Essentials of Life Span Development 5th Edition By Santrock – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

 

  1. Her pediatrician has just told Sandra that her four-year-old son, Manuel, has gained six pounds in the last year. Sandra should:
  2. be alarmed, because this is too much weight gain.
  3. be concerned, because this is too little weight gain.
  4. be positive and change Manuel’s diet.
  5. D. be content that this is normal for Manuel’s age.

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Bloom‘s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Body Growth and Change

  1. When watching preschool children on the playground, Petra notices that most of the girls are _____ the boys.
  2. much heavier than
  3. about the same size as
  4. C. slightly smaller than
  5. considerably taller than

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Body Growth and Change

  1. During the preschool years:
  2. A. children get taller while their trunks gets smaller.
  3. boys get taller and girls’ trunks get thicker.
  4. children get taller and their trunks continue to get thicker.
  5. girls get taller and boys’ trunks get thicker.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Body Growth and Change

  1. Which is true of children in the preschool years?
  2. A. Boys have more muscle tissue and girls have more fatty tissue.
  3. Girls have more muscle tissue and boys have more fatty tissue.
  4. Girls and boys have similar and significant fatty tissue.
  5. Boys and girls have similar and significant muscle tissue.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Height and Weight

  1. Which is true of studies of height in children from around the world?
  2. A. Ethnic origin is a stronger predictor than socioeconomic status.
  3. Socioeconomic status is a stronger predictor than nutrition.
  4. Later-born children are generally taller than first-born children.
  5. Children from a rural area are generally taller than children from an urban area.

Page: 138

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Height and Weight

  1. Which of the following statements about brain development and early childhood is TRUE?
  2. Brain development is completed before puberty.
  3. By age three the brain has finished the pruning process.
  4. C. The overall size of the brain does not increase dramatically from ages three to five.
  5. From age three to six, the most rapid growth takes place in the temporal lobe.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. Which of the following plays a key role in planning and organizing new actions and maintaining attention to tasks?
  2. Amygdala
  3. Hippocampus
  4. C. Prefrontal cortex
  5. Bilateral cortex

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. _____ is a process in which nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells.
  2. Centration
  3. B. Myelination
  4. Tropism
  5. Neurogenesis

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. The process of _____ related to hand-eye coordination is not complete until middle or late childhood.
  2. centration
  3. B. myelination
  4. pruning
  5. neurogenesis

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. In a study of poverty and brain development, researchers found that children from the poorest homes had significant maturational lags in their _____ and ____ lobes, which were linked to a lower level of school readiness.
  2. A. frontal; temporal
  3. frontal; occipital
  4. parietal; temporal
  5. parietal; occipital

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. Researchers have found that in children from three to six years of age, the most rapid growth takes place in the _____, part of the _____ lobe areas of the brain.
  2. bilateral cortex; frontal
  3. bilateral cortex; temporal
  4. C. prefrontal cortex; frontal
  5. prefrontal cortex; temporal

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. Toby is three years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping around. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he fidgets and wiggles. It is especially frustrating to his parents when Toby does not sit still through dinner. Which is the best advice for Toby’s parents?
  2. Have him tested for attention deficit disorder.
  3. Start him on a behavior modification program.
  4. Have him tested for gifted abilities.
  5. D. Be assured that his behavior is normal for his age.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. When four- and five-year-olds scramble over jungle gyms and race their friends, they are demonstrating their:
  2. cognitive skills.
  3. fine harboring skills.
  4. C. gross motor skills.
  5. reflective skills.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. Fred and Wayne are four-year-olds and friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that these activities will:
  2. A. help the boys develop gross motor skills.
  3. stop when their brains become better myelinated.
  4. be temporary as they will not be friends for long.
  5. help the boys with cognitive skills.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. Juan has been able to go up stairs raising one foot at a time, but he is just managing how to come down stairs without putting two feet on each step before stepping down. His _____ motor skills are on pace for a _____.
  2. fine; three-year-old
  3. fine; four-year-old
  4. gross; three-year-old
  5. D. gross; four-year-old

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. Debra is very active. She loves to tumble and show off. She also loves races and believes she can run faster than her parents. This type of activity level and confidence is most characteristic of:
  2. A. three-year-olds showing off their gross motor skills.
  3. three-year-olds showing off their fine motor skills
  4. five-year-olds showing off their gross motor skills
  5. five-year-olds showing off their fine motor skills

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Gross Motor Skills

  1. Three-year-old Ashley is putting a jigsaw puzzle together, and, as is typical of her age, she:
  2. A. places the pieces awkwardly.
  3. is focused and excels at the task.
  4. cannot identify the correct sections.
  5. wants to put pieces together in her unique way rather than following the picture.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. Four-year-old Nathan is good at stacking his playing blocks to make tall structures. However, he still knocks them over occasionally. Which of the following is the most likely reason for this?
  2. His gross motor skills are deficient.
  3. B. He tries to place each block perfectly on top of the other, upsetting those already stacked.
  4. His coordination skills are not developing normally for his age.
  5. He is showing signs of dyslexia.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Fine Motor Skills

  1. A national study revealed that _____ of children’s meals exceed recommendations for saturated and trans fat, which can raise cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease.
  2. 15% to 25%
  3. 25% to 35%
  4. 35% to 45%
  5. D. over 45%

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. A national study found that _____ of children’s daily caloric intake comes from restaurants.
  2. one-fourth
  3. B. one-third
  4. one-half
  5. over one-half

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. Shelley and Nathan have a diet typical of small children in the United States, so it is likely that all the following are true EXCEPT:
  2. their fast-food meals have too many calories.
  3. B. corn is the vegetable they have most often.
  4. almost half of their meals are too high in saturated fat.
  5. about one-third of their food comes from restaurants.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. Carina is a new nanny for a family with small children. She knows that all of the following are good rules for eating EXCEPT:
  2. that she should eat with the children.
  3. that she should model healthy food.
  4. eating on a predictable schedule.
  5. D. eating in front of the television.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. A sensitive, responsive approach for a caregiver to take regarding feeding small children includes all of these EXCEPT:
  2. creating a nurturing atmosphere.
  3. responding to children’s clues about things such as their taste preferences.
  4. sharing clear information about how much and what the children should eat.
  5. D. forcing children to eat particular foods.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, only children and adolescents whose _____ is at or above the _____ percentile are classified as obese.
  2. A. body mass index; 97th
  3. body mass index; 85th
  4. hips to waist ratio; 97th
  5. hips to waist ratio; 85th

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a person with a BMI at the 90th percentile is:
  2. obese.
  3. overweight.
  4. C. at risk of being overweight.
  5. underweight.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. At six years old, Gina’s body mass index (BMI) is in the 95th percentile. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, she would be classified as:
  2. obese.
  3. B.
  4. at risk for being overweight.
  5. not at risk for being overweight.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. A new study revealed that overweight five-year-olds were _____ times more likely to be obese at age 14 years of age than their five-year-old counterparts who were normal weight.
  2. two
  3. three
  4. C. four
  5. five

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. Jaron is an overweight five-year-old. If his experience is typical of children in the United States, we can expect Jaron to be:
  2. slimming down by age 14 but overweight as an adult.
  3. B. obese at age 14 and overweight as an adult.
  4. overweight at age 14 and in adulthood.
  5. overweight at age 14 but then slimming down in young adulthood.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. Which of the following statements about childhood obesity is TRUE?
  2. A. Children who are overweight at age five are also at risk of being overweight at age 14.
  3. There is no indication that overweight young children will become overweight adults.
  4. Obesity is not linked to type two (adult-onset) diabetes in children.
  5. In 2005, the United States had the highest rate of child obesity in the world.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. Danny has just married and is now a stepfather to a five- and seven-year-old. Unfortunately, the children are overweight. Danny has been researching how best to help his children, and found that he should do all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. talk to their teachers, asking them to encourage the children to make healthy lunch choices.
  3. encourage the children to exercise every day.
  4. limit television viewing.
  5. D. allow the children to have candy only as a reward for cleaning their room.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Obesity

  1. The Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program provides all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. A.
  3. nutrition education.
  4. health-care referrals.
  5. healthy supplemental foods.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Malnutrition

  1. Tracy is writing promotional (marketing) information for a new family-focused recreational facility. One piece of useful information she found was research showing that preschool children’s physical activity was enhanced by:
  2. the child’s option to play board games rather than play a sport.
  3. the child’s option to exercise alone.
  4. C. family members engaging in sports together.
  5. family members reading activity guidelines together.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Exercise

  1. Guidelines established by four countries, including the United States, recommend that preschool-age children engage in _____ of physical activity per day.
  2. 0.5 hour
  3. B. 3 hours
  4. 1 hour
  5. 4 hours

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Exercise

  1. The leading cause of death in young children in the United States is:
  2. heart disease.
  3. malnutrition.
  4. C.
  5. domestic violence.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Which of the following statements regarding parental smoking is TRUE?
  2. A. Children are at risk for health problems when they live in homes in which a parent smokes.
  3. Most children and adolescents in the United States are exposed to tobacco smoke in the home.
  4. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are no more likely to develop asthma than children in nonsmoking homes.
  5. Parental smoking is the leading cause for death in young children in the United States.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are more likely to develop _____ than are children in homes where no one smokes.
  2. tuberculosis
  3. emphysema and hacking cough
  4. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  5. D. wheezing and asthma

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home are more likely to have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:
  2. A. weight issues.
  3. wheezing and asthma symptoms.
  4. sleep problems.
  5. higher risk of smoking in adolescence.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Deaths in young children due to HIV/AIDS especially occur in countries:
  2. where the obesity rate is high.
  3. B. with high rates of poverty and low levels of education.
  4. with poor sanitation.
  5. where there is a lack of safe drinking water.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Different from the statistics in the United States, many children from other countries die of:
  2. second-hand smoke.
  3. B. preventable infectious diseases.
  4. sudden infant death syndrome.
  5. cardiovascular disease.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. The second Piagetian stage of development is the _____ stage, which lasts from approximately _____ years of age.
  2. sensorimotor; one to five
  3. preoperational; one to five
  4. C. preoperational; two to seven
  5. operational; two to seven

Page: 144

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. In the _____ stage, children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings.
  2. concrete operational
  3. operational
  4. C. preoperational
  5. formal operational

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. According to Piaget, in the _____ stage, the young child’s cognitive world is dominated by egocentrism and magical beliefs.
  2. A. preoperational
  3. operational
  4. concrete operational
  5. formal operational

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. Tabitha is getting ready for a family trip by getting her clothes and toys together. She suddenly gets concerned and tells her mother that she will need a bigger bag. The fact that she can think this through without actually trying to pack the bag shows she is capable of using:
  2. hypotheses.
  3. symbolic functions.
  4. C.
  5. reflex actions.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. Patricia, age six, loves to decorate books by drawing pictures and putting in words to describe them. She has started to analyze and try to understand things. However, she is egocentric and holds what her parents describe as “magical beliefs.” Patricia is in Piaget’s _____ stage of development.
  2. sensorimotor
  3. concrete operational
  4. formal operational
  5. D. preoperational

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. Piaget’s preoperational stage is so named because he believed that children at this age:
  2. A. do not yet perform reversible mental actions.
  3. cannot yet form stable concepts.
  4. are unable to reason.
  5. cannot operate electronic devices like TVs.

Page: 144

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. During the _____ substage, children begin to use language more effectively and engage in pretend play.
  2. formal operational
  3. intuitive thought
  4. C. symbolic function
  5. concrete operational

Page: 144

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Miguel is playing with buttons from his mother’s sewing box. He is pretending they are little cars having a race. This behavior shows Miguel is in the _____ substage of preoperational thinking.
  2. formal operational
  3. intuitive thought
  4. C. symbolic function
  5. concrete operational

Page: 144

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Three-year-old Betty’s favorite pastime is scribbling designs. She says the drawings represent her parents, cat, bicycle, and home. This indicates that Betty is in the _____ substage of Piaget’s preoperational stage.
  2. A. symbolic function
  3. intuitive thought
  4. operational
  5. sensorimotor

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Three-and-a-half-year-old Ruth draws a picture with lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. “It’s a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!” she explains to her teacher. Which of the following does this explain?
  2. Animism
  3. Conservation
  4. Intuitive thought
  5. D. Symbolic function

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and someone else’s perspective is known as:
  2. animism.
  3. empathy.
  4. C.
  5. symbolism.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. While walking with his grandmother, five-year-old Danny suddenly exclaims, “Oh, look at that pretty bird!” There are many trees and bushes, and she isn’t sure where he’s pointing. Danny gets frustrated and shouts, “Out there, out there! Right there, Grandma!” His frustration is a result of his:
  2. animism.
  3. B.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. When dropped off at her day care, Ariel promptly says to her teacher, “Grandma’s cookies were good, weren’t they?” Her teacher, who doesn’t know Ariel’s family, responded, “I’m sure they were good.” Ariel then gets frustrated and says, “Grandma’s cookies were really good!” The frustration Ariel feels is rooted in her:
  2. animism.
  3. B.
  4. intuitive thought.
  5. symbolic function.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. While at the playground Troy said, “The sun came out because it likes me!” The belief that the sun could do that is referred to as:
  2. egocentrism.
  3. conservation.
  4. C.
  5. kineticism.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Alayna wasn’t paying attention and backed into the refrigerator. She immediately turned around, patted the refrigerator door, and said “I’m sorry.” This is an example of:
  2. egocentrism.
  3. conservation.
  4. C.
  5. kineticism.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. “My computer doesn’t like me—it keeps eating my pictures,” says three-year-old Kimberly. This is an example of:
  2. A.
  3. intuitive thinking.
  4. conservation.
  5. egocentrism.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The second substage of preoperational thought, occurring between approximately four and seven years of age, is characterized by the use of:
  2. reversible mental actions.
  3. egocentric views.
  4. C. primitive reasoning.
  5. symbolic thought.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Ethan, age four, reasons that every time he sees a lightning bolt in the sky, angels are turning on their flashlights. Ethan’s primitive reasoning about lightning is characteristic of:
  2. symbolic function.
  3. B. intuitive thought.
  4. egocentrism.
  5. centration.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. Himari, age five, asked her mother, “How does the oven make the cakes pop up?” and later asked, “How does the refrigerator make ice cream?” Himari’s constant stream of questions signals she is in the _____ substage.
  2. egocentrism
  3. B. intuitive thought
  4. symbolic function
  5. centration

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The substage of preoperational thought in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions is the _____ substage.
  2. rationalization
  3. B. intuitive thought
  4. egocentric
  5. symbolic function

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Intuitive Thought Substage

  1. Piaget called the second substage in preoperational thought _____ because of the absence of the use of _____ in children in that stage.
  2. “symbolic function”; logical reasoning
  3. “primitive reasoning”; conservation
  4. “centration”; intuition
  5. D. “intuitive”; rational thinking

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others is:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. animism.
  4. conservation.
  5. D.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Centration

  1. Peggy is shown two rows of buttons. Each row has five buttons in it, but one is spread out much longer. Even though Peggy can count five buttons in each row, she insists the row with the buttons spread out “has more.” No matter how you ask, she insists that the “longer” row “has more.” She is demonstrating:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. animism.
  4. conservation.
  5. D.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Centration

  1. In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement or appearance:
  2. A. do not change an object’s basic properties.
  3. affect an object’s inherent features.
  4. determine the total volume needed for a given task.
  5. must be considered before the characteristics of an object can be determined.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. Robert’s dog, Shaggy, was in great need of a haircut. When his father returned home with the groomed dog, Robert started crying and asking for Shaggy. Robert was showing _____ by refusing to believe that this groomed, short-haired dog was Shaggy.
  2. A. he lacks conservation
  3. he has mastered conservation
  4. he is high in egocentrism
  5. he is low in egocentrism

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. Which of the following BEST describes the relation between centration and conservation?
  2. Conservation requires centration.
  3. Centration is due to lack of conservation.
  4. C. Centration is reflected in lack of conservation.
  5. Conservation is independent of centration.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. Juan and his little sister, Anne, are each given a large cookie. Their mother breaks Anne’s cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Juan immediately begins to cry and says that it is not fair for his sister to get so many cookies when he only has one. Juan is showing a lack of:
  2. constancy.
  3. B.
  4. intuition.
  5. symbolic function.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. In Piaget’s theory, failing the conservation-of-liquid task demonstrates:
  2. that the child is at the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development.
  3. that the child is unable to think fluidly.
  4. C.
  5. rational thought.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Centration

  1. According to Rochel Gelman, children’s use of _____ is especially important in explaining areas of improvement on conservation tasks.
  2. symbols
  3. language
  4. C. attention
  5. animism

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. Vygotsky believed that children build their knowledge base and skills through social interaction, and that the best education creates the social contexts for learning. His theory is called the:
  2. Piagetian approach.
  3. B. social constructivist approach.
  4. transformational context approach.
  5. proximal scaffolding approach.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. _____ emphasized the point that children construct knowledge through social interaction, whereas _____ emphasized the point that children use adaptation of schemes to organize knowledge.
  2. Piaget; Vygotsky
  3. B. Vygotsky; Piaget
  4. Montessori; Vygotsky
  5. Vygotsky; Montessori

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Zone of proximal development (ZPD) is Vygotsky’s term for:
  2. the knowledge a child gains from close proximity to home.
  3. the variety of work that a child can do with ease at a particular stage of cognitive development.
  4. how the environment and a child’s genetically programmed learning ability interact during a critical period.
  5. D. the range of tasks difficult for a child to master alone but that can be learned with help from more-skilled individuals.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Benjamin, a toddler, is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if he:
  2. has mastered all the skills necessary.
  3. has parents or teachers who do not interfere.
  4. C. has a sibling less than 24 months older in the home.
  5. watches educational shows on television.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Kevin is just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by himself if he uses both hands to hold on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if one of his parents holds his hands. Which of the following represents the lower limit of Kevin’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for walking?
  2. Kevin learning to run after he has mastered walking by himself
  3. Kevin going back to crawling when he becomes frustrated trying to walk by himself
  4. C. Kevin walking alone by holding onto a piece of furniture with his hands
  5. Kevin learning to walk by having his parents hold one of his hands

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Sharon, age three, can solve four-piece jigsaw puzzles on her own, but needs her parents’ help to solve 12-piece jigsaw puzzles. Which of the following represents the upper limit of Sharon’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) for solving such puzzles?
  2. Sharon moving on to 24-piece puzzles
  3. B. Sharon solving a 12-piece puzzle on her own
  4. Sharon helping her two-year-old brother with 4-piece puzzles
  5. Sharon mastering 4-piece puzzles

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Phonology and Morphology

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Vygotsky believed that children construct knowledge through:
  2. self-discovery.
  3. B. social interaction.
  4. reorganization of existing knowledge.
  5. transforming previous knowledge.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This shows the adults’ direct involvement in the children’s:
  2. A. zone of proximal development.
  3. development of conservational abilities.
  4. enhancement of language development.
  5. process of centration.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. When adults are working with young children, they often provide a lot of hints, assistance, instructions, and other support to help the children succeed. As the children demonstrate they can do more for themselves, the adults begin to withdraw these supports. This technique is called:
  2. accommodation.
  3. regulation.
  4. C.
  5. assimilation.

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Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Scaffolding

  1. Over the past week, Walter has been trying to learn to tie his shoelaces. Initially, his mother was holding his hands and working his fingers through the process, but now that Walter’s gotten better at it, she only guides him verbally. This is an example of:
  2. how heredity shapes cognitive development.
  3. primitive reasoning.
  4. C.
  5. conservation.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Scaffolding

  1. Ms. Kahill has paired up first-grade students with kindergarten students who are struggling with printing clear letters. She believes the first-graders, who are just a bit ahead of the kindergarteners, will be able to teach and coach the younger ones in a more effective way than she can. This an example of:
  2. how heredity shapes cognitive development.
  3. primitive reasoning.
  4. C.
  5. conservation.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Scaffolding

  1. Research has shown that the zone of proximal development is most effective in children’s learning and development when:
  2. they learn independently.
  3. they have an above-average understanding of language.
  4. they have moved through Piaget’s stages quickly.
  5. D. they have developed emotional regulation and a secure attachment.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Jared, a four-year-old, is talking continually as he puts wooden shapes together to make a castle, describing the colors and how the shapes fit together. This form of self-talk is used for self-regulation, keeping himself focused on his task. Developmentalists call this:
  2. mindstream.
  3. self-articulation.
  4. lisping.
  5. D. private speech.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. After a while, self-talk becomes second nature to children, and they can act without verbalizing, thus creating a form of _____, which becomes their thoughts.
  2. silent speech
  3. B. inner speech
  4. automatic speech
  5. private speech

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Vihaan’s father noticed that his daughter used to repeat the ingredients for her favorite sandwich aloud. Now that she is older, her private speech has become _____, so that she can make the sandwich silently.
  2. silent speech
  3. B. inner speech
  4. automatic speech
  5. private speech

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Which of the following describes what Lev Vygotsky believed about the development of thought and language?
  2. They are merged early in development and later separate.
  3. Thought develops faster than language, thus they don’t merge but language follows thought.
  4. C. They develop independently at first and merge later in development.
  5. They are two separate functions that remain independent throughout development.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. In the development of language and thought:
  2. internal speech precedes private speech.
  3. internal and external speech develop simultaneously.
  4. C. external speech precedes internal speech.
  5. external speech develops after internal speech.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Consistent with Gelman’s observations of Piaget’s conservation tasks, researcher have found that children who engage in private speech are more _____ their task.
  2. intuitive about
  3. egocentric about
  4. emotional about
  5. D. attentive to

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Michelle, age four, is in a hurry to get herself ready to go to preschool. She is talking the entire time, narrating how she is getting dressed and what she wants to take for a snack. Vygotsky would say that, by using private speech to solve her problem, Michelle is:
  2. engaging in egocentric and immature thinking.
  3. B. likely to be socially competent.
  4. functioning at the upper limit of her zone of proximal development (ZPD).
  5. engaging in scaffolding.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Anna, age three, walks by her grandmother’s collection of glass animals and says, “Those are a ‘no-no’; don’t touch.” It would appear that Anna is using _____ to regulate her own behavior.
  2. mindstream
  3. intuitive reasoning
  4. C. private speech
  5. symbolic function

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Language Development

  1. Which of the following is TRUE of Lev Vygotsky’s educational applications?
  2. IQ should be assessed to test a child’s learning capabilities.
  3. Children should learn on their own to realize their capabilities.
  4. Children’s use of private speech reflects immaturity and egocentrism.
  5. D. Teaching should begin toward the upper limit of a child’s zone of proximal development.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Which of the following scenarios BEST represents Lev Vygotsky’s view of mental and behavioral development?
  2. A teacher assigns challenging tasks that students must complete on their own.
  3. B. An instructor helps students with laboratory work, showing them how to do things the students cannot yet do.
  4. A teacher waits patiently for students to come up with good answers and assesses their learning capabilities.
  5. An instructor systematically offers standardized tests to students to evaluate their mental abilities on varying subjects.

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Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Which of the following educational strategies would Vygotsky say should be incorporated into the classroom?
  2. Making each child responsible, without relying on peers or teachers for support
  3. Formal, standardized tests to assess children’s learning
  4. Discouraging distractions like self-talk or private talk
  5. D. Offering just enough assistance to the child to accomplish the task

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Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Vygotsky’s view of the importance of _____ on children’s development fits with the current belief that it is important to evaluate the contextual factors in learning.
  2. autonomy
  3. B. sociocultural influences
  4. economic status of teachers
  5. scaffolding

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Which of the following statements about Vygotsky’s theory is TRUE?
  2. Cognition primarily directs language development.
  3. Language has a minimal role in shaping thought.
  4. C. Language plays a powerful role in shaping thought.
  5. Education merely refines the child’s cognitive skills that have already emerged.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of Vygotsky’s theory?
  2. Vygotsky was specific about age-related changes and generalized all individuals.
  3. B. Vygotsky overemphasized the role of language in thinking.
  4. Vygotsky particularly described how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development, which is highly subjective.
  5. Vygotsky laid no emphasis on guidance that plays an important role in learning.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. _____ attention involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. C. Executive
  5. Sustained

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. _____ attention is focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
  2. Salient
  3. Relevant
  4. Executive
  5. D. Sustained

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. A police officer visits Ben and Heather’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Heather tells her parents all about the balloons and bubbles but cannot remember any of the safety rules the officer presented. Heather obviously paid more attention to what was:
  2. A.
  3. relevant.
  4. habituated.
  5. vigilant.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. A police officer visits Timothy and Evelyn’s class to discuss safety rules. To attract the children’s attention, the officer brings colorful balloons and lots of jars of bubbles for the children to blow. Later, Timothy tells his parents all about the safety rules the officer discussed. Timothy obviously paid attention to what was:
  2. salient.
  3. B.
  4. habituated.
  5. vigilant.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. After the age of _____ years, children attend more efficiently to the dimensions of the task that are relevant.
  2. three or four
  3. four or five
  4. C. six or seven
  5. five

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. When experimenters ask children to judge whether two complex pictures are the same, preschool children tend to use a haphazard comparison strategy, not examining all of the details before making a judgment, exhibiting a lack of:
  2. conservation.
  3. attention to the salient.
  4. centration.
  5. D.

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Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. In Central European countries such as Hungary, kindergarten children participate in exercises such as stop-and-go games that require students to listen for a specific signal, such as a specific number of drumbeats designed to improve their _____.
  2. hand-to-eye coordination
  3. B. attention
  4. social skills
  5. creativity

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. Sustained attention or vigilance increases the most during:
  2. infancy.
  3. B. the preschool years.
  4. middle childhood.
  5. adolescence.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. Individuals retain information in short-term memory for up to _____ if there is no rehearsal or repetition of the information.
  2. A. 30 seconds
  3. 15 minutes
  4. 5 hours
  5. 2 days

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Irene is taking a test where she hears a random list of numbers, which she is then asked to repeat in the right order. Irene’s _____ memory is being tested.
  2. long-term
  3. implicit
  4. autobiographical
  5. D. short-term

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Using rehearsal, we can keep information in short-term memory for a much longer period. In this context, rehearsal means:
  2. preparing for a memory-span test.
  3. doing mental exercises daily to keep the mind sharp.
  4. C. repeating information after it has been presented.
  5. taking regular memory-span tests.

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Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Camille wants to remember the name of a toy she saw on television. As she is going to tell her mother about it she keeps repeating the long name of the toy over and over. By doing this she is keeping the information active in her:
  2. implicit memory.
  3. long-term memory.
  4. C. short-term memory.
  5. autobiographical memory.

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Research with the memory-span task suggests that:
  2. A. short-term memory increases during early childhood.
  3. the range of memory span depends on autobiographical memories.
  4. memory span depends on one’s ethnic origin.
  5. heredity is a major factor affecting memory.

Page: 152

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. The finding that elementary school children perform better on memory-span tasks than preschool children is likely due to improvements in all of the following areas EXCEPT:
  2. the speed of information processing.
  3. B. the susceptibility to suggestion.
  4. the efficiency of processing information.
  5. the automatic rehearsal of information.

Page: 152

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Six-year-old Shirley, a witness to a robbery, was asked to testify at the trial. The defense argued that her testimony would be invalid because:
  2. at her age, she has no long-term memories.
  3. B. her memories are highly susceptible to suggestion.
  4. she is likely to be resistant to questioning.
  5. children cannot recall details of events sequentially.

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APA LO: 1.3

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Six-year-old Douglas is telling one of his mother’s friends about his birthday party that occurred several weeks ago. As he describes his friends, the food, and his favorite presents, he is recalling:
  2. procedural memories.
  3. B. autobiographical memories.
  4. short-term memories
  5. executive memories.

Page: 153:

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Regarding _____, preschool-age children increasingly remember specific, rich details about personal past events.
  2. procedural memories
  3. B. autobiographical memories
  4. short-term memories
  5. executive memories

Page: 153:

APA LO: 1.2

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. When individuals deliberately shift their attention from one item to another, they are demonstrating:
  2. cognitive inhibition.
  3. B. cognitive flexibility.
  4. goal setting.
  5. delayed gratification.

Page: 153

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. Garrett practiced printing the alphabet before he started school. Once there, he found out the teacher wanted him to make some of the letters differently from what he had practiced. When Garrett starts to make the letter the old way, catches himself, and switches to the new way, he is demonstrating:
  2. A. cognitive inhibition.
  3. cognitive flexibility.
  4. goal setting.
  5. delayed gratification.

Page: 153

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. Lauren wants to open her birthday gift before people arrive for her party, but she knows she shouldn’t. Rather than stay in the room with the present, she decides to go in another room and play. Lauren is demonstrating:
  2. cognitive inhibition.
  3. B. cognitive flexibility.
  4. goal setting.
  5. delayed gratification.

Page: 153

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. In early childhood, executive function is involved in all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. cognitive inhibition.
  3. cognitive flexibility.
  4. goal setting.
  5. D.

Page: 153

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. In studying children’s impulsivity and ability to delay gratification that involved resisting a cookie, “cool thoughts” refer to:
  2. thoughts about ice cream.
  3. thoughts that focus on the cookie.
  4. thought about penguins.
  5. D. thoughts about anything other than the cookie.

Page: 154

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. Researchers have found that advances in executive function in the preschool years are linked with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. math skills.
  3. school readiness.
  4. language development.
  5. D. socioemotional development.

Page: 154

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. The theory of _____ refers to awareness of presence and distinction between one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
  2. duality
  3. executive functioning
  4. C. mind
  5. consciousness

Page: 155

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. With regard to perception, the youngest age at which a child recognizes that another person will see what is in front of his or her own eyes instead of what is in front of the child’s eyes is:
  2. two years.
  3. B. three years.
  4. four years.
  5. five years.

Page: 155

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. Tyler is looking at a picture book when he sees his favorite animal—a tiger. His father asks, “What are you smiling at?” Tyler turns the book around so his father can see the picture. Tyler first became able to understand his father’s perspective at age:
  2. A. three years.
  3. four years.
  4. five years.
  5. six years.

Page: 155

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. Alan, who is 30 months old, watched his older brother search for a particular book without success. Alan went over to his brother, patted his shoulder, and said, “Feel bad?” This indicates that he:
  2. wants to play with his brother to distract him.
  3. B. recognizes that someone else may have different desires and emotions from his own.
  4. recognizes false beliefs.
  5. understands ambivalent feelings.

Page: 155

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. The realization that people can have false beliefs develops in a majority of children by the time they are _____ years old.
  2. two
  3. three
  4. four
  5. D. five

Page: 156

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. In a false-belief task, children are told that Mom puts chocolate in a kitchen drawer and leaves. Dad then moves the chocolate to the refrigerator. When asked where Mom will look for the chocolate when she returns, the child who does not understand false beliefs will say:
  2. Mom will look in the kitchen drawer.
  3. B. Mom will look in the refrigerator.
  4. Mom will cry and run out of the room.
  5. Mom will know that Dad hid the chocolate.

Page: 156

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. In a false-belief task, children are told that Mom puts chocolate in a kitchen drawer and leaves. Dad then moves the chocolate to the refrigerator. When asked where Mom will look for the chocolate when she returns, the child who understands false beliefs will say:
  2. A. Mom will look in the kitchen drawer.
  3. Mom will look in the refrigerator.
  4. Mom will cry and run out of the room.
  5. Mom will know that Dad hid the chocolate.

Page: 156

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. All of the following have been linked to improved understanding of a theory of mind EXCEPT:
  2. better executive functioning.
  3. advanced language development.
  4. C. characteristics associated with autism.
  5. a secure attachment to parents.

Page: 157

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. _____ refers to sounds, such as vowel and consonant sounds, whereas _____ refers to meaning, such as understanding what –ed does to a word.
  2. A. Phonology; morphology
  3. Morphology; phonology
  4. Syntax; semantics
  5. Semantics; syntax

Page: 157

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Phonology and Morphology

  1. Pointing to a tree, young Leo says, “Bird flied away.” Leo’s interesting but incorrect use of the –ed word ending shows that he is trying to learn the _____ rules of language.
  2. phonological
  3. B. morphological
  4. pragmatic
  5. syntactic

Page: 157

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Phonology and Morphology

  1. Jean Berko’s experiment involving “wugs” demonstrated that the young children who took part in the experiment understood how to use _____ with new words.
  2. phonological rules
  3. rules of syntax
  4. pragmatic rules
  5. D. morphological rules

Page: 158

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Phonology and Morphology

  1. _____ refers to the ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences.
  2. Phonology
  3. Morphology
  4. C. Syntax
  5. Semantics

Page: 158

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. _____ refers to the meaning of specific words and sentences.
  2. Phonology
  3. Morphology
  4. Semantics
  5. D. Syntax

Page: 158

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. While riding in the car Zelda asked her mother, “Where that man going?” and “What that man doing?” Zelda is struggling with a complete understanding of:
  2. pragmatics.
  3. morphology.
  4. C.
  5. phonology.

Page: 158

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. By the time they enter first grade, it is estimated that children know about _____ words.
  2. 1,200
  3. 8,000
  4. C. 14,000
  5. 5,000

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. Which is not one of the six key principles in young children’s vocabulary development?
  2. Children learn words best when they access clear information about word meaning.
  3. B. Children learn words best in passive contexts.
  4. Children learn words for things and events that interest them.
  5. Children learn best in contexts that are meaningful.

Page: 159

APA LO: 1.2

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the key principles outlined in your textbook that contributes to optimal word learning?
  2. Children learn the words they hear most often.
  3. Children learn words for things that interest them.
  4. C. Children learn words best in contexts that are abstract.
  5. Children learn words best when grammar and vocabulary are considered.

Page: 159

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Syntax and Semantics

  1. Adjusting speech to communicate with a two-year-old, a same-aged peer, or an adult shows an understanding of _____.
  2. morphology
  3. semantics
  4. syntax
  5. D. pragmatics

Page: 159

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Pragmatics

  1. Five-year-old Donna speaks in shorter, simpler sentences to her baby brother, in a very informal way with friends, and uses a more formal language with her father’s friends. Donna is demonstrating her grasp of:
  2. A.
  3. morphology.
  4. syntax.
  5. phonology.

Page: 159

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Pragmatics

  1. All of the following are strategies to improve young children’s literacy EXCEPT:
  2. using books to initiate conversation.
  3. using “what” and “why” questions.
  4. C. encouraging children to be quiet and listen carefully to the story.
  5. choosoing books that play with language.

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.

Topic: Pragmatics

  1. Which is NOT one of the three principles of child-centered kindergarten?
  2. A. Preparation for formal education requires practice with sitting still and working alone.
  3. Play is important in the child’s total development.
  4. Young children learn best through firsthand experiences.
  5. Each child follows a unique developmental pattern.

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Early Childhood Education

  1. Nurturing is a key aspect of the _____, which emphasizes the education of the whole child and concern for his or her physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
  2. A. child-centered kindergarten
  3. Montessori approach
  4. developmentally appropriate practice
  5. homeschool principle approach

Page: 160

APA LO: 1.1

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Child-Centered Kindergarten

  1. The _____ is a philosophy of education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities, moving between activities, and developing self-regulation.
  2. child-centered kindergarten
  3. B. Montessori approach
  4. developmentally appropriate practice
  5. homeschool principle approach

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Montessori Approach

  1. Dorothy is enrolled in a preschool where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. Which of the following approaches is Dorothy’s preschool using?
  2. Child-centered kindergarten
  3. Developmentally appropriate practice
  4. C. Montessori approach
  5. Homeschool principle approach

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Montessori Approach

  1. Which of the following is a criticism related to the Montessori approach?
  2. It places too much emphasis on social interaction.
  3. It does not employ strong enough self-corrective materials.
  4. It places too much emphasis on imaginative play.
  5. D. It neglects children’s socioemotional development.

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Montessori Approach

  1. Educators who are focused on knowledge of the typical progress of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child, are employing _____.
  2. the child-centered kindergarten approach
  3. B. a developmentally appropriate practice approach
  4. the Montessori approach
  5. the homeschool principle approach

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Developmentally Appropriate Practice

  1. In 1965, the federal government began an effort to break the cycle of poverty and poor education for young children in the United States through:
  2. Maria Montessori Program.
  3. Emancipation Undertaking.
  4. Reggio Emilia Project.
  5. D. Project Head Start.

Page: 161

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Project Head Start

  1. Which of the following is TRUE about Head Start programs?
  2. A. They only provide for low-income families.
  3. They focus on children of a particular ethnic origin.
  4. They have negative effect on young children’s language development.
  5. They are funded by the private corporate sector.

Page: 161

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Project Head Start

  1. Early Head Start was established in 1995 to serve children from _____ years of age.
  2. 4 to 5
  3. 2 to 4
  4. 5 to 10
  5. D. birth to 3

Page: 162

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Project Head Start

  1. Research involving Project Head Start:
  2. has consistently demonstrated the program’s effectiveness at improving children’s cognitive ability.
  3. has failed to identify any positive outcomes for children participating in the program.
  4. C. has had mixed results in evaluating the effectiveness of the program.
  5. has identified only long-term positive outcomes, but no short-term positive outcomes for children participating in the program.

Page: 162

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Project Head Start

  1. Two current controversies in early childhood education, as given in the textbook, involve:
  2. A. choice of curricula and the ability to provide universal preschool education in the United States.
  3. the quality of inner-city school curricula and the ability to provide free education to all.
  4. the use of corporal punishment in schools and the effectiveness of uniforms.
  5. the quality of homeschool educations and the ability to provide free meals in schools.

Page: 163

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Curriculum

  1. Competent early childhood programs should focus:
  2. A. on cognitive development and socioemotional development.
  3. primarily on cognitive development.
  4. primarily on socioemotional development and self-esteem.
  5. on cognitive development and parental involvement.

Page: 163

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Curriculum

  1. Which of the following was cited by Zigler and his colleagues as evidence supporting universal preschool in the United States?
  2. It is more important to improve preschool education for young children who are disadvantaged than to fund preschool education for all 4-year-old children.
  3. The quality of homeschooling has often been found to be of questionable quality.
  4. Research has proven that the gains attributed to preschool and kindergarten education are often overstated.
  5. D. Universal preschool would bring billions of dollars of cost savings because of a diminished need for remedial and justice services.

Page: 163

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Universal Preschool Education

  1. The substage of preoperational thought in which the young child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present.

Symbolic function

Page: 144

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The inability to distinguish between one’s own perspective and the perspective of another.

Egocentrism

Page: 144

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. The awareness that altering an object’s or a substance’s appearance does not change its basic properties.

Conservation

Page: 145

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Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Conservation

  1. The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.

Centration

Page: 145

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Centration

  1. A cognitive theorist who emphasized the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction.

Lev Vygotsky

Page: 146

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but that can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children.

Zone of proximal development

Page: 147

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Memory of significant events and experiences in one’s life.

Autobiographical memory

Page: 153

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. An umbrella-like concept that encompasses a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain’s prefrontal cortex.

Executive functioning

Page: 153

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Executive Function

  1. The awareness of the existence and differentiation of one’s own mental processes and the mental processes of others.

Theory of mind

Page: 155

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. An Italian physician-turned-educator, who at the beginning of the twentieth century, crafted a revolutionary approach to young children’s education in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities.

Maria Montessori

Page: 160

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember

Difficulty Level: Easy

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Montessori Approach

  1. Aubrey is in a school that takes into account the typical development of children within an age span, as well as the uniqueness of the child. It also emphasizes the importance of creating settings that encourage active learning and reflect the child’s interests and capabilities. This view represents a _____.

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP)

Page: 161

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Developmentally Appropriate Practice

  1. Describe the process of myelination and give examples to show how it varies in timing of completion across parts of the brain

Myelination is the process through which axons are covered with a layer of fat cells that increase the speed and efficiency of information traveling through the nervous system. It is completed for hand–eye coordination around age four, attention around late childhood, and higher-level thinking skills in adolescence or early adulthood.

Page: 139

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Brain Development

  1. Describe the WIC program and summarize research findings that show it is successful.

The Women, Infants, and Children program provides federal grants to states for healthy supplemental foods, health-care referrals, and nutritional education for women from low-income families beginning in pregnancy, and to infants and young children up to five years of age who are at nutritional risk. Longitudinal studies have shown that when mothers and children participated in the program, young children showed short-term cognitive benefits, and longer-term reading and math benefits.

Page: 142

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Malnutrition

  1. In the areas of parenting and managing living spaces, steps can be taken to create conditions that enhance a child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury. Give two of the suggestions given in the textbook and describe how a parent might implement those suggestions.

Individual: (1) Develop social skills and ability to regulate emotions, (2) impulse control, and (3) frequent use of personal protection.

Family/home: (1) Develop high awareness and knowledge of child management and parenting skills, (2) frequent parent protective behaviors, and (3) presence of home safety equipment. Suggestions could be to teach a child to remember safety helmets and knee pads, and as parents to use safety belts (as a role model), and make sure every season when the time changes to also change all the smoke alarm batteries.

Page: 142

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Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. In the areas of school/peers and the community, steps can be taken to create conditions that enhance a child’s safety and reduce the likelihood of injury. Give two of the suggestions listed in the textbook and describe how a teacher might implement those suggestions.

School/peers: (1) Promote home/school partnerships, (2) absence of playground hazards, (3) injury prevention and safety policies and programs.

Community: (1) Enhance availability of positive activities for children and their parents, (2) active surveillance of environmental hazards, (3) effective prevention policies.

Suggestions may be to have someone inspect the playgrounds each morning before they are used, put up signs reminding everyone of safety measures, and provide discounted bike helmets for those who can’t afford one.

Page: 142

APA LO: 1.3

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.

Topic: Illness and Death

  1. Describe the three-mountain task and use that to give examples of preoperational and operational understanding.

The child is shown a large model of three mountains, each with unique items and each one blocking part of the view of the others. After looking around all three mountains, the child is asked to sit in a chair and explain what a doll can see from different views. The preoperational children always think the doll can see what they see (egocentrism); the operational children realize the doll has a different perspective and can see things they cannot see from their chair.

Page: 144

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Preoperational Stage

  1. Briefly describe the two substages of preoperational thought. Provide an example of children’s thinking at each stage.

The Piagetian preoperational stage in cognitive development can be divided into two substages: symbolic function and intuitive thought.

The symbolic function substage occurs roughly between the ages of two and four. In this substage, young children gain the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present, but still suffer from limitations like egocentrism and animism. An example may be drawing stick figures and creating a story around them.

The intuitive thought substage occurs between approximately four and seven years of age when children begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions. An example may be asking why we have to get gas for the car.

Page: 144

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage

  1. What is the zone of proximal development (ZPD)? What are its lower and upper limits? How would a teacher use peer scaffolding to help children learn mathematics within the zone?

The zone of proximal development (ZPD), developed by Lev Vygotsky, consists of the range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more-skilled children. The lower limit of the ZPD is the level of skill reached by the child working independently. The upper limit is the level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor.

Page: 147

APA LO: 1.3

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply

Difficulty Level: Hard

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development

  1. Describe the unique features of the Tools of the Mind curriculum that show it is grounded in Vygotsky’s view of sociocultural cognitive development.

The curriculum gives special attention to cultural tools and the development of self-regulation, the zone of proximal development, scaffolding, private speech, shared activity, and play as an important activity. Teachers guide students through dramatic play and use scaffolding to improve writing skills.

Page: 149

APA LO: 1.2

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Briefly describe two criticisms leveled against Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development.

One criticism of Vygotsky’s theory is that it was not specific enough about age-related changes. Another criticism is that Vygotsky did not adequately describe how changes in socioemotional capabilities contribute to cognitive development.

Page: 150

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory

  1. Explain the difference between executive attention and sustained attention.

Executive attention involves planning actions, allocating attention to goals, detecting and compensating for errors, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances. Sustained attention involves focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.

Page: 151

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Information Processing

  1. Describe two reasons for developmental changes in memory span.

One of the reasons that memory span improves with age is that rehearsal of information is important in increasing short-term memory. Older children rehearse the digits more than younger children do. Speed—especially the speed with which memory items can be identified—and efficiency of processing information are important, too.

Page: 152

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Identify the factors that can influence the accuracy of a young child’s long-term memory for events.

Several factors can influence the accuracy of a young child’s memory. There are age differences in children’s susceptibility to suggestion. Preschoolers are the most suggestible age group in comparison with older children and adults. There are individual differences in susceptibility. Some preschoolers are highly resistant to interviewers’ suggestions, whereas others immediately succumb to the slightest suggestion. Interviewing techniques can produce substantial distortions in children’s reports about highly salient events.

Page: 152

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Memory

  1. Briefly describe the changes in understanding that lead to the development of a theory of mind.

Between two and three years, children begin to be perceptive of others’ positive and negative emotions and how others are motivated by desires. Between ages four and five children realize that others may accurately or inaccurately understand or perceive something (false beliefs). By late childhood individuals realize that the mind processes information, and one event may have multiple interpretations.

Page: 155

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.

Topic: Theory of Mind

  1. Describe two criticisms of the Montessori approach to early education.

Critics of the Montessori approach believe that it neglects children’s socioemotional development. For example, although Montessori fosters independence and the development of cognitive skills, it deemphasizes verbal interaction between the teacher and child, and between peers. Montessori’s critics also argue that it restricts imaginative play and that its heavy reliance on self-corrective materials may not adequately allow for creativity and for a variety of learning styles.

Page: 160

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Montessori Approach

  1. Describe two current areas of controversy in early childhood education, and for each explain the conflicting positions.

Two current controversies in early childhood education involve (1) what the curriculum for early childhood education should be, and (2) whether preschool education should be universal in the United States.

Regarding curriculum, the conflict is over how much to spend on academic development, including traditional academic and constructivist approaches, and socioemotional development.

Regarding universal preschool education, the conflict is over how best to use resources, for everyone or for targeted groups, to gain the most effective outcome for the cost.

Page: 163

APA LO: 1.2

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand

Difficulty Level: Medium

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.

Topic: Curriculum

Category                                                                                                                                                                       # of Questions

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation                                                                                                                                                       155

APA LO: 1.1                                                                                                                                                                                           54

APA LO: 1.2                                                                                                                                                                                           64

APA LO: 1.3                                                                                                                                                                                           57

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Apply                                                                                                                                                                    58

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Remember                                                                                                                                                             53

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Understand                                                                                                                                                            65

Difficulty Level: Easy                                                                                                                                                                            53

Difficulty Level: Hard                                                                                                                                                                            58

Difficulty Level: Medium                                                                                                                                                                       65

Learning Objective: 5.1: Identify physical changes in early childhood.                                                                                                43

Learning Objective: 5.2: Describe three views of the cognitive changes that occur in early childhood.                                               104

Learning Objective: 5.3: Summarize how language develops in early childhood.                                                                                12

Learning Objective: 5.4: Evaluate different approaches to early childhood education.                                                                         17

Topic: Body Growth and Change                                                                                                                                                           3

Topic: Brain Development                                                                                                                                                                      7

Topic: Centration                                                                                                                                                                                    4

Topic: Child-Centered Kindergarten                                                                                                                                                       1

Topic: Conservation                                                                                                                                                                                6

Topic: Curriculum                                                                                                                                                                                   3

Topic: Developmentally Appropriate Practice                                                                                                                                       2

Topic: Early Childhood Education                                                                                                                                                         1

Topic: Executive Function                                                                                                                                                                      7

Topic: Exercise                                                                                                                                                                                       2

Topic: Fine Motor Skills                                                                                                                                                                        2

Topic: Gross Motor Skills                                                                                                                                                                      5

Topic: Height and Weight                                                                                                                                                                       2

Topic: Illness and Death                                                                                                                                                                         8

Topic: Information Processing                                                                                                                                                               9

Topic: Intuitive Thought Substage                                                                                                                                                         1

Topic: Language Development                                                                                                                                                               8

Topic: Malnutrition                                                                                                                                                                                 2

Topic: Memory                                                                                                                                                                                       12

Topic: Montessori Approach                                                                                                                                                                  5

Topic: Obesity                                                                                                                                                                                        12

Topic: Phonology and Morphology                                                                                                                                                       4

Topic: Pragmatics                                                                                                                                                                                   3

Topic: Preoperational Stage                                                                                                                                                                    7

Topic: Project Head Start                                                                                                                                                                       4

Topic: Scaffolding                                                                                                                                                                                  3

Topic: Symbolic Function Substage                                                                                                                                                       17

Topic: Syntax and Semantics                                                                                                                                                                  6

Topic: Theory of Mind                                                                                                                                                                           10

Topic: Universal Preschool Education                                                                                                                                                    1

Topic: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory                                                                                                                               11

Topic: Zone of Proximal Development                                                                                                                                                  9

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