5. E) efficiency in use

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Some economic needs are economy of purchase or use, efficiency in operation or use, dependability in use, improvement of earnings, and convenience. Hunger is not an economic need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

120) Which of the following is NOT an economic need of consumers?

  1. A) convenience
  2. B) dependability in use
  3. C) economy of purchase
  4. D) efficiency
  5. E) hunger

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Some economic needs are economy of purchase or use, efficiency in operation or use, dependability in use, improvement of earnings, and convenience. Hunger is not an economic need.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

121) At Home Depot, a customer can purchase a gallon of one-coat paint that contains the ingredients for both a primer and a color. What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this type of paint?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) economy of purchase
  3. C) improvement of earnings
  4. D) convenience

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Economic needs are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money, as the consumer judges it. Here, the paint is satisfying economy of purchase or use.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

122) A magazine ad for GEICO car insurance shows the GEICO gecko lying down while the copy reads, “Don’t take high car insurance rates lying down.” What primary economic need is being satisfied in this magazine ad?

  1. A) convenience
  2. B) improvement of earnings
  3. C) dependability in use
  4. D) economy of purchase
  5. E) efficiency in operation

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Economic needs are concerned with making the best use of a consumer’s time and money, as the consumer judges it. Here, the magazine ad is satisfying economy of purchase.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

123) An app for the iPhone that includes voice directions for a built-in GPS system can be helpful in finding a motel that is “off the beaten track.” What is the primary economic need being satisfied by this app?

  1. A) economy of purchase
  2. B) dependability in use
  3. C) efficiency in use
  4. D) convenience
  5. E) improvement of earnings

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Most consumers appreciate firms that offer products that are designed to work better, require less service, or last longer. Here, the iPhone app is satisfying efficiency in operation or use.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

124) In a television commercial for Maytag appliances, the spokesperson “Old Lonely” acts bored because no one is calling him to schedule a repair of their appliances. What is the primary economic need being illustrated in this TV ad?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) convenience
  3. C) economy of purchase
  4. D) improvement of earnings
  5. E) efficiency in operation

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Most consumers appreciate firms that offer them improved economic value for the money they spend. Products can be designed to work better, require less service, or last longer. This TV ad is illustrating dependability in use.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

125) A busy mom stops at a 7-Eleven store on the way home from work to purchase some bread, milk, and ice cream. What primary economic need is being satisfied by the 7-Eleven?

  1. A) dependability in use
  2. B) economy of purchase
  3. C) efficiency in operation
  4. D) convenience

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Many firms adjust their marketing mixes for target markets that place a high value on convenience. The example illustrates the economic need of convenience.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

126) The economists’ view of buyers

  1. A) puts a great deal of emphasis on differences in buying behavior related to individual differences among consumers.
  2. B) is based on the idea that consumers value time and select the first alternative they learn about.
  3. C) assumes that consumers always buy the lowest-price alternative.
  4. D) emphasizes psychological variables rather than social influences.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Most economists assume that consumers are economic buyers—people who know all the facts and logically compare choices to get the greatest satisfaction from spending their time and money. Hence, none of the provided answers is correct.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

127) In 2015, ________ percent of households reported an income of less than $25,000.

  1. A) 22
  2. B) 77
  3. C) 29
  4. D) 10
  5. E) 5

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In 2015, 22 percent of households reported an income of less than $25,000.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

128) The median family income in the U.S. in 2015 was a little over

  1. A) $35,000.
  2. B) $45,000.
  3. C) $55,000.
  4. D) $75,000.
  5. E) $100,000.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  In 2015, the median income—where half the households earned more and half earned less—was $56,516.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

129) Discretionary income is defined as

  1. A) total market value of goods and services produced.
  2. B) gross domestic product per capita.
  3. C) income available after taxes.
  4. D) income available before taxes.
  5. E) income available after taxes and necessities.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

130) Discretionary income is a family’s

  1. A) income after taxes.
  2. B) total purchasing power.
  3. C) income spent on durable goods.
  4. D) income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

131) The amount of income a family has left after paying taxes and paying for its necessities is called its ________ income.

  1. A) personal
  2. B) discretionary
  3. C) marginal
  4. D) family
  5. E) modified

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

132) What is left of income after paying for taxes and paying for necessities?

  1. A) net income
  2. B) real income
  3. C) deductible income
  4. D) gross income
  5. E) discretionary income

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

133) Misty Hancock is a sales rep for a computer producer. Her salary last year was $30,000, and she earned another $5,000 in sales commissions. She paid $6,000 in taxes, and spent $8,000 on food, housing, a car, and other “necessities.” What is Misty’s discretionary income?

  1. A) $21,000
  2. B) $34,000
  3. C) $15,000
  4. D) $24,000
  5. E) $8,000

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $30,000 + $5,000 − $6,000 − $8,000 = $21,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

134) A young working couple earned $55,000 last year. They paid $16,000 in taxes and $20,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. What was their discretionary income for the year?

  1. A) $39,000
  2. B) $55,000
  3. C) $30,000
  4. D) $35,000
  5. E) $19,000

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $55,000 − $16,000 − $20,000 = $19,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

135) A young working couple earned $35,000 last year and paid $10,000 in taxes. They spent $13,000 on rent, food, insurance, and other “necessities.” What is their discretionary income?

  1. A) $12,000
  2. B) $35,000
  3. C) $22,000
  4. D) $25,000

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $35,000 − $10,000 − $13,000 = $12,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

136) Keith McPherson earned $20,000 last year as a carpenter. He paid $6,000 for food, rent, medical expenses, and other “necessities.” There was little construction work in February, so he took a trip to the Caribbean and spent $4,000. What was Keith’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $4,000
  2. B) $20,000
  3. C) $10,000
  4. D) $12,000
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities. Information on Keith McPherson’s taxes is not given here.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

137) As the owner of a women’s clothing store, Caroline Lipscomb has an income of $75,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $17,000 per year for grocery bills, home mortgage payments, and car payments. Last year she went on a holiday to Italy and spent an additional $4,000. What was Caroline’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $45,000
  2. B) $75,000
  3. C) $26,000
  4. D) $28,000
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $75,000 − $30,000 − $17,000 = $28,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

138) A young working couple earned $50,000 last year. Of that, they paid $16,000 in taxes and $15,000 in rent, food, insurance and other necessities. Their discretionary income for the year was

  1. A) $35,000.
  2. B) $50,000.
  3. C) $19,000.
  4. D) $34,000.
  5. E) $15,000.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $50,000 − $16,000 − $15,000 = $19,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

139) Ginny Paulson was just promoted to marketing manager for her company. She also gets a big raise with the promotion. Because Ginny’s discretionary income will increase, which of the following products/services is most likely to see additional spending?

  1. A) furnace repairs
  2. B) automobile insurance
  3. C) a smart TV
  4. D) medical services
  5. E) grocery staples

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  A family’s purchase of “luxuries” comes from discretionary income—what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities. A smart TV is a luxury.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

140) As the owner of a Bluetooth specialties store, Alicia Fountainbleau has an income of $72,000. She pays $30,000 per year in taxes and another $22,000 per year in grocery bills, house mortgage, and car payment. Last year she spent an additional $4,000 on a two-week vacation at a Club Med in Rio de Janeiro. What was Alicia’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $20,000
  2. B) $4,000
  3. C) $42,000
  4. D) $26,000
  5. E) $50,000

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $72,000 − $30,000 − $22,000 = $20,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

141) Bart Thunderheart has an annual income of $75,000 a year. He pays $25,000 in taxes and spends another $15,000 on his home, car, food, and other “necessities.” Last year, he decided to really enjoy his annual vacation, so he spent $5,000 to go skiing in Austria. What was Bart’s discretionary income last year?

  1. A) $20,000
  2. B) $5,000
  3. C) $35,000
  4. D) $30,000
  5. E) $50,000

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $75,000 − $25,000 − $15,000 = $35,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

142) Manuel Acala is a marketing analyst, but he made only $28,000 last year because he was employed only part of the year. He paid $5,000 in taxes and spent another $10,000 for food, housing, a car, and other “necessities.” Manuel’s discretionary income was

  1. A) $28,000.
  2. B) $13,000.
  3. C) $23,000.
  4. D) $18,000.
  5. E) The information given is insufficient.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $28,000 − $5,000 − $10,000 = $13,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

143) Kira Johannson’s salary as a sales rep was reduced to $32,000 last year, but she earned an additional $10,000 in sales commissions. Her tax bill was $14,000, and bills covering other necessities such as food, housing, and transportation amounted to $11,000. Kira’s discretionary income last year was

  1. A) $17,000.
  2. B) $11,000.
  3. C) $32,000.
  4. D) $28,000.
  5. E) $42,000.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $32,000 + $10,000 − $14,000 − $11,000 = $17,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

144) Alberto Romez earned $100,000 last year as a Mercedes sales rep. He paid $10,000 in taxes and another $25,000 on food, housing, and other necessities. Alberto’s discretionary income was

  1. A) $75,000.
  2. B) $65,000.
  3. C) $55,000.
  4. D) $45,000.
  5. E) $35,000.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Discretionary income is what is left of income after paying taxes and paying for necessities: $100,000 − $10,000 − $25,000 = $65,000.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

145) The economic-buyer theory

  1. A) says that most consumers do not know the economic value of the products they purchase.
  2. B) explains why people behave the way they do.
  3. C) includes psychological variables and social influences.
  4. D) is too simplistic to explain consumer behavior.
  5. E) assumes that consumers always buy the lowest-price alternative.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Most marketing managers think that buyer behavior is not as simple as the economic-buyer model suggests.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

146) The economic-buyer model

  1. A) is seen as too simplistic by most marketing managers.
  2. B) assumes that consumers are affected by psychological variables and social influences.
  3. C) suggests that men and women behave differently as buyers.
  4. D) assumes that buyers don’t have enough information to make logical choices and, as a result, buy products that are not a good value.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Most marketing managers think that buyer behavior is not as simple as the economic-buyer model suggests.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Economic Needs Affect Most Buying Decisions

Learning Objective:  05-01 describe how economic needs influence the buyer decision process.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

147) ADT commercials that advertise the value of having a home burglar alarm system appeals to consumers’

  1. A) personal needs.
  2. B) economic needs.
  3. C) social needs.
  4. D) safety needs.
  5. E) physiological needs.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Home alarms that protect people from burglaries appeal to consumers’ safety needs. These needs are concerned with protection and well-being.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

148) Of the following, the firms most likely to attract consumers by making an appeal to social needs are

  1. A) tire companies.
  2. B) online dating sites.
  3. C) tax preparation services.
  4. D) banks.
  5. E) electric companies.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Of the choices, online dating sites are the firms that are most likely to attempt to attract customers by making an appeal to social needs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

149) Many consumers mentally block out marketing messages that do not interest them. This phenomenon is part of a person’s

  1. A) motivation.
  2. B) needs.
  3. C) perception.
  4. D) attitudes.
  5. E) learning.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Consumers select varying ways to meet their needs sometimes because of differences in perception—how people gather and interpret information from the world around them. Perception includes the filtering processes of selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

150) Marketers cannot assume that a product that meets consumer needs in one country will do so in another. This is because

  1. A) some people do not have physiological or safety needs.
  2. B) many needs are culturally learned.
  3. C) economic needs do not influence purchases in many regions of the world.
  4. D) the purchase situations may be different.
  5. E) family life cycles may be different.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Many needs are culturally (or socially) learned. The need for food, for instance, may lead to many specific food wants. For example, many Japanese enjoy sushi (raw fish), and their children learn to like it. Fewer Americans, however, have learned to enjoy sushi.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

151) ________ is one of the psychological variables that affects a person’s buying behavior.

  1. A) Perception
  2. B) Family
  3. C) Social class
  4. D) Reference groups
  5. E) Convenience

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Motivation, perception, learning, attitude, trust, and lifestyle are some of the psychological variables that affect consumer buying.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

152) Which of the following lists includes only psychological variables that affect consumer buying?

  1. A) motivation, learning, perception, attitudes
  2. B) culture, learning, perception, attitudes
  3. C) culture, personality, perception, attitudes
  4. D) attitudes, personality, learning, culture
  5. E) perception, personality, learning, culture

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Motivation, perception, learning, attitude, trust, and lifestyle are some of the psychological variables that affect consumer buying. Culture is not a psychological variable; it is a social influence.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

153) Which of the following is NOT a psychological variable?

  1. A) attitudes
  2. B) social class
  3. C) motivation
  4. D) learning
  5. E) perception

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Motivation, perception, learning, attitude, trust, and lifestyle are some of the psychological variables that affect consumer buying. Social class is not a psychological variable; it is a social influence.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

154) Regarding consumer motivation, the text states that

  1. A) wants are the basic forces that motivate people to do something.
  2. B) all needs and wants are caused by drives.
  3. C) wants are learned needs.
  4. D) the terms needs and wants mean the same thing.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

155) What are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something?

  1. A) desires
  2. B) drives
  3. C) actions
  4. D) aspirations
  5. E) needs

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Needs are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

156) Wants are

  1. A) an effort to satisfy a drive.
  2. B) more basic than needs.
  3. C) strong stimuli that encourage action to reduce a need.
  4. D) needs that are learned during a person’s life.
  5. E) unchanging during a person’s life.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

157) Marci Bello is status-oriented. When she buys clothing she only considers items with well-known labels that her friends will notice. This behavior illustrates

  1. A) satisfaction of a need.
  2. B) satisfaction of a want.
  3. C) satisfaction of a belief.
  4. D) the economic buyer model of buyer behavior.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Needs are more basic than wants. Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life. Marci Bello learned to buy well-known labeled items.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

158) A ________ is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce or satisfy a need.

  1. A) want
  2. B) motivation
  3. C) drive
  4. D) desire
  5. E) deed

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  A drive is a strong stimulus that encourages action to reduce a need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

159) When a consumer actually purchases a particular product, it is the direct result of a

  1. A) need.
  2. B) want.
  3. C) drive.
  4. D) desire for physical well-being.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  In marketing, a product purchase results from a drive to satisfy some need.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

160) Good marketing managers know that

  1. A) marketing strategies can’t influence consumer “wants.”
  2. B) marketers can’t create internal drives in consumers.
  3. C) it is not that difficult to develop a marketing strategy that gets consumers to do what they don’t want to do.
  4. D) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Drives are internal to the individual—that is, they are the reasons behind certain behavior patterns. Marketing managers cannot create internal drives in consumers.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

161) After working for 18 hours, Katrina arrived home exhausted and wanted to go straight to sleep. Katrina’s need to sleep is a ________ need.

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) social
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) behavioral
  5. E) emotional

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs like food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

162) Frustrated by a lack of freedom to make decisions at her work, Betty quit her job to find one with greater independence. What type of need motivated Betty’s actions?

  1. A) psychological
  2. B) social
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) economic
  5. E) cultural

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Psychological needs are concerned with nurturing, curiosity, independence, and love.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

163) The four-level PSSP hierarchy of needs includes

  1. A) psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, and personal needs.
  2. B) physiological needs, safety needs, personal needs, and social needs.
  3. C) psychological needs, financial needs, social needs, and personal needs.
  4. D) physiological needs, psychological needs, social needs, and financial needs.
  5. E) physiological needs, psychological needs, safety needs, and personal needs.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  A four-level PSSP hierarchy of needs model includes physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, and personal needs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

164) As ranked from lowest level to highest level, the hierarchy of needs model includes

  1. A) personal, social, safety, and physiological needs.
  2. B) physiological, safety, social, and personal needs.
  3. C) safety, personal, social, and psychological needs.
  4. D) social, personal, safety, and psychological needs.
  5. E) physiological, safety, personal, and social needs.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The lowest-level needs are physiological. After these come safety, social, and personal needs.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

165) According to the hierarchy of needs model, the first needs most people try to satisfy are their ________ needs.

  1. A) safety
  2. B) personal
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) social
  5. E) Any of these may be correct, depending on the culture.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  A four-level hierarchy of needs shows that the lowest level needs (physiological) come first, and then come safety, social, and personal needs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

166) Physiological needs are concerned with

  1. A) protection and physical well-being.
  2. B) love, friendship, status, and esteem.
  3. C) an individual’s need for personal satisfaction.
  4. D) biological needs.
  5. E) responsibility and independence.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs like food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

167) ________ needs are concerned with things that involve a person’s interaction with others.

  1. A) Physiological
  2. B) Safety
  3. C) Biological
  4. D) Personal
  5. E) Social

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Social needs are concerned with love, friendship, status, and esteem—those things that involve a person’s interaction with others.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

168) Needs such as accomplishment and relaxation, which are unrelated to what others think or do, are known as

  1. A) physiological needs.
  2. B) safety needs.
  3. C) social needs.
  4. D) personal needs.
  5. E) biological needs.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Personal needs are concerned with an individual’s need for personal satisfaction and are unrelated to what others think or do. Examples include accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

169) Which of the following are examples of personal needs?

  1. A) food, liquid, and rest
  2. B) accomplishment, fun, and freedom
  3. C) solutions, protection, and physical well-being
  4. D) love and friendship
  5. E) status and connecting with others

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Personal needs are concerned with an individual’s need for personal satisfaction and are unrelated to what others think or do. Examples include accomplishment, fun, freedom, and relaxation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

170) L’Oreal advertises its hair color with the popular tagline, “So it costs a bit more. But I’m worth it!” Here, L’Oreal’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social needs
  2. B) safety needs
  3. C) physiological needs
  4. D) personal needs

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Personal needs are concerned with an individual’s need for personal satisfaction and are unrelated to what others think or do. L’Oreal is aiming at personal satisfaction.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

171) Newman’s Own (a salad dressing brand) donates 100 percent of its after-tax profits to progressive causes. Newman’s Own is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social needs
  2. B) personal needs
  3. C) safety needs
  4. D) physiological needs

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Personal needs are concerned with an individual’s need for personal satisfaction and are unrelated to what others think or do. A desire to make the world a better place is an example.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

172) Hallmark advertises its gift items with the popular tagline, “When you care enough to send the very best.” Here, the marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal
  5. E) psychological

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Social needs are concerned with love, friendship, status, and esteem—things that involve a person’s interaction with others.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

173) Harley Owners Group connects motorcycle riders to one another. This group is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) safety
  2. B) physiological
  3. C) social
  4. D) personal

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Social needs are concerned with love, friendship, status, and esteem—things that involve a person’s interaction with others.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

174) Allstate Insurance promotes its auto and home insurance by telling consumers, “You’re in good hands with Allstate.” Which of the following types of needs is Allstate trying to satisfy?

  1. A) personal needs
  2. B) social needs
  3. C) physiological needs
  4. D) safety needs
  5. E) behavioral needs

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Safety needs are concerned with protection and physical well-being (perhaps involving health, financial security, medicine, and exercise).

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

175) The American Heart Association promotes its awareness campaign with the popular tagline, “Learn and Live.” Here, The American Heart Association’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Safety needs are concerned with protection and physical well-being (perhaps involving health, financial security, medicine, and exercise).

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

176) On its website, Tylenol identifies the top headache triggers and offers solutions to headache sufferers. Tylenol is focusing on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) physiological needs
  2. B) behavioral needs
  3. C) personal needs
  4. D) safety needs
  5. E) social needs

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Safety needs are concerned with protection and physical well-being (perhaps involving health, financial security, medicine, and exercise).

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

177) In the PSSP hierarchy of needs model, which level is illustrated by a Fidelity campaign on TV that proclaims its individual retirement account (IRA) is a sound investment for the future?

  1. A) personal needs
  2. B) physiological needs
  3. C) social needs
  4. D) safety needs

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Safety needs are concerned with protection and physical well-being, such as financial security.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

178) The Cleveland Water Department promotes its safe water with a catchy tagline, “The label says Fiji because it’s not bottled in Cleveland.” Here, the Cleveland Water Department’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) physiological
  2. B) social
  3. C) safety
  4. D) personal

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs like food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

179) The California Dairy Association promotes its milk campaign with the popular tagline, “Got milk?” Here, the California Dairy Association’s marketing effort focuses on satisfying which level in the hierarchy of needs?

  1. A) social
  2. B) safety
  3. C) physiological
  4. D) personal
  5. E) psychological

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs like food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

180) In the PSSP hierarchy of needs model, which level is illustrated by a “Got Milk?” magazine campaign that encourages customers to drink more milk?

  1. A) physiological needs
  2. B) safety needs
  3. C) social needs
  4. D) personal needs

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Physiological needs are concerned with biological needs like food, liquid, rest, and sex.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

181) Which of the following statements about “needs” is true?

  1. A) A higher-level need may develop before lower-level needs are all satisfied.
  2. B) If lower-level needs are reasonably satisfied, those at higher levels become more dominant.
  3. C) A particular product may satisfy more than one need at the same time.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  A four-level hierarchy of needs model suggests that most products must fill more than one need at the same time. The lowest-level needs are physiological; then come safety, social, and personal needs. But higher-level needs may develop before lower-level needs are completely satisfied.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

182) When studying consumer needs, a marketer should

  1. A) know that a product may be a want or a need depending on what the consumer has learned during his or her life.
  2. B) try to understand how the marketing mix can satisfy a set of needs, rather than only one.
  3. C) realize that he or she cannot create needs, merely identify them.
  4. D) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Needs are the basic forces that motivate a person to do something. Wants are “needs” that are learned during a person’s life. A good marketing manager studies what consumer drives, needs, and wants already exist and how they can be satisfied better. Marketers should try to develop marketing mixes that address multiple needs.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

183) ________ refers to how we gather and interpret information from the world around us.

  1. A) Retention
  2. B) Perception
  3. C) Attitude
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Lifestyle analysis

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Perception refers to how we gather and interpret information from the world around us.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

184) What selective processes are used in gathering and interpreting marketing stimuli around us?

  1. A) selective exposure, selective perception, and selective attention
  2. B) selective attention, selective perception, and selective retention
  3. C) selective exposure, selective attention, and selective reception
  4. D) selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention are included in the selective processes. Selective attention is not.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

185) Which of the following is NOT one of the selective processes?

  1. A) selective perception
  2. B) selective distribution
  3. C) selective exposure
  4. D) selective retention

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Selective exposure, selective perception, and selective retention are included in the selective processes. Selective distribution is not.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

186) The way our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us is called

  1. A) conscious cognition.
  2. B) selective exposure.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) preconscious perception.
  5. E) selective perception.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Selective exposure is when our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

187) Selective ________ refers to processes that screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

  1. A) exposure
  2. B) learning
  3. C) retention
  4. D) attention
  5. E) perception

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Selective perception is the way we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

188) When consumers screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs, it is called

  1. A) cognitive perception.
  2. B) selective perception.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) conscious perception.
  5. E) selective exposure.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Selective perception is when we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

189) Consumers remembering only what they want to remember is called

  1. A) conscious response.
  2. B) selective retention.
  3. C) selective exposure.
  4. D) cognitive learning.
  5. E) selective perception.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Selective retention is a process of remembering only what we want to remember.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

190) While planning a vacation, Betty Jo visited the website of a package tour provider and closed a pop-up ad without even noticing what it was for. This is an example of selective

  1. A) retention.
  2. B) exposure.
  3. C) perception.
  4. D) learning.
  5. E) action.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Selective exposure is when our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

191) When listening to music on the radio, many consumers automatically switch stations when commercials begin to run, and they search until they find another station that is playing music. This tendency is an example of selective

  1. A) exposure.
  2. B) perception.
  3. C) retention.
  4. D) learning.
  5. E) reception.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Selective exposure is when our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

192) Tammi Soloft has itchy eyes and a stuffy nose, and she suddenly becomes aware of many TV ads for allergy products that she never noticed before. This illustrates selective

  1. A) exposure.
  2. B) perception.
  3. C) retention.
  4. D) cognition.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Selective exposure is when our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

193) Carmela Sanchez is planning to buy a pair of running shoes. Recently, she has been noticing more Adidas advertising in magazines. This is an example of

  1. A) a physiological need.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) need satisfaction.
  4. D) selective exposure.
  5. E) a consumer expectation.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Selective exposure is when our eyes and minds seek out and notice only information that interests us.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

194) On his way to a GM dealership to pick up a new truck he has purchased, Ian Mann hears a Ford ad that says that Ford trucks have more power than Chevy trucks. Ian thought that the ad said that the Chevys had more power. This illustrates

  1. A) selective perception.
  2. B) learning.
  3. C) selective retention.
  4. D) reinforcement.
  5. E) selective exposure.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Selective perception is when we screen out or modify ideas, messages, and information that conflict with previously learned attitudes and beliefs.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

195) After his Political Science class, Andre only remembered the parts of his professor’s lecture that he agreed with. This is an example of selective

  1. A) retention.
  2. B) exposure.
  3. C) information.
  4. D) attention.
  5. E) action.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Selective retention is a process where we remember only what we want to remember.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

196) ________ is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience.

  1. A) Selective retention
  2. B) Processing
  3. C) Wanting
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Perception

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Learning is a change in a person’s thought processes caused by prior experience.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

197) Which of the following is NOT a major step in the learning process?

  1. A) dissonance
  2. B) drive
  3. C) response
  4. D) cues
  5. E) reinforcement

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The learning process involves drive, cues, response, and reinforcement.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

198) The order of the steps in the learning process is

  1. A) drive, cue, response, reinforcement.
  2. B) cue, response, drive, reinforcement.
  3. C) cue, response, reinforcement, drive.
  4. D) drive, response, reinforcement, cue.
  5. E) reinforcement, drive, cue, response.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The learning process involves drive, cues, response, and reinforcement.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

199) Which of the following statements about the learning process is true?

  1. A) A cue is a strong stimulus that drives an individual.
  2. B) Learning occurs only when a drive is satisfied.
  3. C) Cues are the causes of drives.
  4. D) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between a cue and a response.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response, and it may lead to a similar response the next time the drive occurs.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

200) Which of the following statements about learning is FALSE?

  1. A) Satisfaction with a product purchase is reinforcement.
  2. B) Repeated reinforcement is likely to lead to routine buying.
  3. C) A marketing manager can use a package as a cue.
  4. D) Reinforcement in the learning process weakens the relationship between a cue and a response.
  5. E) Almost all consumer behavior is learned.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

201) Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is FALSE?

  1. A) Reinforcement of the learning process occurs when the response is followed by satisfaction.
  2. B) Reinforcement strengthens the relationship between the cue and the response.
  3. C) Reinforcement leads to satisfaction and an increase in the drive.
  4. D) Repeated reinforcement leads to development of a habit.
  5. E) If an experience is satisfactory, positive reinforcement occurs.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Reinforcement of the learning process occurs when the response is followed by satisfaction—that is, reduction in the drive.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

202) Which of the following observations about learning is FALSE?

  1. A) Learning is rarely based on direct experience.
  2. B) Consumer learning may result from things that marketers do.
  3. C) Learning can be based on indirect experience or associations.
  4. D) Consumer learning may result from stimuli that have nothing to do with marketing.
  5. E) Almost all consumer behavior is learned.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Learning is often based on direct experience.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

203) A movie theater runs a film clip that shows pictures of candy, popcorn, and soft drinks prior to running the featured movie. The intent is to get theater patrons to make purchases at the concession stand in the theater lobby. This process is an example of which of the following behavioral influences on buying behavior?

  1. A) attitudes
  2. B) beliefs
  3. C) selective processes
  4. D) learning
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Consumer learning may result from things that marketers do. Depending on the cues (products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment) an individual chooses some specific response to satisfy a drive.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

204) In the learning process, ________ can be in the form of products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment.

  1. A) reinforcement
  2. B) responses
  3. C) signals
  4. D) retention
  5. E) cues

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Cues can be in the form of products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

205) Which of the following is an example of using a cue to attract consumers?

  1. A) using a label with red, white, and blue colors to stir patriotic feelings
  2. B) adding lemon scent to a soap
  3. C) using a package that looks like the one for a popular brand
  4. D) adding pine scent to a cleansing fluid
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Cues can be in the form of products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment. Hence, all the given choices are examples of cues.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

206) When Taco Bell shows a large close-up of a chicken taco in a television ad, it is

  1. A) encouraging selective retention.
  2. B) hoping to encourage extensive problem solving by the audience.
  3. C) appealing to the social needs of the audience.
  4. D) appealing to the economic needs of the audience.
  5. E) using a cue to encourage a particular response to the hunger drive.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Depending on the cues (products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment) an individual chooses some specific response to satisfy a drive.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

207) A divorced dad commuting to work on a major highway notices a billboard for McDonald’s any-size $1 soft drink. This billboard is an example of a(n)

  1. A) reinforcement.
  2. B) response.
  3. C) drive.
  4. D) cue.
  5. E) attitude.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Cues can be in the form of products, signs, ads, and other stimuli in the environment.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

208) A grocery store sprays an aerosol scent that smells like fresh baked bread near its packaged bakery items. This is

  1. A) a case of a manager developing a need.
  2. B) likely to have no effect because selective retention will eliminate any effect of the smell.
  3. C) a case of linking a response with a drive.
  4. D) an example of trying to link a cue with a marketing mix.
  5. E) a violation of the selective processes.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Sometimes marketers use cues or images that have positive associations from some other situation and relate them to their marketing mix.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

209) An attitude is

  1. A) the same as an intention to buy.
  2. B) a person’s point of view about something.
  3. C) easy to change.
  4. D) the same as a belief.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward something.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

210) A(n) ________ is a person’s point of view toward a product, an advertisement, a salesperson, a firm, or an idea.

  1. A) attitude
  2. B) belief
  3. C) preference
  4. D) impression
  5. E) cue

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward something. The “something” may be a product, an advertisement, a salesperson, a firm, or an idea.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

211) Attitudes are

  1. A) things we believe strongly enough to be willing to take some action.
  2. B) more action-oriented than beliefs.
  3. C) reasonably enduring points of view about something.
  4. D) usually thought of as involving liking or disliking.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward something. Because attitudes are associated with liking or disliking, they have some action implications. Consumer attitudes tend to be enduring.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

212) Which of the following statements about consumer buying behavior is true?

  1. A) Attitudes affect the selective processes, learning, and buying decisions.
  2. B) Many consumers with a favorable attitude toward a product may have no intention to buy it.
  3. C) Beliefs are less action-oriented than attitudes.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Attitudes affect the selective processes, learning, and the buying decisions. Beliefs are not as action-oriented as attitudes. Forecasts for sales would be easier if attitudes were good predictors of intentions to buy, but it’s not that simple.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

213) Some marketers stretch the meaning of “attitude” to include

  1. A) intention to buy.
  2. B) needs.
  3. C) beliefs.
  4. D) psychographics.
  5. E) actual purchasing behavior.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In an attempt to relate attitude more closely to purchase behavior, some marketers stretch the attitude concept to include consumer “preferences” or “intention to buy.”

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

214) Consumers’ attitudes can be learned from

  1. A) exposure to the attitudes of others.
  2. B) promotion that is directed toward them.
  3. C) previous experiences.
  4. D) family and friends.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward a product, an advertisement, a salesperson, a firm, or an idea. Consumers’ attitudes can be learned from attitudes of others, promotion directed toward them, and previous experiences.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

215) Which of the following observations concerning beliefs is FALSE?

  1. A) Beliefs don’t necessarily involve any liking or disliking.
  2. B) A belief is a person’s opinion about something.
  3. C) Beliefs may help shape a consumer’s attitudes.
  4. D) Beliefs are more action-oriented than attitudes.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Beliefs are not as action-oriented as attitudes.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

216) The statement “I like Southwest Air” is an example of a(n)

  1. A) belief.
  2. B) intention.
  3. C) attitude.
  4. D) drive.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  An attitude is a person’s point of view toward something. Attitudes are usually thought of as involving liking or disliking.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

217) The statement “Almond Joy is made with real almonds” is an example of a(n)

  1. A) belief.
  2. B) intention.
  3. C) attitude.
  4. D) cue.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  A belief is a person’s opinion about something, but it does not necessarily involve any liking or disliking.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

218) The statement “I plan to see the new Tom Hanks movie” is an example of

  1. A) a drive.
  2. B) reinforcement.
  3. C) an attitude.
  4. D) a belief.
  5. E) an intention.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Plans and intentions are usually interchangeable and mean the same thing.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

219) Which of the following would be the most difficult task facing a marketing manager?

  1. A) discovering the attitudes of the firm’s target market
  2. B) changing existing negative attitudes
  3. C) creating new attitudes toward his or her brand
  4. D) promoting existing attitudes
  5. E) strengthening existing positive attitudes

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Changing negative attitudes is probably the most difficult job marketers face.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

220) When dealing with consumer attitudes, marketers should know that

  1. A) it is usually easier to change a negative attitude about a product than to reinforce a positive attitude.
  2. B) consumer attitudes tend to be enduring.
  3. C) attitudes are very good predictors of how people will behave.
  4. D) consumer attitudes are less action-oriented than consumer beliefs.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Because consumer attitudes tend to be enduring, it’s usually more economical for marketers to work with them than try to change them.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

221) A(n) ________ is an outcome or event that a person anticipates or looks forward to.

  1. A) response
  2. B) need
  3. C) desire
  4. D) expectation
  5. E) attitude

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  An expectation is an outcome or event that a person anticipates or looks forward to.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

222) An expectation is

  1. A) an event that a person likes to remember.
  2. B) a positive cue.
  3. C) an unfulfilled need.
  4. D) an outcome that a person looks forward to.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  An expectation is an outcome or event that a person anticipates or looks forward to.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

223) Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of

  1. A) another person.
  2. B) a brand.
  3. C) a company.
  4. D) a recommender.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Trust is the confidence a person has in the promises or actions of another person, brand, or company.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

224) Psychographics may also be called

  1. A) personality analytics.
  2. B) social group dynamics.
  3. C) lifestyle analysis.
  4. D) opinion insight.
  5. E) attitude measures.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Psychographics are also called lifestyle analysis.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

225) The AIO items used in lifestyle analysis include

  1. A) activities, intentions, and opinions.
  2. B) attitudes, intentions, and opinions.
  3. C) attitudes, income, and opinions.
  4. D) activities, interests, and opinions.
  5. E) attitudes, interests, and opinions.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Psychographics is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions, sometimes referred to as AIOs.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

226) Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, analyzes an individual’s

  1. A) opinions.
  2. B) demographics.
  3. C) activities.
  4. D) interests.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  AIO dimensions (activities, interests, and opinions), along with some demographics, can be used to add detail to the lifestyle profile of a target market.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

227) Psychographics is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s

  1. A) safety, social, and personal needs.
  2. B) actions, interests, and occupation.
  3. C) activities, interests, and opinions.
  4. D) culture, beliefs, and attitudes.
  5. E) psychological and physiological needs.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

228) Studying a consumer’s psychographic characteristics will help marketers understand the target audience’s hobbies, politics, and

  1. A) geographic area.
  2. B) age bracket.
  3. C) family size.
  4. D) income level.
  5. E) recreational interests.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Psychographics, or lifestyle analysis, is the analysis of a person’s day-to-day pattern of living as expressed in that person’s activities, interests, and opinions. Recreation is an example of interests. The other choices are demographic dimensions, not psychographic dimensions. See Exhibit 5–6.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

229) In psychographics AIO analysis, all of the following are examples of activities EXCEPT

  1. A) age.
  2. B) entertainment.
  3. C) club membership.
  4. D) shopping.
  5. E) hobbies.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Examples of activities include work, vacation, surfing, web, hobbies, entertainment, shopping, social events, club membership, and sports. Age is a demographic dimension.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

230) Consumer buying behavior is affected by

  1. A) opinion leaders.
  2. B) social class.
  3. C) physiological, safety, social, and personal needs.
  4. D) reference groups.
  5. E) All of these affect consumer buying behavior.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The consumer decision process is influenced by psychological variables like needs (physiological, safety, social, and personal) and social influences—such as consumer’s family, social class, reference groups, opinion leaders, culture, and ethnic groups.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Psychological Influences within an Individual; Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-02 understand how psychological variables affect an individual’s buying behavior.; 05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

231) Which of the following social influences will likely have the greatest impact on a teenager’s purchase of a skateboard?

  1. A) family
  2. B) reference group
  3. C) culture
  4. D) ethnic group
  5. E) social class

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  A reference group is the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic. Reference influence is stronger for products that others “see” and that relate to status in the group. Teen purchases are heavily influenced by reference groups.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

232) Parents who spent years limiting purchases to home necessities and kids’ entertainment often embrace more luxury-oriented buying patterns later in life. This phenomenon is related to

  1. A) changes in purchase situation.
  2. B) selective retention.
  3. C) reinforcement.
  4. D) changed physiological needs.
  5. E) empty nester behavior.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  People whose children are grown are able to spend their money in other ways. This empty nester period tends to be a high-income time in which adults spend more on travel and other things they couldn’t afford earlier in life.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

233) The inclusion of multiple language options in automated bank teller machines illustrates how some marketers are responding to

  1. A) the growing singles market.
  2. B) emerging reference groups.
  3. C) situational buying.
  4. D) growing ethnic groups.
  5. E) social class fragmentation.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  More marketers pay attention to ethnic groups now because the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a much faster rate than the overall society. Much of this growth results from higher birthrates among ethnic minorities.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

234) Marketers increasingly hire celebrities and even full-time bloggers to engage consumers in social media discussions about new products. A person who is able to influence followers to try products is a(n)

  1. A) channel captain.
  2. B) consumer advocate.
  3. C) marketer.
  4. D) figurehead.
  5. E) opinion leader.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  An opinion leader is a person who influences others. Some marketing mixes aim especially at opinion leaders, since their opinions affect others and they have many product-related discussions with “followers.” The Internet has helped some opinion leaders get more followers and therefore more influence.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

235) ________ is a social influence that affects a person’s buying behavior.

  1. A) Perception
  2. B) Family
  3. C) Motivation
  4. D) Learning
  5. E) Attitude

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Social influences like the consumer’s family, social class, and reference groups influence the consumer decision process.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Ethics

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

236) Which of the following dimensions affects family spending?

  1. A) income
  2. B) age of children
  3. C) age of the couple
  4. D) marital status
  5. E) All these dimensions affect family spending.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Marital status, age, and the age of any children in the family have an especially important effect on how families spend their income.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

237) Which of the following is NOT a stage in the traditional flow of the family life cycle?

  1. A) young single
  2. B) young married without children
  3. C) young divorced with children
  4. D) middle-aged married without dependent children
  5. E) young married with children

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Stages in the traditional flow of the family life cycle are young single, young married without children, young married with children, middle-aged married with children, middle-aged married without dependent children, older married, and older unmarried. See Exhibit 5–7.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

238) The traditional family flow, according to the family life cycle, does NOT include people who are

  1. A) middle-aged divorced without dependent children.
  2. B) young married with children.
  3. C) middle-aged married with children.
  4. D) middle-aged married without dependent children.
  5. E) young married without children.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Stages in the traditional flow of the family life cycle are young single, young married without children, young married with children, middle-aged married with children, middle-aged married without dependent children, older married, and older unmarried. See Exhibit 5–7.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

239) Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) Divorced families usually have more discretionary income than traditional families.
  2. B) Singles and young couples are less willing to try new products than are older couples.
  3. C) Empty nesters are frequently big spenders.
  4. D) Buying responsibility and influence vary little from one family to another.
  5. E) None of these statements is true.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

240) Of the following, which are the most receptive to new products and new brands?

  1. A) families with small children
  2. B) older people with no children
  3. C) families with teenagers
  4. D) families whose children are grown
  5. E) younger people with no children

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Singles and young couples seem to be more willing to try new products and brands.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

241) Of the following, which are the most receptive to new products and new brands?

  1. A) young people
  2. B) senior citizens
  3. C) empty nesters
  4. D) middle-aged people
  5. E) All are equally receptive to new products and new brands.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Singles and young couples seem to be more willing to try new products and brands.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

242) Regarding the family life cycle, singles and younger couples without children

  1. A) are more willing to try new products and brands.
  2. B) tend to be carefree shoppers who are not very price-conscious.
  3. C) often wait to buy basic durable goods until they have children.
  4. D) feel more financially squeezed than couples with young children.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Singles and young couples seem to be more willing to try new products and brands and are careful, price-conscious shoppers.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

243) Ted and Amy Balderas were married last year, at age 24. They have no children, and both are currently working hard to build their careers. Couples like Ted and Amy

  1. A) are likely to be a poor target for firms that are trying to market a new brand or new product concept.
  2. B) usually focus on buying durables, such as furniture and appliances.
  3. C) usually don’t spend money on discretionary purchases.
  4. D) are unlikely to be careful, price-conscious shoppers.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The younger families, especially those with no children, are still accumulating durable goods, such as automobiles and home furnishings.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

244) Which of the following statements is NOT true of the effect of marital status, age, and the age of any children in the family on how people spend their income.

  1. A) Singles and young couples are more willing than older married people to try new products and brands.
  2. B) Younger people usually earn more than older consumers but spend less on discretionary items.
  3. C) Only as children arrive and grow does family spending shift to soft goods and services.
  4. D) Young families with children often make more purchases on credit and save less of their income.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Younger families, especially those with no children, are still accumulating durable goods, such as automobiles, and home furnishings, and therefore spend more (not less) on discretionary items.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

245) Teenagers

  1. A) have no influence on the buying behavior of their parents.
  2. B) are not an attractive market because they do not spend much money.
  3. C) have become a target for many firms.
  4. D) have essentially the same buying habits as they had before reaching their teen years.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Teenagers eat more, want to wear expensive clothes, like music, and develop recreation and education needs. They are a target for many firms.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

246) American teenagers

  1. A) are not interested in expensive clothes.
  2. B) are not involved in shopping.
  3. C) currently spend around $200 billion a year.
  4. D) develop recreation and education needs that are easy on the family budget.
  5. E) do not influence family purchases.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Teenagers eat more, want to wear expensive clothes, like music, and develop recreation and education needs that are hard on the family budget. American teens currently spend almost $200 billion a year.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

247) U.S. teenagers spend about ________ per year.

  1. A) $100 billion
  2. B) $150 billion
  3. C) $200 billion
  4. D) $250 billion
  5. E) $300 billion

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  American teens currently spend almost $200 billion a year.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

248) Empty nesters

  1. A) are senior citizens.
  2. B) are people over 65 who live alone.
  3. C) often have high incomes and fewer required expenses.
  4. D) are singles and couples without children who have much discretionary income.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways. This tends to be a high-income period.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

249) Empty nesters

  1. A) are usually in the 30 to 44 age group.
  2. B) are not an attractive market for any items.
  3. C) spend a larger percentage of their income on child care.
  4. D) are people whose children are grown.
  5. E) disrupt the family life-cycle pattern.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways. This tends to be a high-income period, especially for white-collar workers.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

250) HomeFront Construction Company built large, single-family homes for 25 years. Then there was a shift toward more demand for small luxury condominiums, and HomeFront changed its focus. The change in demand could be explained by

  1. A) the increasing number of empty nesters.
  2. B) the fact that consumers in urban areas generally have higher incomes.
  3. C) the increasing number of people whose children are grown.
  4. D) All these explanations could be relevant.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Empty nesters are people whose children are grown and who are now able to spend their money in other ways. This tends to be a high-income period, especially for white-collar workers. Hence, all explanations could be relevant.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

251) Current consumer research suggests that the family’s purchasing agent is now the

  1. A) husband.
  2. B) child or children.
  3. C) wife.
  4. D) It varies depending on the product and the family.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Buying responsibility and influence vary greatly depending on the product and the family.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

252) Peter Janca noticed, during his weekly grocery shopping, that 7-Up was on sale. Even though he could have saved money with the 7-Up, Peter bought Mountain Dew because that’s the brand his children prefer. Peter was responding to

  1. A) selective exposure.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) a marketing influence.
  4. D) a social influence.
  5. E) a drive.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Although often only one family member goes to the store for a specific purchase, other family members may influence the decision or really decide what to buy. This is an example of a social influence.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

253) Your social class level does NOT depend directly on your

  1. A) housing location.
  2. B) income level.
  3. C) occupation.
  4. D) education.
  5. E) type of housing.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In most countries—including the United States—there is some general relationship between income level and social class. But people with the same income level may be in different social classes; so income by itself is usually not a good measure of social class.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

254) The social class system in the United States

  1. A) does not affect how people spend, but it does affect how they save.
  2. B) may put people with the same income level in different social classes.
  3. C) is based on a person’s educational level.
  4. D) is much more rigid than in Europe and Asia.
  5. E) does not affect people’s attitudes.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In most countries—including the United States—there is some general relationship between income level and social class. But people with the same income level may be in different social classes; so income by itself is usually not a good measure of social class.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

255) Social class in the U.S. is usually measured in terms of

  1. A) income.
  2. B) occupation, education, and housing arrangements.
  3. C) income, occupation, and education.
  4. D) race, religion, and occupation.
  5. E) income, occupation, and religion.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In the United States, simple approaches for measuring social class groupings are based on a person’s occupation, education, and type and location of housing.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

256) In the United States, social class groupings are typically based on all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) type of housing.
  2. B) education.
  3. C) community participation.
  4. D) occupation.
  5. E) location of housing.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  In the United States, simple approaches for measuring social class groupings are based on a person’s occupation, education, and type and location of housing.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

257) Which of the following statements about social class is FALSE?

  1. A) The various classes tend to have different attitudes.
  2. B) The various classes tend to save money in different ways.
  3. C) Income by itself can be a pretty good measure of social class.
  4. D) The various classes tend to have different beliefs.
  5. E) The various classes tend to borrow money in different ways.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  In the United States, people with the same income level may be in different social classes; so income by itself is usually not a good measure of social class.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

258) Which of the following statements concerning social class is FALSE?

  1. A) Income by itself is usually a good measure of social class.
  2. B) In most countries, social class is closely related to a person’s occupation.
  3. C) In most countries, there is a general relationship between income level and social class.
  4. D) Almost every society has some social class structure.
  5. E) The U.S. class system is far less rigid than the class systems in most other countries.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In the United States, people with the same income level may be in different social classes; so income by itself is usually not a good measure of social class.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

259) Which of the following statements about social class is FALSE?

  1. A) People in different social classes tend to have different beliefs and feelings.
  2. B) People with the same income level are always in the same social class.
  3. C) Variables such as occupation, education, and type of housing form the basis of simple approaches for measuring social class.
  4. D) The U.S. class system is far less rigid than the class systems in most other countries.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In the United States, people with the same income level may be in different social classes.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

260) ________ refers to the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

  1. A) Family
  2. B) Social class
  3. C) Ethnic group
  4. D) Focus group
  5. E) Reference group

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  A reference group is the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

261) Which of the following statements about reference groups is true?

  1. A) Reference group influence is so strong that a person normally has only one.
  2. B) Reference group influence is greatest for older people.
  3. C) Reference group influence is equally strong for all products and brands.
  4. D) Reference group members may not even know the people who influence their values and attitudes.
  5. E) None of these statements is true.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  People normally have several reference groups for different topics. Some they meet face-to-face; others, they just wish to imitate—for example, performers or athletes.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

262) A good marketing manager knows that

  1. A) a consumer’s reference group may consist of people with whom the consumer has no face-to-face contact.
  2. B) most consumers have only one reference group.
  3. C) a consumer’s family is not a reference group.
  4. D) reference groups usually have the most influence on purchases of products that are not easily seen by others.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  People normally have several reference groups for different topics. Some they meet face-to-face; others, they just wish to imitate—for example, performers or athletes.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

263) Which of the following observations about reference groups is FALSE?

  1. A) Reference groups are people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.
  2. B) An individual usually has a single reference group for all topics.
  3. C) An individual may make buying decisions based on what the group thinks.
  4. D) Reference group influence is stronger for products that others “see.”
  5. E) Reference group influence is stronger for products that relate to status in the group.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  People normally have several reference groups for different topics.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

264) Reference group influence would be WEAKEST for determining which particular ________ a person buys.

  1. A) watch
  2. B) cosmetics
  3. C) clothing
  4. D) laundry soap
  5. E) car

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Reference group influence is stronger for products that others “see” and that relate to status in the group.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

265) Reference group influence is likely to have the strongest effect on the particular brand of ________ purchased.

  1. A) dishwasher detergent
  2. B) frozen peas
  3. C) batteries
  4. D) watch
  5. E) Reference group influence would be about the same for each of these products.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Reference group influence is stronger for products that others “see” and that relate to status in the group.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

266) Natasha Talbott was interested in a new set of golf clubs. She discussed the various types with some knowledgeable friends and relied on their advice. Natasha’s friends were acting as

  1. A) an economic influence.
  2. B) routinized decision-makers.
  3. C) a social class.
  4. D) a lifestyle group.
  5. E) a reference group.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  A reference group is the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

267) In the Jockey underwear ads showing young people on the beach and the slogan, “Let ’em know you’re Jockey,” the company is hoping to use ________ groups to influence consumer behavior.

  1. A) cultural
  2. B) family
  3. C) opinion
  4. D) reference
  5. E) social

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Reference group refers to the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

268) When Ariat gave boots away to popular rodeo riders, other riders began asking for the Ariat brand, and Western stores were eager to sell the boots. Ariat used ________ groups to influence consumer behavior.

  1. A) social
  2. B) family
  3. C) reference
  4. D) cultural
  5. E) opinion

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Reference group refers to the people to whom an individual looks when forming attitudes about a particular topic. Reference group influence is stronger for products that others “see” and that relate to status in the group.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

269) Opinion leaders are

  1. A) usually better educated than others.
  2. B) usually wealthier than others.
  3. C) people who influence others.
  4. D) rarely involved in product-related discussions with the people who “follow” them.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  An opinion leader is a person who influences others.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

270) Which of the following statements about opinion leaders is true?

  1. A) Opinion leaders are usually wealthier and better educated than others.
  2. B) Opinion leaders on one subject aren’t necessarily opinion leaders on another.
  3. C) Firms always aim their marketing mixes at general consumers, not opinion leaders.
  4. D) Favorable publicity from opinion leaders rarely helps a marketing mix.
  5. E) Opinion leaders are the same as reference groups.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Opinion leaders on one subject aren’t necessarily opinion leaders on another.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

271) Which of the following is true of the impact that social media has on the consumer decision process?

  1. A) Marketing managers have direct control over social media influences.
  2. B) Social media limits consumers’ exposure to a wide range of reference groups.
  3. C) Social media amplifies the voices of opinion leaders.
  4. D) Consumer adoption of the web and social media has had no significant effect on the consumer decision process.
  5. E) Marketing managers do not need to monitor the use of social media by opinion leaders.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Social media amplifies the voices of opinion leaders. Marketing managers are still trying to figure out how to manage this type of influence.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

272) Which of the following examples illustrates social media’s amplification of the voice of opinion leaders?

  1. A) an e-commerce site providing attractive offers to its regular customers
  2. B) a retail store announcing a sweepstake on its company website
  3. C) a seasoned tourist posting a long, detailed, positive review at Hotels.com
  4. D) a podcast that receives thousand views and hits
  5. E) a brand sending a message about Twitter to its followers

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Social media amplifies the voices of opinion leaders. Think about the impact of a traveler posting a long, detailed, positive review at Hotels.com, or of a movie fan telling Facebook friends how much she disliked a new movie.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

273) A group of new-generation mothers blogging about products they like and dislike attracts a lot of readers, mainly those who are expecting a baby. These new-generation mothers are examples of

  1. A) message mediators.
  2. B) gatekeepers.
  3. C) liaisons.
  4. D) opinion leaders.
  5. E) category captains.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Some firms make opinion leaders the target market. For example, some moms have had great success writing blogs that attract tens of thousands of readers. They often blog about products they like—and don’t like.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

274) Websites use artificial intelligence to make recommendations by

  1. A) analyzing shopping behaviors.
  2. B) leveraging social influence.
  3. C) using social influencers.
  4. D) engaging opinion leaders.
  5. E) targeting reference groups.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Websites use artificial intelligence to analyze customers’ online search and shopping behaviors to make more targeted product recommendations. It is estimated that about a third of Amazon’s sales follow from such recommendations.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

275) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous group of people is a(n)

  1. A) culture.
  2. B) family.
  3. C) evoked set.
  4. D) social class.
  5. E) reference group.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

276) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people is a(n)

  1. A) tradition.
  2. B) class.
  3. C) society.
  4. D) culture.
  5. E) ethnicity.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

277) The whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people is called a(n)

  1. A) personal environment.
  2. B) culture.
  3. C) motivation.
  4. D) learned set.
  5. E) opinion set.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

278) Which of the following statements about culture and consumer behavior is true?

  1. A) Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people.
  2. B) Culture may exert many subtle influences on other aspects of consumer behavior.
  3. C) Different cultural subgroups are likely to require different marketing mixes.
  4. D) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Culture is the whole set of beliefs, attitudes, and ways of doing things of a reasonably homogeneous set of people. It is useful to think of subcultures within cultures, as they influence consumer behavior and therefore require different marketing mixes.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Technology

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

279) People from different ethnic groups

  1. A) create challenges for marketers, not opportunities.
  2. B) do not play an important role in the American marketplace.
  3. C) may be influenced by very different cultural variables.
  4. D) have common needs.
  5. E) have similar ways of thinking.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  People from different ethnic groups may be influenced by very different cultural variables.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

280) Which of the following statements is true of culture and international markets?

  1. A) Assuming cultural homogeneity across nations almost guarantees success in international markets.
  2. B) Planning strategies that consider cultural differences in international markets are simple and straightforward.
  3. C) Treating each foreign market as a separate market with its own submarkets and culture is a useful method in marketing.
  4. D) General human tendencies do not vary across cultures; therefore it is insignificant to consider cultural differences in international markets.
  5. E) Ignoring cultural differences is almost a guarantee of success in international markets.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Planning strategies that consider cultural differences in international markets are complex to develop and even harder to implement. It makes more sense to treat each foreign market as a separate market with its own submarkets. Ignoring cultural differences—or assuming that they are not important—almost guarantees failure in international markets.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

281) U.S.-based Myva Foods Inc. is expanding its business to the Asian market. Which of the following will NOT be effective in the company’s efforts to expand to international markets?

  1. A) paying close attention to the cultural differences between Myva’s home country and the host countries
  2. B) finding new ways to blend the Four Ps of the marketing mix in the new market by making an effort to understand the local culture
  3. C) applying the same marketing mix Myva uses in the U.S. market to the Asian market
  4. D) putting more effort into planning strategies for the international markets, even though it has experienced success in the U.S. market

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  It is an ineffective practice to apply the same marketing mix to the Asian market as to the U.S. market. Each foreign market may need to be treated as a separate market with its own submarkets.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

282) Which of the following statements regarding ethnic shifts in the American market is true?

  1. A) Estimates indicate that by 2019 the buying power of Hispanics will exceed a trillion and half dollars.
  2. B) Estimates indicate that by 2019 the buying power of African Americans will exceed 1 trillion dollars.
  3. C) Estimates indicate that by 2018 Asian Americans will have 1 trillion dollars in buying power.
  4. D) The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly. Estimates indicate that the buying power of Hispanics, African Americans, and Asian Americans will each exceed 1 trillion dollars by 2019.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

283) Which of the following statements about ethnic dimensions of the U.S. market is true?

  1. A) Ethnic groups buy differently and have different needs.
  2. B) Many firms make the mistake of treating all consumers in an ethnic group as a single group.
  3. C) The number of ethnic consumers is growing at a faster rate than the overall society.
  4. D) The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly.
  5. E) All these statements are true.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Ethnic groups buy differently and have different needs. Many firms make the mistake of treating all consumers in an ethnic group as homogeneous. The number of ethnic consumers is growing at a faster rate than the overall society. The buying power of ethnic submarkets is increasing rapidly. Hence, all the statements are true.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

284) Ethnic markets are becoming more important to marketers because

  1. A) the buying power of ethnic submarkets has been decreasing.
  2. B) the median age of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics is much higher than that of whites.
  3. C) the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a much faster rate than the overall society.
  4. D) they make a clear segment with similar backgrounds and common language, religion, and culture.
  5. E) the birthrate of Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics is lower than that of whites.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  More marketers pay attention to ethnic groups now because the number of ethnic consumers is growing at a much faster rate than the rest of the United States.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

285) Which of the following statements by marketing managers is NOT logical and true?

  1. A) “We are planning to appeal more to Hispanic consumers, since this group has surged and is now over 15 percent of the population.”
  2. B) “We’re building supermarkets that will appeal to Hispanic consumers; it’s a big investment, but the Hispanic population in the U.S. spends more than $1 trillion a year.”
  3. C) “We are adapting our diaper promotion to target African American and Hispanic parents, since the birthrate in those groups is higher than for whites.”
  4. D) “We will target Asian Americans in California, New York, and Texas, since over half of their population in the U.S. is concentrated in those three states.”
  5. E) “We are going to appeal to the African American group because it is a large, homogeneous target market.”

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Many firms make the mistake of treating all consumers in a particular ethnic group as a single group.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Social Influences Affect Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-03 understand how social influences affect an individual’s buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

286) The largest ethnic minority group in the United States is composed of

  1. A) African Americans.
  2. B) Asian Americans.
  3. C) Native Americans.
  4. D) Polish Americans.
  5. E) Hispanics.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Hispanic Americans are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

287) Which of the followings statements about the Hispanic population is FALSE?

  1. A) More than half of all Hispanics in the United States live in three states.
  2. B) In 2015, over 25 percent of the U.S. population was Hispanic.
  3. C) In 2015, the Hispanic population of the United States was 56.6 million.
  4. D) Hispanics are the largest ethnic group in the United States.
  5. E) By 2019, the buying power of U.S. Hispanics will exceed $1.5 trillion.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The Hispanic market is large and growing. In 2015, Hispanics comprised 18 percent of the U.S. population and were the largest ethnic group in the nation. More than half of all U.S. Hispanics live in three states—California, Texas, and Florida.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

288) Compared to the other major ethnic groups in the United States, which of the following would an African American consumer be more likely to buy?

  1. A) a product tied to cultural traditions
  2. B) fragrances
  3. C) electronic goods
  4. D) dried grains
  5. E) a product sold online

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  As compared to the other major ethnic groups, African American consumers are more likely to purchase products tied to cultural traditions and family gatherings.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

289) Which of the following statements about Asian Americans is FALSE?

  1. A) Asian Americans are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States.
  2. B) One-third of all Asian Americans live in California.
  3. C) Asian Americans have the highest average household income of the major ethnic groups.
  4. D) Asian Americans make up 6 percent of the U.S. population.
  5. E) Asian Americans disproportionately buy more fresh produce, organic foods, and electronic goods, as compared with other groups.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  While there are only 19 million Asian Americans (6 percent of the population), Asian Americans have the highest average household income ($77,166) of the major ethnic groups. One-third of Asian Americans live in California and, compared to other groups, they disproportionately purchase more fresh produce, organic foods, and electronic goods.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Culture, Ethnicity, and Consumer Behavior

Learning Objective:  05-04 describe how culture and ethnicity influence consumer buying behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

290) A college student on her way to take an exam remembers that she doesn’t have a pencil with an eraser, which the instructor asked everyone to bring. The store where she stops doesn’t have regular pencils, but it does sell Scripto mechanical pencils priced at $2.95. That is what she buys. This case illustrates the effect of

  1. A) the personal environment.
  2. B) culture.
  3. C) the purchase situation.
  4. D) the learned set.
  5. E) dissonance.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Consumer behavior varies in different situations. The urgency of the need is a time-related factor that influences buying behavior. This is an example of purchase situation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

291) A person who purchases flowers will select different floral arrangements for a retirement party, a funeral, and a Valentine’s Day date. This illustrates the impact of ________ on purchase decisions.

  1. A) economic needs
  2. B) psychological variables
  3. C) social influences
  4. D) the purchase situation
  5. E) extensive problem solving

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Why and how a consumer selects certain products may vary greatly depending on the purchase situation. Different purchase situations may even require different marketing mixes—even when the same target market is involved.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

292) Which of the following illustrates time and surroundings as factors of the purchase situation that can greatly stimulate buying behavior?

  1. A) routine trip to grocery store
  2. B) using mass transit to travel to and from work
  3. C) Black Friday shopping
  4. D) buying online
  5. E) paying a monthly cell phone bill

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Black Friday (the day after U.S. Thanksgiving) is a unique once-a-year shopping event in which retailer discounts and mass selling displays stimulate frenzied buying.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

293) A salesperson driving to visit a client located two hours away has a tire blow out on the highway. He walks about a mile to the next exit, where he finds a service station. The owner of the station says he can replace the blown tire, but it will cost twice as much as it would to purchase a tire in the salesperson’s home city. The salesperson, not wanting to be late for his appointment, agrees to pay the higher price in order to get back on the road. This case illustrates the effect of ________ on buying behavior.

  1. A) cultural background
  2. B) social groups
  3. C) the purchase situation
  4. D) the learning situation
  5. E) reference groups

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Shopping for tires is much more urgent when one has a flat, as compared to when one notices that the tread is just starting to wear thin. Consumer behavior varies in different situations. The urgency of the need is a time-related factor that influences their buying behavior. Therefore, this is an example of a purchase situation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

294) ________ is a time-related factor.

  1. A) Demographic intensity
  2. B) Urgency of a need
  3. C) Environmental viability
  4. D) Economy of purchase
  5. E) Sociological interest

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Time influences a purchase situation. When consumers seek to make a purchase, the time they have available for shopping will influence their behavior. The urgency of the need generally shortens the amount of time spent comparing products.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

295) When the need for a product or service is urgent, customers are

  1. A) less inclined to evaluate a range of options.
  2. B) more likely to downplay convenience.
  3. C) less likely to be stimulated by impulse.
  4. D) more likely to be involved in extensive problem solving.
  5. E) more likely to extend the adoption process.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  When the need is urgent, customers will be less inclined to evaluate a range of options—and place more emphasis on speed and convenience. Time influences a purchase situation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

296) In which of the following situations is time influencing the purchase situation the most?

  1. A) Jiah purchases a gift for his mother after viewing an online offer.
  2. B) Henry visits a discount store to compare the store’s pricing with other regular stores before purchasing a lawn mower.
  3. C) Kelly visits the city’s central mall and checks various brands of sunglasses before she decides to purchase one from the Lanezone brand.
  4. D) Beulah, on her way to work, realizes that her car has a flat tire. She gets it fixed at the nearest auto service station without evaluating other alternatives.
  5. E) Ronaldo reviews websites and a consumer magazine as he considers buying a new television.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Shopping for tires is much more urgent when one has a flat tire as compared to when one notices that the tread is just starting to wear thin. When the need is urgent, customers will be less inclined to evaluate a range of options—and place more emphasis on speed and convenience.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

297) An on-site auction may stimulate a different response than an online auction. This is an example of ________ affecting the purchase decision.

  1. A) demographics
  2. B) time
  3. C) surroundings
  4. D) task
  5. E) culture

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Surroundings can affect buying behavior. The excitement at an on-site auction may stimulate impulse buying. Checking out an auction online might lead to a different response.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  Individuals are Affected by the Purchase Situation

Learning Objective:  05-05 explain how characteristics of the purchase situation influence consumer behavior.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

298) The consumer decision process begins with

  1. A) a routinized response.
  2. B) need awareness.
  3. C) information search.
  4. D) problem solving.
  5. E) alternative evaluation.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

299) For a home-based purchase of a furnace, the consumer decision process typically begins when

  1. A) home heating commercials create product awareness.
  2. B) a furnace sale is advertised in coupon mailings.
  3. C) the first cold day of winter sets in.
  4. D) a malfunction occurs in an older furnace.
  5. E) ten years have passed since the last purchase.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The consumer decision process begins when a consumer becomes aware of an unmet need. In the case of buying a home furnace, most consumers recognize they have a need when the present furnace begins to malfunction.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

300) Which of the following would have the LEAST influence on a consumer purchase of a 5-gallon waterproof sealant for wood decks and fences?

  1. A) the purchase situation
  2. B) social influences
  3. C) economic needs
  4. D) psychological variables
  5. E) opinion of an opinion leader

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Many hardware and home-improvement purchases are utility-oriented and based in necessity. As a result, such items are influenced least by social influences like culture, reference groups, or social class.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

301) A consumer who seeks to purchase an HDTV for the first time for a home entertainment theater is likely to

  1. A) use a routinized response behavior.
  2. B) engage in limited problem solving.
  3. C) engage in extensive problem solving.
  4. D) make a low-involvement purchase.
  5. E) seek the brand with the lowest prices.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need—as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy a need for the right equipment to place in a home entertainment theater.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

302) Which of the following is an important problem-solving step for a consumer trying to satisfy a need?

  1. A) search for information
  2. B) identify alternatives
  3. C) set criteria
  4. D) evaluate alternatives
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Problem solving involves the following steps: information search, identifying alternatives, setting criteria, and evaluating alternatives.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

303) When consumers use a problem-solving process to make purchase decisions, what is the next step after they become aware of a problem?

  1. A) evaluating alternative solutions
  2. B) gathering information about possible solutions
  3. C) deciding on the appropriate solution
  4. D) evaluating the decision
  5. E) making the commitment to purchase a particular product or service

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Problem-solving involves the following steps: information search, identifying alternatives, setting criteria, and evaluating alternatives.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

304) Alejandro Allende needs a new computer. He is researching the different brands by talking to friends, discussing it with his company’s IT department, and looking at different computer-company websites. In terms of consumer problem solving, Alejandro is

  1. A) searching for information.
  2. B) identifying alternatives.
  3. C) setting criteria.
  4. D) evaluating alternatives.
  5. E) recognizing needs.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Alejandro is in the information search step of consumer problem solving. He is seeking information about specific brands and looking for information from other customers, experts, and company promotions.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

305) Which of the following is NOT one of the levels of consumer problem solving discussed in the text?

  1. A) dissonance problem solving
  2. B) routinized response behavior
  3. C) extensive problem solving
  4. D) limited problem solving

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  There are three levels of problem solving that relate to the amount of effort the buyer puts into the decision: extensive problem solving, limited problem solving, and routinized response behavior.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Create

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

306) When a consumer puts much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, the consumer engages in

  1. A) extensive problem solving.
  2. B) critical problem solving.
  3. C) routinized response behavior.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) intensive problem solving.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Extensive problem solving is when the consumer puts much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

307) What is the likely level of involvement in a purchase decision for a new couch?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) low
  4. D) moderate
  5. E) routine

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Extensive problem solving is when a consumer puts much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy an important need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

308) Extensive problem solving probably would be required by a recent college graduate in the purchase of

  1. A) living room furniture.
  2. B) a color TV set.
  3. C) a new home.
  4. D) a sports car.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy an important need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

309) Extensive problem solving probably would NOT be required by young newlyweds in the purchase of a

  1. A) stereo system.
  2. B) soft drink.
  3. C) home.
  4. D) DVD player.
  5. E) car.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy an important need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

310) Lars Sorenson is a college student who needs to purchase a suit for job interviews. In the past his father has helped him buy suits. This time, he is the sole decision maker and is paying for the $450 suit with money he earned at his part-time job. Lars is concerned about good fit and good value, so he visits several stores before making his purchase. For Lars, this situation seems to be one of

  1. A) routinized response behavior.
  2. B) low-involvement purchasing.
  3. C) extensive problem solving.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) adoption purchasing.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy an important need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

311) Chelsea is buying her first flat panel television. She wants to make the right decision, so she consults several websites for product reviews, talks to friends and salespeople at electronics stores, determines several key criteria, and evaluates six different sets. For her flat panel purchase, Chelsea has used

  1. A) extensive problem solving.
  2. B) a focused information search.
  3. C) routinized response behavior.
  4. D) limited problem solving.
  5. E) low-involvement buying.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Consumers use extensive problem solving when they put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need, as is likely for a completely new purchase or to satisfy an important need.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

312) Limited problem solving is used

  1. A) when consumers put much effort into deciding how to satisfy a need.
  2. B) for purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.
  3. C) by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.
  4. D) when consumers regularly select a particular way of satisfying a need when it occurs.
  5. E) mostly for impulse purchases.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

313) Monica does not find her regular brand of shampoo at the store. She looks at the bottles of three other brands before deciding on the Shine-On brand. Monica has engaged in ________ problem solving.

  1. A) limited
  2. B) intensive
  3. C) routinized
  4. D) extensive
  5. E) analytical

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

314) What is the likely level of involvement in a purchase decision for a small kitchen appliance?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) low
  4. D) moderate
  5. E) routine

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is used by consumers when some effort is required in deciding the best way to satisfy a need. This is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

315) The purchase of which of the following items involves routinized response behavior?

  1. A) a laptop
  2. B) a mattress
  3. C) a new suit
  4. D) a silver ring
  5. E) a fast-food restaurant meal

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Routinized response is typical when a consumer has considerable experience in how to meet a specific need and requires no new information—for example, purchase of a fast-food restaurant meal.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

316) Limited problem solving probably would be required by empty nesters in the purchase of

  1. A) sports clothes.
  2. B) a restaurant’s services.
  3. C) a plumbing repair service.
  4. D) a replacement garbage disposer.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment. Empty nesters would likely apply limited problem solving to all of the purchases given here.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

317) Eddie Falco went to a grocery store to buy his favorite brand of ice cream; however, the store was temporarily out of that brand, so he looked over the other familiar brands and decided to try one that is well-advertised. This case illustrates

  1. A) routinized response behavior.
  2. B) intensive problem solving.
  3. C) limited problem solving.
  4. D) extensive problem solving.
  5. E) low-involvement behavior.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Limited problem solving is typical when the consumer has some previous experience with a product but isn’t quite sure which choice to make at the moment.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

318) Which type of problem solving is typical for a low-involvement purchase?

  1. A) extensive problem solving
  2. B) critical problem solving
  3. C) limited problem solving
  4. D) intensive problem solving
  5. E) routinized response behavior

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—that is, purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

319) Routinized response behavior

  1. A) is most likely when past purchases of similar products have not satisfied the consumer’s needs.
  2. B) is more likely when previous behavior has not yet been reinforced.
  3. C) is most common for purchases where the consumer has much experience in how to meet a need.
  4. D) increases the time required to make a purchase decision.
  5. E) is likely in a new purchase situation.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Routinized response is typical when a consumer has considerable experience in how to meet a specific need and requires no new information.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

320) More than 600,000 loyal customers signed up in advance to purchase the iPhone 8 in an Apple store the first day it was available for sale in the U.S. What type of response behavior were these Apple followers demonstrating?

  1. A) low-involvement buying
  2. B) limited problem solving
  3. C) extensive problem solving
  4. D) routinized response
  5. E) dissonance response

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Routinized response also may occur when a buyer trusts a company, brand, or a friend’s recommendation. Because trust lowers the risk of making the wrong choice, less effort is required from the buyer.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

321) When Corey runs out of shampoo, he buys whatever brand is on sale at his local CVS drugstore. What is his level of involvement in the purchase decision for shampoo?

  1. A) extensive
  2. B) limited
  3. C) moderate
  4. D) modest
  5. E) routine

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—that is, purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

322) Which of the following is LEAST likely to be an example of routinized response behavior?

  1. A) buying a Coke
  2. B) purchasing a new pair of shoes
  3. C) buying soap at a convenient supercenter
  4. D) buying a burrito at Taco Bell
  5. E) filling the car with gasoline

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  A consumer uses routinized response behavior when he or she regularly selects a particular way of satisfying a need when it occurs. Purchasing a new pair of shoes is not an example of routinized response behavior.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

323) Routinized response behavior would probably be used by many consumers in the purchase of

  1. A) soap.
  2. B) canned fruit.
  3. C) salt.
  4. D) milk.
  5. E) All these answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—that is, purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer. Soap, canned fruit, salt, and milk are low-involvement purchases.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

324) Which of the following products would probably involve the lowest-involvement purchase for most consumers?

  1. A) paper towels
  2. B) summer vacation
  3. C) smartphone
  4. D) sweater
  5. E) cough syrup

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Routinized response behavior is typical for low-involvement purchases—that is, purchases that have little importance or relevance for the customer.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

325) Dissonance is a

  1. A) tension caused by uncertainty about the rightness of a decision.
  2. B) conflict between opinion leaders.
  3. C) confirmation in the learning process.
  4. D) kind of belief.
  5. E) form of social influence.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Dissonance is a feeling of uncertainty about whether the correct decision was made.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

326) Which of the following is true of dissonance?

  1. A) It discourages a consumer from considering information once a purchase is made.
  2. B) It is likely to result in a consumer buying the same product next time.
  3. C) It is more likely to occur with low-involvement products.
  4. D) It is less likely to occur when a consumer has repeatedly purchased the same product.
  5. E) It occurs in the adoption process after a consumer becomes interested in a product.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Dissonance is a feeling of uncertainty about whether the correct decision was made. Dissonance does not generally occur for frequently purchased items, as they are low-involvement purchases.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

327) Laurie Michaels just bought a smartphone after spending several weeks considering all the possibilities. She likes the new phone, but she still wonders if another brand at a slightly higher price would have been better. This is an example of

  1. A) the relationships among drives, cues, and reinforcement.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) a reference group influence.
  4. D) the stimulus-response reaction.
  5. E) routinized response behavior.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  After making a purchase, buyers often have second thoughts and wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

328) After buying an expensive new mobile phone, Kevin experiences ________ when he has second thoughts and wonders if he made the right choice.

  1. A) attitude adjustment
  2. B) variance
  3. C) conflict
  4. D) dissonance
  5. E) evaluation

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  After making a purchase, buyers often have second thoughts and wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

329) Billy Longstreet bought a new car and was a bit uncertain about whether or not he had done the right thing. Two days after he purchased it, he decided to take it back to the dealer for installation of some additional optional equipment. When Billy returned to the dealership to pick up the car after the installation, the salesman who sold Billy the car said, “You know, in the last two hours three different customers told me how much they liked the looks of your new car. One of them even wanted to know if it was for sale!” This attempt by the salesman to confirm the wisdom of Billy’s purchase decision seems to be aimed at reducing

  1. A) post-purchase regret.
  2. B) reference group influence.
  3. C) adoption jitters.
  4. D) a stimulus-response reaction.
  5. E) dissonance.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Dissonance is a feeling of uncertainty about whether the correct decision was made. This may lead a customer to seek additional information to confirm the wisdom of the purchase.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Diversity

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

330) A consumer who purchases a new computer but encounters frustration with set up and technical support may experience

  1. A) limited problem solving.
  2. B) extensive problem solving.
  3. C) dissonance.
  4. D) evaluation.
  5. E) an information search.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  After making a purchase, buyers often have second thoughts and wonder if they made the right choice. The resulting tension is called dissonance—a feeling of uncertainty about whether the correct decision was made. All the other choices given take place prior to a purchase.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

331) For a long time, Jessica felt disappointment over a new pair of jeans that never fit quite right. Jessica experienced

  1. A) high-involvement purchasing.
  2. B) dissonance.
  3. C) post-purchase regret.
  4. D) confirmation.
  5. E) selective feedback.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  When a post-purchase experience fails to live up to expectations, a customer will be disappointed.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

332) Which of the following refers to a marketer countering negative publicity to save a product’s image?

  1. A) perceptual mapping
  2. B) dissonance process
  3. C) adoption process
  4. D) information filtering
  5. E) damage control

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  At times, a marketer’s career might call for countering negative publicity—damage control—to save a product’s image. Many consumers talk about their purchases and share opinions about their good and bad experiences.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

333) Damage control is important for marketers because

  1. A) the Internet limits the rights of people to share their opinions about a product or service with a large audience.
  2. B) many consumers share opinions about their good and bad experiences with a product or service.
  3. C) consumers are more likely to share stories about being satisfied than dissatisfied.
  4. D) recommendations from friends and family have no effect on consumers’ purchase choices.
  5. E) car wrecks can be caused by shopping while driving.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  At times, a marketer’s career might call for countering negative publicity—damage control—to save a product’s image. Many consumers talk about their purchases and share opinions about their good and bad experiences. Recommendations from friends can have a big influence on whether we try a new restaurant, buy a hybrid car, or choose a veterinarian.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

334) Many firms use ________ to evaluate data in an attempt to forecast unknown future events.

  1. A) predictive analytics
  2. B) psychographics
  3. C) selective exposure
  4. D) market segmentation
  5. E) clustering techniques

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Predictive analytics is a process that firms used to analyze data to make predictions about unknown future events.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

335) Which of the following is an example of the use of predictive analytics?

  1. A) Spotify recommends a new artist based on past listening history.
  2. B) Dropbox introduces online storage to a target market.
  3. C) Netflix unveils a new advertising campaign to differentiate itself from its competitors.
  4. D) An in-store promotion makes sure that Hershey’s candy is put at point-of-purchase locations throughout the store.
  5. E) Sales associates at Nordstrom check out customers through the use of handheld devices so that customers do not need to wait in line.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Predictive analytics can be used to identify alternatives to customers. A recommendation by a music streaming service based on a listener’s past listening behavior is an example of the use of predictive analytics.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

336) Predictive analytics is used to

  1. A) anticipate outcomes.
  2. B) adopt ideas.
  3. C) confirm decisions.
  4. D) reduce dissonance.
  5. E) reinforce behavior.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Based on data about a customer and their behavior, predictive analysis is used to make predictions about unknown future events.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

337) The steps individuals go through in accepting or rejecting a new idea are known as

  1. A) the adoption process.
  2. B) the dissonance process.
  3. C) belief formation.
  4. D) information search.
  5. E) extensive problem solving.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Adoption process refers to the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

338) A consumer who is interested in making the switch from a desktop computer to a tablet computer may require a prolonged learning and trial process known as

  1. A) the consumer decision process.
  2. B) limited problem solving.
  3. C) the adoption process.
  4. D) selective exposure.
  5. E) lifestyle analysis.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  When consumers face a truly new concept, their previous experience may not be relevant. These situations involve the adoption process—the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea. Although the adoption process is similar to the decision making process, learning plays a clearer role, and promotion’s contribution to a marketing mix is more visible.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

339) In the adoption process, an individual moves through six definite steps. These steps are

  1. A) awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  2. B) awareness, interest, involvement, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  3. C) involvement, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  4. D) evaluation, interest, awareness, trial, decision, and confirmation.
  5. E) evaluation, interest, involvement, trial, decision, and confirmation.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

340) Which of the following gives the correct order of the steps in the adoption process?

  1. A) interest, awareness, trial, decision, evaluation, dissonance
  2. B) awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, confirmation
  3. C) awareness, interest, trial, evaluation, decision, dissonance
  4. D) awareness, interest, trial, decision, evaluation, confirmation
  5. E) awareness, interest, evaluation, decision, trial, confirmation

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

341) Consumers go through six steps when deciding to accept or reject a new idea. In this adoption process, the

  1. A) confirmation step follows the decision step.
  2. B) evaluation step follows the trial step.
  3. C) awareness step follows the interest step.
  4. D) trial step follows the awareness step.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

342) With regard to the adoption process,

  1. A) interest is the first step.
  2. B) decision is the final step.
  3. C) awareness follows interest.
  4. D) evaluation precedes trial.
  5. E) decision follows confirmation.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

343) In the adoption process,

  1. A) interest is the first stage.
  2. B) confirmation is the last stage.
  3. C) trial precedes evaluation.
  4. D) evaluation precedes interest.
  5. E) None of these answers is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Remember

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

344) The adoption process suggests that

  1. A) confirmation must come before the decision to adopt or reject.
  2. B) evaluation usually comes before trial and decision.
  3. C) the decision to reject may follow confirmation.
  4. D) confirmation comes from a satisfactory evaluation.
  5. E) decision usually follows trial and confirmation.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In the adoption process, an individual moves through some fairly definite steps: awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, decision, and confirmation.

Difficulty: 3 Hard

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

345) A marketing manager for a new brand of bar soap decides to mail free samples to consumers. The logic for using this approach is best explained by the

  1. A) economic buyer model.
  2. B) stimulus-response model.
  3. C) typical consumer’s adoption process.
  4. D) need to reduce dissonance.
  5. E) high level of problem solving required with such a product.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Adoption process refers to the steps individuals go through on the way to accepting or rejecting a new idea. Sampling (or trial) is one of these steps.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

346) In the ________ step of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial by applying it to his or her personal situation.

  1. A) interest
  2. B) confirmation
  3. C) trial
  4. D) decision
  5. E) evaluation

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  In the evaluation step of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

347) Ken Prescott has noticed several television commercials for BestYet—a new brand of shampoo. While washing his hair, he thinks about what would happen if he replaced his current shampoo with BestYet. What stage in the adoption process has Ken reached?

  1. A) evaluation
  2. B) feedback
  3. C) decision
  4. D) interest
  5. E) awareness

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  In the evaluation step of the adoption process, a consumer begins to give the product a mental trial, applying it to his or her personal situation.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

348) In the ________ stage of the adoption process, the consumer may buy the product to experiment with it in use.

  1. A) interest
  2. B) awareness
  3. C) evaluation
  4. D) trial
  5. E) decision

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  In the trial step of the adoption process, the consumer may buy the product to experiment with it in use.

Difficulty: 1 Easy

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

349) A potential customer for a new Audi sedan takes the car for a two-hour test drive to see how it responds on the open road. This customer is at the ________ stage of the adoption process.

  1. A) awareness
  2. B) interest
  3. C) decision
  4. D) confirmation
  5. E) trial

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  In the trial step of the adoption process, the consumer may buy the product to experiment with it in use. In this case, the customer took the car for a test drive.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Apply

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

350) In which step of the adoption process does the adopter continues to rethink the decision and search for support for the decision?

  1. A) interest
  2. B) evaluation
  3. C) trial
  4. D) confirmation
  5. E) awareness

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  In the confirmation step of the adoption process, the adopter continues to rethink the decision and searches for support for the decision—that is, further reinforcement.

Difficulty: 2 Medium

Topic:  The Consumer Decision Process

Learning Objective:  05-06 explain the process by which consumers make buying decisions.

Bloom’s:  Understand

AACSB:  Analytical Thinking

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

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