Essentials of Life Span Development 6th Edition by Santrock – Test Bank

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Essentials of Life-Span Development, 6e (Santrock)

Chapter 5   Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

 

1) The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n)

  1. A) nutrition program for young children.
  2. B) educational program for young children.
  3. C) program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.
  4. D) parenting education program.

 

2) Sandra is informed by a pediatrician that her four-year-old son, Manuel, has gained six pounds over the last one year. Sandra should

  1. A) be alarmed because Manuel has gained a lot of weight.
  2. B) be concerned because Manuel has gained less weight.
  3. C) be positive and change Manuel’s diet.
  4. D) be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.

 

3) During early childhood, girls are ________ than boys.

  1. A) much lighter
  2. B) more muscular
  3. C) slightly smaller
  4. D) considerably taller

 

4) By the end of early childhood, girls have more ________ tissue than boys.

  1. A) fatty
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) nervous

 

5) A review of the height and weight of children around the world concluded that there are

  1. A) congenital differences.
  2. B) ethnic differences among them.
  3. C) no visible differences.
  4. D) cases of hyperthyroidism.

 

6) What are the two most important contributors to height differences among children all over the world?

  1. A) nationality and culture
  2. B) education and exercise
  3. C) prenatal care and emotional challenges
  4. D) ethnic origin and nutrition

7) Who among the following five-year-olds is most likely to be the tallest?

  1. A) Timothy who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy
  2. B) Tina who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn girl
  3. C) Tyrone who is an African American, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn boy.
  4. D) Tucker who is an African American, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy.

8) Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?

  1. A) The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.
  2. B) By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.
  3. C) By age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size.
  4. D) The brain of a five-year-old is 60 percent the size of an adult brain.

 

9) ________ is a process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.

  1. A) Centration
  2. B) Myelination
  3. C) Tropism
  4. D) Neurogenesis

 

10) ________ involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system during brain development in children between the ages of 3 and 5.

  1. A) Centration
  2. B) Myelination
  3. C) Tropism
  4. D) Neurogenesis

 

11) Scientists have discovered that there ________ the brains of children in the 3- to 15-year age range.

  1. A) are dramatic changes in local patterns within
  2. B) are phenomenal increases in the overall size of
  3. C) are insignificant anatomical changes in
  4. D) are hardly any internal metamorphisms within

 

12) Identify a characteristic of autobiographical memory.

  1. A) It pertains to information acquired during adolescence rather than childhood.
  2. B) It allows people to do routine work without requiring conscious thought.
  3. C) It involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life.
  4. D) It refers to information that is retained for up to 30 seconds if it is not rehearsed.

13) Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age the most rapid growth takes place in the ________ lobe areas of the brain.

  1. A) temporal
  2. B) parietal
  3. C) frontal
  4. D) occipital

 

 

14) Toby is three years old. His parents are concerned because he always runs and jumps around. He cannot sit still. Even when watching his favorite cartoon on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating for his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby’s parents do?

  1. A) They should have him tested for attention deficit disorder.
  2. B) They should enroll him in a behavior modification program.
  3. C) They should provide structured and cognitively challenging activities for Toby to develop his attention span.
  4. D) They should avoid panicking as Toby’s behavior is normal for kids in his age group.

 

15) When 4- and 5-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they demonstrate their

  1. A) cognitive skills.
  2. B) fine harboring skills.
  3. C) gross motor skills.
  4. D) reflective skills.

 

16) Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their activities often aggravate their parents, these activities will

  1. A) help the boys develop their gross motor skills.
  2. B) stop when their brains become better myelinated.
  3. C) be temporary as they will not be friends for long.
  4. D) help the boys overcome narcolepsy.

 

17) Irene is a 3-year-old girl. Her father takes her to a nearby park in the evening. In the context of the development of gross motor skills in children her age, identify an activity that Irene is mostly likely to do at the park.

  1. A) She will hop and jump just for the sheer delight of performing these activities.
  2. B) She will scramble over low jungle gyms to display her athletic prowess.
  3. C) She will perform hair-raising stunts on all climbing objects.
  4. D) She will run hard and enjoy races with her father and other children.

18) Debra is a very active child. She loves to tumble and show off. She always tries, what her parents consider, hair-raising stunts. She also loves running and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of

  1. A) 1-year-olds.
  2. B) 2-year-olds.
  3. C) 3-year-olds.
  4. D) 5-year-olds.

 

 

19) Jim, a 3-year-old boy, gets a box of colorful blocks as a birthday gift from his uncle. He is excited to see the gift and demands to play with the blocks immediately. In the context of physical and cognitive development in early childhood, when playing with the blocks, Jim is most likely to

  1. A) place each block on top of the other with intense concentration.
  2. B) stack each block on top of the other in a completely straight line.
  3. C) find it impossible to pick up the blocks.
  4. D) juggle all the blocks perfectly.

 

20) Studies by Powers and Dodd in 2017 and Powers and Howley in 2018 show that a child’s life should center around ________.

  1. A) meals
  2. B) activities
  3. C) discipline
  4. D) education

 

21) Four-year-old Nathan is good at stacking blocks to make tall structures. However, he knocks them down occasionally. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?

  1. A) His gross motor skills are underdeveloped.
  2. B) He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
  3. C) His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.
  4. D) He is showing signs of dyslexia.

 

22) Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children?

  1. A) competing activities
  2. B) a predictable schedule
  3. C) parents eating healthy food
  4. D) making mealtimes pleasant occasions

23) Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight?

  1. A) weight
  2. B) average calories consumed daily
  3. C) waist-to-hip ratio
  4. D) body mass index

 

24) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) has established categories for weight that are determined by body mass index. Children and adolescents at or above the 97th percentile are classified as ________.

  1. A) obese
  2. B) overweight
  3. C) at risk of being overweight
  4. D) severely malnourished

 

 

25) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018), a person with a body mass index (BMI) at the 90th percentile is

  1. A) obese.
  2. B) overweight.
  3. C) at risk of being overweight.
  4. D) underweight.

 

26) Six-year-old Gina has a body mass index (BMI) at the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018), she is

  1. A) obese.
  2. B) overweight.
  3. C) at risk of being overweight.
  4. D) not at risk of being overweight.

 

27) Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?

  1. A) Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12.
  2. B) There is no indication that overweight children will become overweight adults.
  3. C) Obesity is not linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
  4. D) Obesity actually leads to a decrease in hypertension levels in children when they are 5 years of age.

28) Recently, four expert panels from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States issued physical activity guidelines for young children that were quite similar (Pate & others, 2015). The guidelines recommend that young children engage in about ________ of physical activity per day total.

  1. A) half an hour
  2. B) 3 hours
  3. C) 15 minutes
  4. D) 4 hours

 

29) Leah, a 6-year-old girl, is a fussy eater. She avoids eating dark green vegetables and meat. She only prefers junk food. She feels weak, becomes tired easily, and shows signs of chronic fatigue. It can be said that Leah is showing symptoms of

  1. A) lactose intolerance.
  2. B) binge eating disorder.
  3. C) iron deficiency anemia.
  4. D) alopecia areata.

 

30) The leading cause of death in young children in 2015 in the United States was

  1. A) heart disease.
  2. B) malnutrition.
  3. C) accidents.
  4. D) domestic violence.

 

 

31) Which of the following statements about parental smoking is true?

  1. A) Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
  2. B) Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes.
  3. C) Children exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes are not more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking families.
  4. D) Parental smoking is the leading cause of death in young children in the United States.

 

32) Which of the following can enhance a child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?

  1. A) decreasing home/school partnerships
  2. B) the absence of playground hazards
  3. C) the reduction of pool fencing
  4. D) reducing frequent parent protective behaviors

33) According to Sleet and Mercy, which of the following steps can be taken to enhance children’s safety and prevent injury in the context of their family and home?

  1. A) actively surveilling environmental hazards
  2. B) promoting home/school partnerships
  3. C) developing social skills and the ability to regulate emotions
  4. D) displaying frequent parent protective behaviors

 

34) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017), which of the following was the most common cause of accidental death in young children in 2015 in the United States?

  1. A) drowning
  2. B) deformations
  3. C) homicide
  4. D) suffocation

 

35) Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by reductions in

  1. A) nutrition.
  2. B) sanitation.
  3. C) poverty.
  4. D) education.

 

36) Which of the following statements is true of Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development?

  1. A) In this stage, a child can perform operations independently without adult supervision.
  2. B) In this stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
  3. C) This stage lasts from approximately 3 months to 2 years of age.
  4. D) This stage involves the ability to use deductive reasoning.

 

 

37) Six-year-old Patricia loves to draw pictures and describe them. Her ideas are more balanced now than earlier. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds, what her parents describe as, “magical beliefs.” Patricia is in Piaget’s ________ stage of development.

  1. A) sensorimotor
  2. B) concrete operational
  3. C) formal operational
  4. D) preoperational

38) Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children in this stage of development

  1. A) cannot yet perform reversible mental actions.
  2. B) cannot yet form stable concepts.
  3. C) are unable to reason.
  4. D) cannot operate electronic devices like televisions.

 

39) Brian is 2.5 years old. He dwells in his own imaginary world and represents objects that are not present. He often scribbles patterns on walls that represent cloud, trees, birds, and so on. Brian’s behavior indicates that he is in Piaget’s ________ of cognitive development.

  1. A) symbolic function substage
  2. B) intuitive thought substage
  3. C) concrete operational stage
  4. D) formal operational stage

 

40) Three-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It is a boat in the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?

  1. A) animism
  2. B) conservation
  3. C) the intuitive thought substage
  4. D) the symbolic function substage

 

41) The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) empathy.
  3. C) egocentrism.
  4. D) symbolism.

 

 

42) Wendy, a 4-year-old girl, decides to gift her father a teddy bear on his birthday because she likes teddy bears. She asks her elder brother to help her wrap the gift. She does not consider the fact that her father may not like the gift or have no use for it. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) egocentrism.
  3. C) decentration.
  4. D) conservation.

43) Olivia, 3-year-old girl, loves to play with her toy train. She names it Max and takes it with her everywhere. One day, while drinking milk, she spills the milk on the floor. To avoid being scolded, Olivia tells her mother that Max has spilled the milk. Another day, she blames Max for soiling her dress. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) egocentrism.
  2. B) conservation.
  3. C) animism.
  4. D) centration.

 

44) “My computer does not like me. It keeps eating my pictures,” says three-year-old Kimberly. This is an example of

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) intuitive thinking.
  3. C) conservation.
  4. D) egocentrism.

 

45) The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of

  1. A) reversible mental actions.
  2. B) egocentric views.
  3. C) primitive reasoning.
  4. D) symbolic thought.

 

46) Derek, a 4-year-old boy, is curious by nature and exhausts his parents with “why” questions. However, he is not able to comprehend ideas. His imagination does not resemble reality. Whenever he sees a rainbow, he believes that a fairy has painted it with watercolors. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

  1. A) Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.
  2. B) Piaget’s intuitive thought substage.
  3. C) the overjustification effect.
  4. D) the misinformation effect.

 

 

47) Piaget called the second substage of the preoperational stage intuitive because children know something but know it without the use of ________.

  1. A) symbolic function
  2. B) primitive reasoning
  3. C) centration
  4. D) rational thinking

48) Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair that his sister got more cookies than him. Juan is showing a lack of

  1. A) constancy.
  2. B) conservation.
  3. C) intuition.
  4. D) symbolic function.

 

49) Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?

  1. A) Conservation requires centration.
  2. B) Centration is due to the lack of conservation.
  3. C) Centration is evidenced in young children’s lack of conservation.
  4. D) Conservation is independent of centration.

 

50) Diego is 3 years old. His mother pours him and his elder sister orange juice. Because his mother does not have two glasses of the same size, she pours his sister the juice in a taller glass than his. Though both glasses have the same amount of juice, Diego starts to cry because he think his sister has more juice. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) egocentrism.
  2. B) centration.
  3. C) animism.
  4. D) imitation.

 

51) In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changing an object’s appearance

  1. A) does not change its basic properties.
  2. B) affects its inherent features.
  3. C) determines the total volume needed for a given task.
  4. D) must be considered before the characteristics of the object can be determined.

 

52) In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates

  1. A) that a child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  2. B) that a child is unable to think fluidly.
  3. C) centration.
  4. D) rational thought.

 

 

53) According to Rochel Gelman, ________ is especially important in explaining conservation.

  1. A) the age of a child
  2. B) heredity
  3. C) attention
  4. D) intuition

54) The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for

  1. A) a young adult’s cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.
  2. B) the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
  3. C) how a child’s environment and his or her genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
  4. D) the range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.

 

55) According to Gauvain and Perez, which of the following factors can enhance the effectiveness of the zone of proximal development?

  1. A) ambivalent attachment
  2. B) absolute emotion control
  3. C) child compliance
  4. D) maternal strictness

 

56) Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support. He can walk to the middle of a room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?

  1. A) Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
  2. B) Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself
  3. C) Kevin walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with his hands
  4. D) Kevin learning to walk by holding his parents’ hands

 

57) Three-year-old Sharon can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own but needs her parents’ help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?

  1. A) Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles
  2. B) Sharon solving 6-piece puzzles with her parents’ help
  3. C) Sharon helping her two-year-old brother solve 4-piece puzzles
  4. D) Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles

 

58) Which of the following did Vygotsky call the “buds” or “flowers” of development?

  1. A) tasks a child can accomplish independently
  2. B) intuitive thinking and rational thinking
  3. C) a child’s cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing
  4. D) a child’s gross motor skills that are fully developed

 

59) When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children indicate that they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw their support. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s

  1. A) zone of proximal development.
  2. B) development of conservational abilities.
  3. C) enhancement of intuitive reasoning.
  4. D) process of centration.

 

60) Which of the following refers to teachers’ adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of the skills of their students?

  1. A) accommodation
  2. B) regulation
  3. C) scaffolding
  4. D) assimilation

 

61) Over the past week, Walter has been learning to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother held his hands and worked his fingers through the process. Now that Walter is better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) how heredity shapes cognitive development
  2. B) intuitive reasoning
  3. C) scaffolding
  4. D) conservation

 

62) Natalie is 4 years old. When she buttons her shirt, she talks to herself and describes the steps. This helps her in self-regulating and guiding her behavior. In the context of cognitive and physical development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) centration.
  2. B) belief perseverance.
  3. C) avolition.
  4. D) private speech.

 

63) Which of the following describes Lev Vygotsky’s belief about the development of thought and language?

  1. A) Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
  2. B) Thought depends on language, and they are merged throughout development.
  3. C) Thought and language initially develop independently of each other and then merge.
  4. D) Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

64) For Vygotsky, private speech is ________.

  1. A) immature
  2. B) a tool used by children to regulate the behavior of others
  3. C) an important tool of thought during the early childhood years
  4. D) egocentric

 

65) Kristi works in a day-care center. She notices that Pablo, a 4-year-old boy, often indulges in private speech when doing any activity on his own. She has heard him talking to himself when solving puzzles. Kristi believes in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in children. After seeing Pablo’s behavior, Kristi is likely to assume that Pablo’s usage of private speech is

  1. A) egocentric.
  2. B) mature.
  3. C) an important tool of thought.
  4. D) a means of guiding one’s behavior.

 

66) Four-year-old Michelle talks to herself frequently. She does this especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is

  1. A) engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
  2. B) likely to be socially competent.
  3. C) functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  4. D) engaging in scaffolding.

 

67) Three-year-old Amy looks at her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’. Do not touch.” It appears that Amy is using ________ to regulate her own behavior.

  1. A) mindstream
  2. B) intuitive reasoning
  3. C) private speech
  4. D) symbolic function

 

68) Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?

  1. A) IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.
  2. B) A child should learn on his or her own to realize his or her capabilities.
  3. C) A child’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
  4. D) Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.

69) Which of the following scenarios best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?

  1. A) A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
  2. B) An instructor helps students with laboratory work showing them how to do things the students cannot do yet.
  3. C) A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.
  4. D) An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

 

70) According to Vygotsky, which of the following educational strategies should be incorporated in classrooms?

  1. A) making each child responsible for his or her work without relying on peers or teachers for support
  2. B) formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning
  3. C) discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk
  4. D) offering just enough assistance to a child to accomplish a task

71) According to Gauvain (2016) and Holzman (2017), Vygotsky’s view of the importance of ________ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.

  1. A) autonomy
  2. B) sociocultural influences
  3. C) the economic status of teachers
  4. D) scaffolding

 

72) In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from

  1. A) the individual to collaboration.
  2. B) collaboration to sociocultural activity.
  3. C) construction to discovery.
  4. D) socializing to operational thought.

 

73) In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, Vygotsky argued that ________.

  1. A) formal, standardized tests are the best way to assess children’s learning
  2. B) assessment should focus on determining a child’s zone of proximal development
  3. C) educators should focus on abstract presentations of material
  4. D) teaching should begin toward the lower limit of the zone of proximal development

74) Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through

  1. A) self-discovery.
  2. B) social interaction.
  3. C) the reorganization of existing knowledge.
  4. D) transforming previous knowledge.

 

75) In the context of theories of cognitive development, unlike Vygotsky, Piaget believed that ________.

  1. A) children construct knowledge through social interaction
  2. B) education plays a central role in helping children learn the tools of culture
  3. C) language plays a powerful role in shaping thought
  4. D) cognition primarily directs language

 

76) Tools of the Mind is a program that is grounded in ________ theory of cognitive development.

  1. A) Vygotsky’s
  2. B) Erikson’s
  3. C) Sternberg’s
  4. D) Piaget’s

 

77) In a Tools of the Mind classroom, ________ has a central role.

  1. A) nutrition
  2. B) didactic lecture
  3. C) dramatic play
  4. D) abstract presentation

 

78) Ted is in a Tools of the Mind classroom. His teacher guides him in planning his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word he says. Ted then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he says the word. Finally, he writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called

  1. A) model drawing.
  2. B) scaffolding writing.
  3. C) word visualizing.
  4. D) positive role-play.

 

79) Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?

  1. A) Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
  2. B) Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
  3. C) Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.
  4. D) Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance, which plays an important role in learning.

80) According to McClelland and others (2017) and Schmitt and others (2017), ________ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.

  1. A) salient
  2. B) relevant
  3. C) executive
  4. D) sustained

 

81) ________ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

  1. A) Salient
  2. B) Relevant
  3. C) Executive
  4. D) Sustained

 

82) A police officer visits Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer talked about. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was

  1. A) salient.
  2. B) relevant.
  3. C) habituated.
  4. D) intended.

 

 

83) A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents about all the safety rules discussed by the officer. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was

  1. A) salient.
  2. B) relevant.
  3. C) habituated.
  4. D) superfluous.

 

84) Patsy is a 5-year-old girl. She participates in a laboratory experiment in which random alphabets are rapidly read out to her. After 20 seconds, she is asked to recall those alphabets. In the context of information processing, this experiment has been conducted to assess Patsy’s

  1. A) command over syntax.
  2. B) pragmatics usage.
  3. C) short-term memory.
  4. D) interest in literature.

85) The ability of preschool children to control and sustain their attention is related to

  1. A) school readiness and focus.
  2. B) the decreased likelihood of obesity.
  3. C) increased short-term memory capacity.
  4. D) an increase in implicit memory.

 

86) When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment. The children exhibit a lack of

  1. A) conservation.
  2. B) attention to the salient.
  3. C) centration.
  4. D) planfulness.

 

87) Which of the following statements is true of short-term memory?

  1. A) One method of assessing short-term memory is the memory-span task.
  2. B) In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to 5 minutes if there is no rehearsal of the information.
  3. C) Short-term memory involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life.
  4. D) An aspect of short-term memory that has been extensively studied in research on children’s development is autobiographical memory.

 

 

88) Irene conducts a laboratory experiment to test the memory of children. She rapidly reads out a list of colors to three children aged 4, 6, and 13 years. The children are then asked to repeat the names of the colors. Irene notices that the 6-year-old and the 13-year-old are able to recall more colors than the 4-year-old. This experiment illustrates that

  1. A) younger children tend to rehearse information more than older children do.
  2. B) short-term memory decreases during late childhood.
  3. C) information is retained in short-term memory for a long period without rehearsal.
  4. D) memory span varies from one individual to another.

 

89) Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means

  1. A) preparing for a memory-span test.
  2. B) doing mental exercises daily to keep one’s mind sharp.
  3. C) repeating information after it has been presented.
  4. D) taking regular memory-span tests.

90) Research with the memory-span task suggests that

  1. A) short-term memory increases during early childhood.
  2. B) long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.
  3. C) memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.
  4. D) heredity is one of the major factors affecting memory.

 

91) In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how

  1. A) peer groups play a part in short-term memory.
  2. B) older children rehearse the digits from their tests more than younger children do.
  3. C) elementary schools practice scaffolding.
  4. D) memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

 

92) Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at a trial. The defense argued that her testimony could be invalid because

  1. A) at her age, she has no long-term memories.
  2. B) her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
  3. C) she is more likely to embellish her memories.
  4. D) children cannot recall details of events sequentially.

 

93) ________ refers to an umbrella-like concept that consists of a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex, which play a role in managing thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.

  1. A) Executive attention
  2. B) Executive function
  3. C) Prefrontal control
  4. D) Prefrontal inhibition

 

 

94) The theory of ________ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

  1. A) self-awareness
  2. B) recognition
  3. C) mind
  4. D) consciousness

 

95) 18-month-old Alan hates spinach but says, “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole. This indicates that

  1. A) he will also like spinach when he grows up.
  2. B) he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
  3. C) he has started to recognize false beliefs.
  4. D) he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.

96) Children begin to understand three mental states from 18 months to 3 years of age. According to Pratt and Bryant, a child realizes that looking leads to knowing what’s inside a container by 3 years of age. This mental state of the child is known as ________.

  1. A) suspicion
  2. B) emotion
  3. C) desire
  4. D) perception

 

97) Russell conducts an experiment to study children’s theory of mind. He selects participants and divides them into two groups. The first group consists of 3-year-olds, whereas the second group consists of 5-year-olds. Russell takes a box of crayons and places candies in them. He opens the box and shows it to both groups. Next, he asks the first group what a child who has never seen the box will think is actually inside the box. The group replies, “Candies!” To the same question, the second group replies, “Crayons!” This scenario illustrates that

  1. A) children refer to cognitive states earlier than they refer to desires.
  2. B) 3-year-old children have a deepening appreciation of the mind.
  3. C) 5-year-old children believe that people’s behaviors necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
  4. D) children younger than 4 years old do not understand that it is possible to have a false belief.

 

98) According to Benson and Sabbagh (2017), ________ describes several operations, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and are also connected to theory of mind development.

  1. A) operational thought
  2. B) sustained attention
  3. C) executive function
  4. D) intuitive reasoning

 

 

99) Executive function involves ________.

  1. A) managing one’s thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control
  2. B) learning difficult tasks with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children
  3. C) focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
  4. D) building memories of significant events and experiences in one’s life

 

100) Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, “Bird flied away.” Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of “-ed” in “flied” shows that he is trying to learn the ________ rules of language.

  1. A) phonological
  2. B) morphological
  3. C) pragmatic
  4. D) syntactic

101) 3-year-old Zelda always asks questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply the rules of

  1. A) pragmatics.
  2. B) morphology.
  3. C) syntax.
  4. D) phonology.

 

102) Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that young children who took part in the experiment knew

  1. A) the phonological rules.
  2. B) the rules of syntax.
  3. C) the pragmatic rules.
  4. D) the morphological rules.

 

103) ________ is a process that helps to explain how young children learn the connection between a word and its referent so quickly.

  1. A) Vertical thinking
  2. B) Centration
  3. C) Fast mapping
  4. D) Conservation

 

104) According to Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek (2011), which of the following is a key principle in young children’s vocabulary development?

  1. A) Children learn words best when grammar and vocabulary are given less emphasis.
  2. B) Children learn the words they hear most often when interacting with their parents, teachers, siblings, and peers.
  3. C) Children learn words more effectively when they are passive, rather than active, learners.
  4. D) Children learn new words more effectively when new words are encountered as isolated facts rather than in integrated contexts.

 

 

105) In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, identify a true statement about pragmatics.

  1. A) It refers to relating a word to its referent quickly.
  2. B) It is the awareness that changing an object’s appearance does not change its basic properties.
  3. C) It refers to focusing one’s attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
  4. D) It is the appropriate use of language in different contexts.

106) Five-year-old Donna uses shorter, simpler sentences when talking to her baby brother. She speaks in a very informal way with her friends and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of

  1. A) pragmatics.
  2. B) morphology.
  3. C) syntax.
  4. D) phonology.

 

107) In the context of early childhood education, developmentally appropriate practice emphasizes

  1. A) the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect children’s interests and capabilities.
  2. B) the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
  3. C) the importance of giving children considerable freedom in choosing activities and allowing them to move from one activity to another as they desire.
  4. D) the content of learning rather than the process of learning.

 

108) ________ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

  1. A) The child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) The Montessori approach
  3. C) Developmentally appropriate practice
  4. D) Developmentally inappropriate practice

 

109) Nicole, a 3-year-old girl, goes to a school that follows the Montessori approach to education. Which of the following are Nicole’s teachers likely to follow?

  1. A) They will make all the decisions for her.
  2. B) They will show her how to perform intellectual activities.
  3. C) They will act as a director rather than a facilitator.
  4. D) They will ensure that Nicole indulges in the activities that they desire.

 

110) Nurturing is a key aspect of ________, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.

  1. A) the child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) the Montessori approach
  3. C) developmentally appropriate practice
  4. D) the Reggio Emilia approach

 

111) Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activities. She plays with the toys she chooses, and her teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?

  1. A) the kindergarten approach
  2. B) the Rogerian approach
  3. C) the Montessori approach
  4. D) the success-oriented approach

 

112) Which of the following is a criticism of the Montessori approach?

  1. A) It lays a lot of emphasis on social interaction.
  2. B) It does not employ self-corrective materials.
  3. C) It lays a lot of emphasis on imaginative play.
  4. D) It neglects children’s socioemotional development.

 

113) ________ is based on knowledge of the typical progress of a child within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child.

  1. A) The child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) Developmentally appropriate practice
  3. C) The Montessori approach
  4. D) The success-oriented approach

 

114) In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and substandard education for young children in the United States through

  1. A) the Maria Montessori Program.
  2. B) the Emancipation Undertaking.
  3. C) the Reggio Emilia Project.
  4. D) Project Head Start.

 

115) Karla is a single mother of a 5-year-old son. She works in a bakery on a meager salary. Recently, she found out about a government-funded program that provides children from low-income families with the opportunity to acquire the skills important for success in school. The program aims to improve substandard education and alleviate poverty. Karla decides to apply for the program. The program being referred to in this scenario is

  1. A) the child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) the Montessori program
  3. C) Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
  4. D) Project Head Start

 

116) Which of the following is true of Head Start programs?

  1. A) They provide for low-income families.
  2. B) They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
  3. C) They have a negative effect on young children’s language development.
  4. D) They are funded by private corporate sectors.

 

117) Two current controversies in early childhood education involve

  1. A) the curriculum and universal preschool education in the United States.
  2. B) the quality of inner-city schools and free education to all.
  3. C) the use of corporal punishment in schools and the use of uniforms.
  4. D) Christian holidays for all and boarding schools.

 

118) According to Feeney, Moravcik, and Nolte (2019), Follari (2019), and Gestwicki (2017), competent early childhood programs should focus

  1. A) on cognitive development and socioemotional development.
  2. B) exclusively on cognitive development.
  3. C) on preoperational skills.
  4. D) on academics alone.

 

119) Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues supporting universal preschool in the United States?

  1. A) It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all four-year-old children.
  2. B) The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be questionable.
  3. C) Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.
  4. D) Universal preschool would bring cost savings on the order of billions of dollars because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

 

120) Critics of universal preschool education argue that

  1. A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  2. B) research has not proven that nondisadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool.
  3. C) the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
  4. D) quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that a child will drop out of school later.

 

121) Critics of universal preschool education say that

  1. A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  2. B) it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged than to fund preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
  3. C) preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.
  4. D) there is a lot of pressure on young children to achieve, and universal preschool education does not provide any opportunities to actively construct knowledge.

122) Name the researcher who showed that when a child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

 

123) Name the cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

 

 

124) Name the Italian physician-turned-educator who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education. In this approach, children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

 

125) Identify the substage of preoperational thought in which a young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

 

126) Identify the inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

 

127) Identify the term that refers to the awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.

 

128) A(n) ________ is an approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed.

 

129) Identify the term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.

 

130) Identify the term that refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

 

131) Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child’s interests and capabilities. This view represents a ________.

 

132) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) has established categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight. Describe how these categories are determined and classified.

 

133) Discuss the 5-2-1-0 obesity prevention guidelines recently issued for young children.

 

134) Define what Piaget meant by an operation. What would be one task that preoperational children fail to do because they lack operations?

135) Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought. Provide an example of children’s thinking at each stage.

 

136) What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits? How can one use peer scaffolding to teach children mathematics within the zone?

 

137) List the ways in which Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.

 

138) Briefly state two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.

 

139) Describe two reasons for developmental changes in memory span.

 

140) Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory.

 

141) Arielle took part in one of Walter Mischel’s delay of gratification studies. She was able to stop herself from eating the marshmallow by humming a song to herself. What does research suggest about her future?

 

142) Briefly describe a child’s theory of mind. How are false-belief tasks useful in assessing the theory of mind?

 

143) Describe four strategies suggested by Ellen Galinsky for using books effectively with preschool children.

 

144) Describe the six key principles in young children’s vocabulary development as identified by Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek.

 

145) What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education?

 

146) What are the three principles that the child-centered kindergarten honors?

 

147) What are the current controversies in early childhood education?

 

 

 

Essentials of Life-Span Development, 6e (Santrock)

Chapter 5   Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

 

1) The Reggio Emilia approach is a(n)

  1. A) nutrition program for young children.
  2. B) educational program for young children.
  3. C) program for training kindergarten and elementary school teachers.
  4. D) parenting education program.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 140

Topic:  Early Childhood Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

2) Sandra is informed by a pediatrician that her four-year-old son, Manuel, has gained six pounds over the last one year. Sandra should

  1. A) be alarmed because Manuel has gained a lot of weight.
  2. B) be concerned because Manuel has gained less weight.
  3. C) be positive and change Manuel’s diet.
  4. D) be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

3) During early childhood, girls are ________ than boys.

  1. A) much lighter
  2. B) more muscular
  3. C) slightly smaller
  4. D) considerably taller

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

4) By the end of early childhood, girls have more ________ tissue than boys.

  1. A) fatty
  2. B) muscle
  3. C) epithelial
  4. D) nervous

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

5) A review of the height and weight of children around the world concluded that there are

  1. A) congenital differences.
  2. B) ethnic differences among them.
  3. C) no visible differences.
  4. D) cases of hyperthyroidism.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

6) What are the two most important contributors to height differences among children all over the world?

  1. A) nationality and culture
  2. B) education and exercise
  3. C) prenatal care and emotional challenges
  4. D) ethnic origin and nutrition

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

7) Who among the following five-year-olds is most likely to be the tallest?

  1. A) Timothy who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy
  2. B) Tina who is a White, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn girl
  3. C) Tyrone who is an African American, urban, middle-socioeconomic-status, firstborn boy.
  4. D) Tucker who is an African American, rural, lower-socioeconomic-status, later-born boy.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 141

Topic:  Height and Weight

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

8) Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is true?

  1. A) The development that occurs inside the brain ends at the onset of adolescence.
  2. B) By the time a child is 3 years of age, the brain is 25 percent of its adult size.
  3. C) By age 6, the brain has reached about 95 percent of its adult size.
  4. D) The brain of a five-year-old is 60 percent the size of an adult brain.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Brain Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

9) ________ is a process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.

  1. A) Centration
  2. B) Myelination
  3. C) Tropism
  4. D) Neurogenesis

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Brain Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

10) ________ involves an increase in the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system during brain development in children between the ages of 3 and 5.

  1. A) Centration
  2. B) Myelination
  3. C) Tropism
  4. D) Neurogenesis

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Brain Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

11) Scientists have discovered that there ________ the brains of children in the 3- to 15-year age range.

  1. A) are dramatic changes in local patterns within
  2. B) are phenomenal increases in the overall size of
  3. C) are insignificant anatomical changes in
  4. D) are hardly any internal metamorphisms within

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Brain Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

12) Identify a characteristic of autobiographical memory.

  1. A) It pertains to information acquired during adolescence rather than childhood.
  2. B) It allows people to do routine work without requiring conscious thought.
  3. C) It involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life.
  4. D) It refers to information that is retained for up to 30 seconds if it is not rehearsed.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 156

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

13) Researchers have found that in children from 3 to 6 years of age the most rapid growth takes place in the ________ lobe areas of the brain.

  1. A) temporal
  2. B) parietal
  3. C) frontal
  4. D) occipital

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Brain Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

14) Toby is three years old. His parents are concerned because he always runs and jumps around. He cannot sit still. Even when watching his favorite cartoon on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating for his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which of the following should Toby’s parents do?

  1. A) They should have him tested for attention deficit disorder.
  2. B) They should enroll him in a behavior modification program.
  3. C) They should provide structured and cognitively challenging activities for Toby to develop his attention span.
  4. D) They should avoid panicking as Toby’s behavior is normal for kids in his age group.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Gross Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

 

15) When 4- and 5-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they demonstrate their

  1. A) cognitive skills.
  2. B) fine harboring skills.
  3. C) gross motor skills.
  4. D) reflective skills.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Gross Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

16) Fred and Wayne are 4-year-olds. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their activities often aggravate their parents, these activities will

  1. A) help the boys develop their gross motor skills.
  2. B) stop when their brains become better myelinated.
  3. C) be temporary as they will not be friends for long.
  4. D) help the boys overcome narcolepsy.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Gross Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

17) Irene is a 3-year-old girl. Her father takes her to a nearby park in the evening. In the context of the development of gross motor skills in children her age, identify an activity that Irene is mostly likely to do at the park.

  1. A) She will hop and jump just for the sheer delight of performing these activities.
  2. B) She will scramble over low jungle gyms to display her athletic prowess.
  3. C) She will perform hair-raising stunts on all climbing objects.
  4. D) She will run hard and enjoy races with her father and other children.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Gross Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

18) Debra is a very active child. She loves to tumble and show off. She always tries, what her parents consider, hair-raising stunts. She also loves running and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of

  1. A) 1-year-olds.
  2. B) 2-year-olds.
  3. C) 3-year-olds.
  4. D) 5-year-olds.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Gross Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

19) Jim, a 3-year-old boy, gets a box of colorful blocks as a birthday gift from his uncle. He is excited to see the gift and demands to play with the blocks immediately. In the context of physical and cognitive development in early childhood, when playing with the blocks, Jim is most likely to

  1. A) place each block on top of the other with intense concentration.
  2. B) stack each block on top of the other in a completely straight line.
  3. C) find it impossible to pick up the blocks.
  4. D) juggle all the blocks perfectly.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 143

Topic:  Fine Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

20) Studies by Powers and Dodd in 2017 and Powers and Howley in 2018 show that a child’s life should center around ________.

  1. A) meals
  2. B) activities
  3. C) discipline
  4. D) education

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 143

Topic:  Exercise

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

21) Four-year-old Nathan is good at stacking blocks to make tall structures. However, he knocks them down occasionally. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?

  1. A) His gross motor skills are underdeveloped.
  2. B) He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
  3. C) His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.
  4. D) He is showing signs of dyslexia.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 143

Topic:  Fine Motor Skills

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

22) Which of the following should be minimized in order to improve the eating behavior of children?

  1. A) competing activities
  2. B) a predictable schedule
  3. C) parents eating healthy food
  4. D) making mealtimes pleasant occasions

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

23) Which of the following determines the categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight?

  1. A) weight
  2. B) average calories consumed daily
  3. C) waist-to-hip ratio
  4. D) body mass index

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

24) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) has established categories for weight that are determined by body mass index. Children and adolescents at or above the 97th percentile are classified as ________.

  1. A) obese
  2. B) overweight
  3. C) at risk of being overweight
  4. D) severely malnourished

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

25) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018), a person with a body mass index (BMI) at the 90th percentile is

  1. A) obese.
  2. B) overweight.
  3. C) at risk of being overweight.
  4. D) underweight.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

26) Six-year-old Gina has a body mass index (BMI) at the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018), she is

  1. A) obese.
  2. B) overweight.
  3. C) at risk of being overweight.
  4. D) not at risk of being overweight.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

27) Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is true?

  1. A) Children who are overweight at age 3 are also at risk of being overweight at age 12.
  2. B) There is no indication that overweight children will become overweight adults.
  3. C) Obesity is not linked to type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
  4. D) Obesity actually leads to a decrease in hypertension levels in children when they are 5 years of age.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

28) Recently, four expert panels from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States issued physical activity guidelines for young children that were quite similar (Pate & others, 2015). The guidelines recommend that young children engage in about ________ of physical activity per day total.

  1. A) half an hour
  2. B) 3 hours
  3. C) 15 minutes
  4. D) 4 hours

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 145

Topic:  Exercise

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

29) Leah, a 6-year-old girl, is a fussy eater. She avoids eating dark green vegetables and meat. She only prefers junk food. She feels weak, becomes tired easily, and shows signs of chronic fatigue. It can be said that Leah is showing symptoms of

  1. A) lactose intolerance.
  2. B) binge eating disorder.
  3. C) iron deficiency anemia.
  4. D) alopecia areata.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 204

Topic:  Malnutrition

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

30) The leading cause of death in young children in 2015 in the United States was

  1. A) heart disease.
  2. B) malnutrition.
  3. C) accidents.
  4. D) domestic violence.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 146

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

31) Which of the following statements about parental smoking is true?

  1. A) Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
  2. B) Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes.
  3. C) Children exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes are not more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking families.
  4. D) Parental smoking is the leading cause of death in young children in the United States.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 145

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

32) Which of the following can enhance a child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury?

  1. A) decreasing home/school partnerships
  2. B) the absence of playground hazards
  3. C) the reduction of pool fencing
  4. D) reducing frequent parent protective behaviors

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 146

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

33) According to Sleet and Mercy, which of the following steps can be taken to enhance children’s safety and prevent injury in the context of their family and home?

  1. A) actively surveilling environmental hazards
  2. B) promoting home/school partnerships
  3. C) developing social skills and the ability to regulate emotions
  4. D) displaying frequent parent protective behaviors

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 146

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

34) According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017), which of the following was the most common cause of accidental death in young children in 2015 in the United States?

  1. A) drowning
  2. B) deformations
  3. C) homicide
  4. D) suffocation

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 146

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

35) Many of the deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by reductions in

  1. A) nutrition.
  2. B) sanitation.
  3. C) poverty.
  4. D) education.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 142

Topic:  Illness and Death

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

36) Which of the following statements is true of Piaget’s preoperational stage of cognitive development?

  1. A) In this stage, a child can perform operations independently without adult supervision.
  2. B) In this stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
  3. C) This stage lasts from approximately 3 months to 2 years of age.
  4. D) This stage involves the ability to use deductive reasoning.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

37) Six-year-old Patricia loves to draw pictures and describe them. Her ideas are more balanced now than earlier. She has started to analyze and understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds, what her parents describe as, “magical beliefs.” Patricia is in Piaget’s ________ stage of development.

  1. A) sensorimotor
  2. B) concrete operational
  3. C) formal operational
  4. D) preoperational

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

38) Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children in this stage of development

  1. A) cannot yet perform reversible mental actions.
  2. B) cannot yet form stable concepts.
  3. C) are unable to reason.
  4. D) cannot operate electronic devices like televisions.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

39) Brian is 2.5 years old. He dwells in his own imaginary world and represents objects that are not present. He often scribbles patterns on walls that represent cloud, trees, birds, and so on. Brian’s behavior indicates that he is in Piaget’s ________ of cognitive development.

  1. A) symbolic function substage
  2. B) intuitive thought substage
  3. C) concrete operational stage
  4. D) formal operational stage

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

40) Three-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It is a boat in the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?

  1. A) animism
  2. B) conservation
  3. C) the intuitive thought substage
  4. D) the symbolic function substage

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

41) The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) empathy.
  3. C) egocentrism.
  4. D) symbolism.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

42) Wendy, a 4-year-old girl, decides to gift her father a teddy bear on his birthday because she likes teddy bears. She asks her elder brother to help her wrap the gift. She does not consider the fact that her father may not like the gift or have no use for it. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) egocentrism.
  3. C) decentration.
  4. D) conservation.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

43) Olivia, 3-year-old girl, loves to play with her toy train. She names it Max and takes it with her everywhere. One day, while drinking milk, she spills the milk on the floor. To avoid being scolded, Olivia tells her mother that Max has spilled the milk. Another day, she blames Max for soiling her dress. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) egocentrism.
  2. B) conservation.
  3. C) animism.
  4. D) centration.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

44) “My computer does not like me. It keeps eating my pictures,” says three-year-old Kimberly. This is an example of

  1. A) animism.
  2. B) intuitive thinking.
  3. C) conservation.
  4. D) egocentrism.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

45) The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately 4 and 7 years of age, is characterized by the use of

  1. A) reversible mental actions.
  2. B) egocentric views.
  3. C) primitive reasoning.
  4. D) symbolic thought.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

46) Derek, a 4-year-old boy, is curious by nature and exhausts his parents with “why” questions. However, he is not able to comprehend ideas. His imagination does not resemble reality. Whenever he sees a rainbow, he believes that a fairy has painted it with watercolors. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates

  1. A) Piaget’s sensorimotor stage.
  2. B) Piaget’s intuitive thought substage.
  3. C) the overjustification effect.
  4. D) the misinformation effect.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

47) Piaget called the second substage of the preoperational stage intuitive because children know something but know it without the use of ________.

  1. A) symbolic function
  2. B) primitive reasoning
  3. C) centration
  4. D) rational thinking

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

48) Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to enable her to eat it easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair that his sister got more cookies than him. Juan is showing a lack of

  1. A) constancy.
  2. B) conservation.
  3. C) intuition.
  4. D) symbolic function.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Conservation

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

49) Which of the following best describes the relation between centration and conservation?

  1. A) Conservation requires centration.
  2. B) Centration is due to the lack of conservation.
  3. C) Centration is evidenced in young children’s lack of conservation.
  4. D) Conservation is independent of centration.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

50) Diego is 3 years old. His mother pours him and his elder sister orange juice. Because his mother does not have two glasses of the same size, she pours his sister the juice in a taller glass than his. Though both glasses have the same amount of juice, Diego starts to cry because he think his sister has more juice. In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) egocentrism.
  2. B) centration.
  3. C) animism.
  4. D) imitation.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

51) In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changing an object’s appearance

  1. A) does not change its basic properties.
  2. B) affects its inherent features.
  3. C) determines the total volume needed for a given task.
  4. D) must be considered before the characteristics of the object can be determined.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

52) In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates

  1. A) that a child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  2. B) that a child is unable to think fluidly.
  3. C) centration.
  4. D) rational thought.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

53) According to Rochel Gelman, ________ is especially important in explaining conservation.

  1. A) the age of a child
  2. B) heredity
  3. C) attention
  4. D) intuition

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

54) The zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for

  1. A) a young adult’s cognitive development achieved through interaction with children.
  2. B) the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
  3. C) how a child’s environment and his or her genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
  4. D) the range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

55) According to Gauvain and Perez, which of the following factors can enhance the effectiveness of the zone of proximal development?

  1. A) ambivalent attachment
  2. B) absolute emotion control
  3. C) child compliance
  4. D) maternal strictness

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

56) Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support. He can walk to the middle of a room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?

  1. A) Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
  2. B) Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself
  3. C) Kevin walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with his hands
  4. D) Kevin learning to walk by holding his parents’ hands

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

57) Three-year-old Sharon can solve 4-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own but needs her parents’ help to solve 6-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?

  1. A) Sharon moving on to 10-piece puzzles
  2. B) Sharon solving 6-piece puzzles with her parents’ help
  3. C) Sharon helping her two-year-old brother solve 4-piece puzzles
  4. D) Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

58) Which of the following did Vygotsky call the “buds” or “flowers” of development?

  1. A) tasks a child can accomplish independently
  2. B) intuitive thinking and rational thinking
  3. C) a child’s cognitive skills that are in the process of maturing
  4. D) a child’s gross motor skills that are fully developed

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

59) When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children indicate that they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw their support. This shows the adults’ involvement in the children’s

  1. A) zone of proximal development.
  2. B) development of conservational abilities.
  3. C) enhancement of intuitive reasoning.
  4. D) process of centration.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

60) Which of the following refers to teachers’ adjustment of their level of support and guidance to the level of the skills of their students?

  1. A) accommodation
  2. B) regulation
  3. C) scaffolding
  4. D) assimilation

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Scaffolding

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

61) Over the past week, Walter has been learning to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother held his hands and worked his fingers through the process. Now that Walter is better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an example of ________.

  1. A) how heredity shapes cognitive development
  2. B) intuitive reasoning
  3. C) scaffolding
  4. D) conservation

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

62) Natalie is 4 years old. When she buttons her shirt, she talks to herself and describes the steps. This helps her in self-regulating and guiding her behavior. In the context of cognitive and physical development in early childhood, this scenario illustrates the concept of

  1. A) centration.
  2. B) belief perseverance.
  3. C) avolition.
  4. D) private speech.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

 

63) Which of the following describes Lev Vygotsky’s belief about the development of thought and language?

  1. A) Thought and language are merged early in development and later separate.
  2. B) Thought depends on language, and they are merged throughout development.
  3. C) Thought and language initially develop independently of each other and then merge.
  4. D) Thought and language are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

64) For Vygotsky, private speech is ________.

  1. A) immature
  2. B) a tool used by children to regulate the behavior of others
  3. C) an important tool of thought during the early childhood years
  4. D) egocentric

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

65) Kristi works in a day-care center. She notices that Pablo, a 4-year-old boy, often indulges in private speech when doing any activity on his own. She has heard him talking to himself when solving puzzles. Kristi believes in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development in children. After seeing Pablo’s behavior, Kristi is likely to assume that Pablo’s usage of private speech is

  1. A) egocentric.
  2. B) mature.
  3. C) an important tool of thought.
  4. D) a means of guiding one’s behavior.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Analyze

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  2.1: Use scientific reasoning to interpret psychological phenomena

66) Four-year-old Michelle talks to herself frequently. She does this especially when she is trying to solve a difficult problem. Lev Vygotsky would say that Michelle is

  1. A) engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
  2. B) likely to be socially competent.
  3. C) functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  4. D) engaging in scaffolding.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

67) Three-year-old Amy looks at her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’. Do not touch.” It appears that Amy is using ________ to regulate her own behavior.

  1. A) mindstream
  2. B) intuitive reasoning
  3. C) private speech
  4. D) symbolic function

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

68) Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?

  1. A) IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.
  2. B) A child should learn on his or her own to realize his or her capabilities.
  3. C) A child’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
  4. D) Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Teaching Strategies

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

69) Which of the following scenarios best represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?

  1. A) A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
  2. B) An instructor helps students with laboratory work showing them how to do things the students cannot do yet.
  3. C) A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.
  4. D) An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Teaching Strategies

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

70) According to Vygotsky, which of the following educational strategies should be incorporated in classrooms?

  1. A) making each child responsible for his or her work without relying on peers or teachers for support
  2. B) formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning
  3. C) discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk
  4. D) offering just enough assistance to a child to accomplish a task

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Teaching Strategies

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

 

71) According to Gauvain (2016) and Holzman (2017), Vygotsky’s view of the importance of ________ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.

  1. A) autonomy
  2. B) sociocultural influences
  3. C) the economic status of teachers
  4. D) scaffolding

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

72) In moving from Piaget to Vygotsky, the conceptual shift is one from

  1. A) the individual to collaboration.
  2. B) collaboration to sociocultural activity.
  3. C) construction to discovery.
  4. D) socializing to operational thought.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

73) In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, Vygotsky argued that ________.

  1. A) formal, standardized tests are the best way to assess children’s learning
  2. B) assessment should focus on determining a child’s zone of proximal development
  3. C) educators should focus on abstract presentations of material
  4. D) teaching should begin toward the lower limit of the zone of proximal development

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 151

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

74) Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through

  1. A) self-discovery.
  2. B) social interaction.
  3. C) the reorganization of existing knowledge.
  4. D) transforming previous knowledge.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

75) In the context of theories of cognitive development, unlike Vygotsky, Piaget believed that ________.

  1. A) children construct knowledge through social interaction
  2. B) education plays a central role in helping children learn the tools of culture
  3. C) language plays a powerful role in shaping thought
  4. D) cognition primarily directs language

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 153

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Analyze

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  2.1: Use scientific reasoning to interpret psychological phenomena

 

76) Tools of the Mind is a program that is grounded in ________ theory of cognitive development.

  1. A) Vygotsky’s
  2. B) Erikson’s
  3. C) Sternberg’s
  4. D) Piaget’s

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

77) In a Tools of the Mind classroom, ________ has a central role.

  1. A) nutrition
  2. B) didactic lecture
  3. C) dramatic play
  4. D) abstract presentation

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

78) Ted is in a Tools of the Mind classroom. His teacher guides him in planning his own message by drawing a line to stand for each word he says. Ted then repeats the message, pointing to each line as he says the word. Finally, he writes on the lines, trying to represent each word with some letters or symbols. This process is called

  1. A) model drawing.
  2. B) scaffolding writing.
  3. C) word visualizing.
  4. D) positive role-play.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

79) Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?

  1. A) Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
  2. B) Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
  3. C) Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.
  4. D) Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance, which plays an important role in learning.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

80) According to McClelland and others (2017) and Schmitt and others (2017), ________ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.

  1. A) salient
  2. B) relevant
  3. C) executive
  4. D) sustained

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 153

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

81) ________ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

  1. A) Salient
  2. B) Relevant
  3. C) Executive
  4. D) Sustained

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 153

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

82) A police officer visits Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer talked about. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was

  1. A) salient.
  2. B) relevant.
  3. C) habituated.
  4. D) intended.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

83) A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents about all the safety rules discussed by the officer. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was

  1. A) salient.
  2. B) relevant.
  3. C) habituated.
  4. D) superfluous.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

84) Patsy is a 5-year-old girl. She participates in a laboratory experiment in which random alphabets are rapidly read out to her. After 20 seconds, she is asked to recall those alphabets. In the context of information processing, this experiment has been conducted to assess Patsy’s

  1. A) command over syntax.
  2. B) pragmatics usage.
  3. C) short-term memory.
  4. D) interest in literature.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

85) The ability of preschool children to control and sustain their attention is related to

  1. A) school readiness and focus.
  2. B) the decreased likelihood of obesity.
  3. C) increased short-term memory capacity.
  4. D) an increase in implicit memory.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 156

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

86) When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment. The children exhibit a lack of

  1. A) conservation.
  2. B) attention to the salient.
  3. C) centration.
  4. D) planfulness.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Information Processing

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

87) Which of the following statements is true of short-term memory?

  1. A) One method of assessing short-term memory is the memory-span task.
  2. B) In short-term memory, individuals retain information for up to 5 minutes if there is no rehearsal of the information.
  3. C) Short-term memory involves memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life.
  4. D) An aspect of short-term memory that has been extensively studied in research on children’s development is autobiographical memory.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

88) Irene conducts a laboratory experiment to test the memory of children. She rapidly reads out a list of colors to three children aged 4, 6, and 13 years. The children are then asked to repeat the names of the colors. Irene notices that the 6-year-old and the 13-year-old are able to recall more colors than the 4-year-old. This experiment illustrates that

  1. A) younger children tend to rehearse information more than older children do.
  2. B) short-term memory decreases during late childhood.
  3. C) information is retained in short-term memory for a long period without rehearsal.
  4. D) memory span varies from one individual to another.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 154-155

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

 

89) Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means

  1. A) preparing for a memory-span test.
  2. B) doing mental exercises daily to keep one’s mind sharp.
  3. C) repeating information after it has been presented.
  4. D) taking regular memory-span tests.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

90) Research with the memory-span task suggests that

  1. A) short-term memory increases during early childhood.
  2. B) long-term memory reaches maturation by early childhood.
  3. C) memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.
  4. D) heredity is one of the major factors affecting memory.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 154

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

91) In a study comparing the memory spans of preschool and elementary school children, the latter group consistently scored better. This apparent increase in memory span with age could be explained partly by how

  1. A) peer groups play a part in short-term memory.
  2. B) older children rehearse the digits from their tests more than younger children do.
  3. C) elementary schools practice scaffolding.
  4. D) memory-span tests are not always an accurate measure of short-term memory.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 155

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

92) Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at a trial. The defense argued that her testimony could be invalid because

  1. A) at her age, she has no long-term memories.
  2. B) her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
  3. C) she is more likely to embellish her memories.
  4. D) children cannot recall details of events sequentially.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 155

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

93) ________ refers to an umbrella-like concept that consists of a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex, which play a role in managing thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control.

  1. A) Executive attention
  2. B) Executive function
  3. C) Prefrontal control
  4. D) Prefrontal inhibition

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 156

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

94) The theory of ________ refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

  1. A) self-awareness
  2. B) recognition
  3. C) mind
  4. D) consciousness

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

95) 18-month-old Alan hates spinach but says, “Yum!” when he sees his mother eating her favorite spinach casserole. This indicates that

  1. A) he will also like spinach when he grows up.
  2. B) he recognizes that someone else may have different desires from his own.
  3. C) he has started to recognize false beliefs.
  4. D) he has started to understand that people can have ambivalent feelings.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

96) Children begin to understand three mental states from 18 months to 3 years of age. According to Pratt and Bryant, a child realizes that looking leads to knowing what’s inside a container by 3 years of age. This mental state of the child is known as ________.

  1. A) suspicion
  2. B) emotion
  3. C) desire
  4. D) perception

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

97) Russell conducts an experiment to study children’s theory of mind. He selects participants and divides them into two groups. The first group consists of 3-year-olds, whereas the second group consists of 5-year-olds. Russell takes a box of crayons and places candies in them. He opens the box and shows it to both groups. Next, he asks the first group what a child who has never seen the box will think is actually inside the box. The group replies, “Candies!” To the same question, the second group replies, “Crayons!” This scenario illustrates that

  1. A) children refer to cognitive states earlier than they refer to desires.
  2. B) 3-year-old children have a deepening appreciation of the mind.
  3. C) 5-year-old children believe that people’s behaviors necessarily reflect their thoughts and feelings.
  4. D) children younger than 4 years old do not understand that it is possible to have a false belief.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

98) According to Benson and Sabbagh (2017), ________ describes several operations, such as inhibition and planning, that are important for flexible, future-oriented behavior and are also connected to theory of mind development.

  1. A) operational thought
  2. B) sustained attention
  3. C) executive function
  4. D) intuitive reasoning

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 159

Topic:  Executive Function

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

99) Executive function involves ________.

  1. A) managing one’s thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and self-control
  2. B) learning difficult tasks with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children
  3. C) focusing attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
  4. D) building memories of significant events and experiences in one’s life

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 156

Topic:  Executive Function

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

100) Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, “Bird flied away.” Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of “-ed” in “flied” shows that he is trying to learn the ________ rules of language.

  1. A) phonological
  2. B) morphological
  3. C) pragmatic
  4. D) syntactic

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 159-160

Topic:  Language Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

101) 3-year-old Zelda always asks questions like “Where Daddy is going?” and “What Mommy is doing?” This indicates that she is yet to learn the auxiliary-inversion rule and to apply the rules of

  1. A) pragmatics.
  2. B) morphology.
  3. C) syntax.
  4. D) phonology.

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 160

Topic:  Syntax and Semantics

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

 

102) Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that young children who took part in the experiment knew

  1. A) the phonological rules.
  2. B) the rules of syntax.
  3. C) the pragmatic rules.
  4. D) the morphological rules.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 160

Topic:  Language Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

103) ________ is a process that helps to explain how young children learn the connection between a word and its referent so quickly.

  1. A) Vertical thinking
  2. B) Centration
  3. C) Fast mapping
  4. D) Conservation

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 161

Topic:  Language Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

104) According to Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek (2011), which of the following is a key principle in young children’s vocabulary development?

  1. A) Children learn words best when grammar and vocabulary are given less emphasis.
  2. B) Children learn the words they hear most often when interacting with their parents, teachers, siblings, and peers.
  3. C) Children learn words more effectively when they are passive, rather than active, learners.
  4. D) Children learn new words more effectively when new words are encountered as isolated facts rather than in integrated contexts.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 161

Topic:  Syntax and Semantics

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

105) In the context of cognitive development in early childhood, identify a true statement about pragmatics.

  1. A) It refers to relating a word to its referent quickly.
  2. B) It is the awareness that changing an object’s appearance does not change its basic properties.
  3. C) It refers to focusing one’s attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
  4. D) It is the appropriate use of language in different contexts.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 161

Topic:  Pragmatics

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

106) Five-year-old Donna uses shorter, simpler sentences when talking to her baby brother. She speaks in a very informal way with her friends and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of

  1. A) pragmatics.
  2. B) morphology.
  3. C) syntax.
  4. D) phonology.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 161

Topic:  Pragmatics

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

107) In the context of early childhood education, developmentally appropriate practice emphasizes

  1. A) the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect children’s interests and capabilities.
  2. B) the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
  3. C) the importance of giving children considerable freedom in choosing activities and allowing them to move from one activity to another as they desire.
  4. D) the content of learning rather than the process of learning.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 163

Topic:  Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

108) ________ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

  1. A) The child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) The Montessori approach
  3. C) Developmentally appropriate practice
  4. D) Developmentally inappropriate practice

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

109) Nicole, a 3-year-old girl, goes to a school that follows the Montessori approach to education. Which of the following are Nicole’s teachers likely to follow?

  1. A) They will make all the decisions for her.
  2. B) They will show her how to perform intellectual activities.
  3. C) They will act as a director rather than a facilitator.
  4. D) They will ensure that Nicole indulges in the activities that they desire.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Analyze

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  2.1: Use scientific reasoning to interpret psychological phenomena

 

110) Nurturing is a key aspect of ________, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.

  1. A) the child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) the Montessori approach
  3. C) developmentally appropriate practice
  4. D) the Reggio Emilia approach

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Early Childhood Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

111) Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activities. She plays with the toys she chooses, and her teacher acts as a facilitator rather than a director. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?

  1. A) the kindergarten approach
  2. B) the Rogerian approach
  3. C) the Montessori approach
  4. D) the success-oriented approach

 

Answer:  C

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

112) Which of the following is a criticism of the Montessori approach?

  1. A) It lays a lot of emphasis on social interaction.
  2. B) It does not employ self-corrective materials.
  3. C) It lays a lot of emphasis on imaginative play.
  4. D) It neglects children’s socioemotional development.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

113) ________ is based on knowledge of the typical progress of a child within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child.

  1. A) The child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) Developmentally appropriate practice
  3. C) The Montessori approach
  4. D) The success-oriented approach

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 163

Topic:  Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

114) In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and substandard education for young children in the United States through

  1. A) the Maria Montessori Program.
  2. B) the Emancipation Undertaking.
  3. C) the Reggio Emilia Project.
  4. D) Project Head Start.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 164

Topic:  Project Head Start

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

115) Karla is a single mother of a 5-year-old son. She works in a bakery on a meager salary. Recently, she found out about a government-funded program that provides children from low-income families with the opportunity to acquire the skills important for success in school. The program aims to improve substandard education and alleviate poverty. Karla decides to apply for the program. The program being referred to in this scenario is

  1. A) the child-centered kindergarten
  2. B) the Montessori program
  3. C) Big Brothers Big Sisters of America
  4. D) Project Head Start

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 164

Topic:  Project Head Start

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

116) Which of the following is true of Head Start programs?

  1. A) They provide for low-income families.
  2. B) They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
  3. C) They have a negative effect on young children’s language development.
  4. D) They are funded by private corporate sectors.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 164

Topic:  Project Head Start

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

117) Two current controversies in early childhood education involve

  1. A) the curriculum and universal preschool education in the United States.
  2. B) the quality of inner-city schools and free education to all.
  3. C) the use of corporal punishment in schools and the use of uniforms.
  4. D) Christian holidays for all and boarding schools.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 165-166

Topic:  Curriculum

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

118) According to Feeney, Moravcik, and Nolte (2019), Follari (2019), and Gestwicki (2017), competent early childhood programs should focus

  1. A) on cognitive development and socioemotional development.
  2. B) exclusively on cognitive development.
  3. C) on preoperational skills.
  4. D) on academics alone.

 

Answer:  A

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 166

Topic:  Curriculum

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

119) Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues supporting universal preschool in the United States?

  1. A) It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged rather than funding preschool education for all four-year-old children.
  2. B) The quality of inner-city schools has often been found to be questionable.
  3. C) Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.
  4. D) Universal preschool would bring cost savings on the order of billions of dollars because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

 

Answer:  D

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 166

Topic:  Universal Preschool Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

120) Critics of universal preschool education argue that

  1. A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  2. B) research has not proven that nondisadvantaged children benefit from attending a preschool.
  3. C) the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often understated.
  4. D) quality preschool programs increase the likelihood that a child will drop out of school later.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 166

Topic:  Universal Preschool Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

121) Critics of universal preschool education say that

  1. A) quality preschools prepare children for school readiness and academic success.
  2. B) it is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged than to fund preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
  3. C) preschool programs decrease the likelihood that once children go to elementary and secondary school they will be retained in a grade or drop out of school.
  4. D) there is a lot of pressure on young children to achieve, and universal preschool education does not provide any opportunities to actively construct knowledge.

 

Answer:  B

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 166

Topic:  Universal Preschool Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

122) Name the researcher who showed that when a child’s attention to relevant aspects of the conservation task is improved, the child is more likely to conserve.

 

Answer:  Rochel Gelman

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Centration

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

123) Name the cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

 

Answer:  Lev Vygotsky

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Language

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

124) Name the Italian physician-turned-educator who at the beginning of the twentieth century crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education. In this approach, children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

 

Answer:  Maria Montessori

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

125) Identify the substage of preoperational thought in which a young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

 

Answer:  Symbolic function substage

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

126) Identify the inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

 

Answer:  Egocentrism

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

127) Identify the term that refers to the awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.

 

Answer:  Conservation

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 148

Topic:  Conservation

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

128) A(n) ________ is an approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and asserts that knowledge is mutually built and constructed.

 

Answer:  social constructivist approach

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

129) Identify the term for the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children.

 

Answer:  Zone of proximal development

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

130) Identify the term that refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

 

Answer:  Theory of mind

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

131) Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child’s interests and capabilities. This view represents a ________.

 

Answer:  developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 163

Topic:  Developmentally Appropriate Practice

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

 

132) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) has established categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight. Describe how these categories are determined and classified.

 

Answer:  The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) has established categories for obesity, overweight, and at risk of being overweight. These categories are determined by body mass index (BMI), which is computed using a formula that takes into account height and weight. Children and adolescents at or above the 97th percentile are classified as obese, those at the 95th or 96th percentile as overweight, and those from the 85th to the 94th percentile as at risk of being overweight.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 144

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

133) Discuss the 5-2-1-0 obesity prevention guidelines recently issued for young children.

 

Answer:  Recently, the following 5-2-1-0 obesity prevention guidelines have been issued for young children: 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables, 2 hours or less of screen time, minimum of 1 hour of physical activity, and 0 sugar-sweetened beverages daily (Khalsa & others, 2017).

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 145

Topic:  Obesity

Learning Objective:  Summarize physical changes in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

134) Define what Piaget meant by an operation. What would be one task that preoperational children fail to do because they lack operations?

 

Answer:  An operation is a reversible mental action that allows children to do mentally what before they could only do physically. Tasks that illustrate the lack of operations could be conservation, serration, the three mountains task, and so on.

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

135) Briefly describe the two stages of preoperational thought. Provide an example of children’s thinking at each stage.

 

Answer:  The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: the symbolic function substage and the intuitive thought substage. The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of 2 and 4. In this substage, the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present but still has limitations like egocentrism and animism. The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately 4 and 7 years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 147

Topic:  Symbolic Function Substage; Preoperational Stage

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

136) What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits? How can one use peer scaffolding to teach children mathematics within the zone?

 

Answer:  The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotsky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with guidance and assistance from adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of the ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 150

Topic:  Zone of Proximal Development; Scaffolding

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

137) List the ways in which Lev Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms.

 

Answer:  Some of the ways in which Vygotsky’s theory can be incorporated in classrooms are (1) assess a child’s zone of proximal development; (2) use a child’s zone of proximal development in teaching; (3) use skilled peers as teachers; (4) place instruction in a meaningful context; and (5) transform the classroom with Vygotskian ideas.

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 151-152

Topic:  Teaching Strategies

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

 

138) Briefly state two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.

 

Answer:  One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory is that Vygotsky was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development.

Difficulty: 1 Easy      Page Ref: 152

Topic:  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Remember

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.1: Describe key concepts, principles, and overarching themes in psychology

 

139) Describe two reasons for developmental changes in memory span.

 

Answer:  Memory span improves with age. Rehearsal of information is important in improving short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits from tests more than younger children do. Speed—especially the speed with which memory items can be identified—and efficiency of processing information are important.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 155

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

140) Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory.

 

Answer:  Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 155

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

141) Arielle took part in one of Walter Mischel’s delay of gratification studies. She was able to stop herself from eating the marshmallow by humming a song to herself. What does research suggest about her future?

 

Answer:  Research suggests that Arielle will be more academically successful than others, have high SAT scores and high grade point averages at the end of college, and cope more effectively with stress than others as an adolescent and emerging adult. Furthermore, Arielle would be more likely to have a lower body mass index and be happier than those who could not delay gratification in preschool.

Difficulty: 3 Hard      Page Ref: 156

Topic:  Memory

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Apply

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.3: Describe applications of psychology

142) Briefly describe a child’s theory of mind. How are false-belief tasks useful in assessing the theory of mind?

 

Answer:  Young children are curious about the nature of the human mind. They have a theory of mind, which refers to awareness of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others. One of the ways to assess a child’s theory of mind is by false-belief tasks. The realization that people can have false beliefs—beliefs that are not true—develops in a majority of children by the time they are 5 years old. This point is often described as a pivotal one in understanding the mind—recognizing that beliefs are not just mapped directly into the mind from the surrounding world, but that different people can also have different, and sometimes incorrect, beliefs.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 158

Topic:  Theory of Mind

Learning Objective:  Describe the major theories of cognitive development in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

 

143) Describe four strategies suggested by Ellen Galinsky for using books effectively with preschool children.

 

Answer:  Four strategies suggested by Ellen Galinsky (2010) for using books effectively with preschool children are (1) using books to initiate conversation with young children, (2) using what and why questions, (3) encouraging children to ask questions about stories, and (4) choosing some books that play with language.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Language Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

144) Describe the six key principles in young children’s vocabulary development as identified by Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek.

 

Answer:  According to Harris, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek (2011), the key principles in young children’s vocabulary development are as follows: (1) Children especially benefit from encountering words that they do not know; (2) children learn words for things and events that interest them; (3) children learn words better in responsive and interactive contexts than in passive contexts; (4) children learn words best in contexts that are meaningful; (5) children learn words best when they access clear information about word meaning; and (6) children who experience a large number of words and diversity in verbal stimulation develop a richer vocabulary and better understanding of grammar.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 161

Topic:  Language Development

Learning Objective:  Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

145) What are the criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education?

 

Answer:  Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child and between peers. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Montessori Approach

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

146) What are the three principles that the child-centered kindergarten honors?

 

Answer:  The child-centered kindergarten honors three principles: (1) each child follows a unique developmental pattern; (2) young children learn best through firsthand experiences with people and materials; and (3) play is extremely important in the child’s total development.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Early Childhood Education

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

 

147) What are the current controversies in early childhood education?

 

Answer:  Two current controversies in early childhood education involve (1) what the curriculum for early childhood education should be and (2) whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.

Difficulty: 2 Medium      Page Ref: 162

Topic:  Curriculum

Learning Objective:  Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Bloom’s:  Understand

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

APA LO:  1.2: Develop a working knowledge of psychology’s content domains

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