Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology 12th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb – Test Bank

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Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 12e (Marieb)

Chapter 5   The Skeletal System

 

5.1   Multiple Choice Part I Questions

 

 

Using Figure 5.1, identify the following:

 

1) The proximal epiphysis is represented by ________.

  1. A) Label H
  2. B) Label C
  3. C) Label A
  4. D) Label B
  5. E) Label F

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) The area that causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label F
  2. B) Label D
  3. C) Label A
  4. D) Label E
  5. E) Label C

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 137, 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

3) The area that serves as a storage area for fat in adults is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label H
  2. B) Label F
  3. C) Label A
  4. D) Label G
  5. E) Label B

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 137, 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) The diaphysis is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label D
  2. B) Label C
  3. C) Label G
  4. D) Label A
  5. E) Label H

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 137, 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) The periosteum, a connective tissue covering on the diaphysis, is represented by ________.

  1. A) Label C
  2. B) Label A
  3. C) Label G
  4. D) Label B
  5. E) Label F

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 137, 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

6) The area that contains glassy hyaline cartilage that provides a smooth slippery surface which decreases friction is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label D
  2. B) Label H
  3. C) Label E
  4. D) Label B
  5. E) Label A

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 137, 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

7) Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

  1. A) storage of fat and minerals
  2. B) support the body
  3. C) protection of soft body organs
  4. D) regulation of blood pressure

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 135

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) What bones protect the spinal cord?

  1. A) ribs
  2. B) sternum
  3. C) vertebrae
  4. D) coxal bones

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 135

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

9) Cube-shaped bones that contain mostly spongy bone are called ________ bones.

  1. A) flat
  2. B) long
  3. C) short
  4. D) irregular

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 136

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

10) Small canals that connect osteocytes in their lacunae to the central canal are known as ________.

  1. A) canaliculi
  2. B) perforating (Volkmann’s) canals
  3. C) central (Haversian) canals
  4. D) perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

11) The process of bone formation is known as ________.

  1. A) hematopoiesis
  2. B) hemostasis
  3. C) metabolism
  4. D) ossification

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

12) Mothers who breast-feed their children will lose a percentage of calcium from their bones. Which hormone is responsible for raising blood calcium levels when they drop below homeostatic levels?

  1. A) calcitonin
  2. B) parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  3. C) insulin
  4. D) growth hormone

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

13) The first step in bone healing involves the formation of a blood-filled swelling known as a(n) ________.

  1. A) epiphyseal line
  2. B) bony callus
  3. C) hematoma
  4. D) fibrocartilage callus

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

14) An incomplete bone break, known as a(n) ________ fracture, is commonly seen in children.

  1. A) spiral
  2. B) greenstick
  3. C) impacted
  4. D) comminuted

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

15) The skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage form the ________ skeleton.

  1. A) appendicular
  2. B) central
  3. C) axial
  4. D) main

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 146

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

16) The large hole located in the base of the occipital bone that allows the spinal cord and brain to connect is the ________.

  1. A) occipital condyle
  2. B) vertebral foramen
  3. C) intervertebral foramen
  4. D) foramen magnum

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 148

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

17) The temporal bones are joined with the parietal bones at the ________ sutures.

  1. A) coronal
  2. B) sagittal
  3. C) squamous
  4. D) lambdoid

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 146

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

18) From superior to inferior, what is the correct order of the vertebrae?

  1. A) lumbar, thoracic, cervical
  2. B) cervical, lumbar, thoracic
  3. C) cervical, thoracic, lumbar
  4. D) sacral, cervical, lumbar

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 153

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

19) The head of the humerus fits into the ________ of the scapula.

  1. A) acromion process
  2. B) glenoid cavity
  3. C) suprascapula notch
  4. D) coracoid process

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 160

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

20) Two or more bones meet at a location called a(n) ________.

  1. A) fracture
  2. B) hematoma
  3. C) articulation (joint)
  4. D) marrow cavity

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 166

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

21) Immovable joints are functionally classified as ________.

  1. A) diarthroses
  2. B) synarthroses
  3. C) amphiarthroses
  4. D) symphyses

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 167

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

                                  Figure 5.2

 

Using Figure 5.2, identify the following:

 

22) The parietal bone is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label M
  2. B) Label O
  3. C) Label A
  4. D) Label H
  5. E) Label P

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 146, 148

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

23) The fibula is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label Q
  2. B) Label X
  3. C) Label R
  4. D) Label T
  5. E) Label W

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 164

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

24) The patella is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label E
  2. B) Label G
  3. C) Label I
  4. D) Label U
  5. E) Label A

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 165

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

25) The manubrium and xiphoid process fuse to form the bone indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label O
  2. B) Label N
  3. C) Label A
  4. D) Label K
  5. E) Label B

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 157

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

26) The radius bone is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label T
  2. B) Label R
  3. C) Label F
  4. D) Label S
  5. E) Label Q

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 160

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

27) The mandible is indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label N
  2. B) Label W
  3. C) Label M
  4. D) Label C
  5. E) Label B

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 148, 150

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

28) The carpals are indicated by ________.

  1. A) Label N
  2. B) Label X
  3. C) Label J
  4. D) Label I
  5. E) Label T

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 161

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

29) The greater tubercle and trochlea are bone markings situated on the bone marked by ________.

  1. A) Label O
  2. B) Label I
  3. C) Label E
  4. D) Label Y
  5. E) Label A

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 160

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

30) The ilium, pubis, and ischium fuse to form the bone marked by ________.

  1. A) Label F
  2. B) Label G
  3. C) Label T
  4. D) Label H
  5. E) Label I

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 162, 163

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

5.2   Multiple Choice Part II Questions

 

1) Julie experienced a break in the shaft of her femur. What part of her bone was fractured?

  1. A) epiphysis
  2. B) epiphyseal plate
  3. C) articular cartilage
  4. D) diaphysis
  5. E) epiphyseal line

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

2)

 

The arrangement of bone tissue shown in Figure

5.3 consists of ________.

  1. A) osteons (Haversian systems)
  2. B) yellow marrow
  3. C) trabeculae
  4. D) neurons
  5. E) red marrow

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 137, 139

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

3) When growing bones widen through appositional growth, what kind of cells add bone matrix to the outside of the diaphysis?

  1. A) erythrocytes
  2. B) osteoblasts
  3. C) osteoclasts
  4. D) chondrocytes
  5. E) osteocytes

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 141, 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) The femur, tibia, humerus, and radius are all classified as ________.

  1. A) compact bones
  2. B) irregular bones
  3. C) flat bones
  4. D) long bones
  5. E) sesamoid bones

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 136

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

5) What type of tissue covers the epiphysis of bones and reduces friction in the joints?

  1. A) yellow marrow
  2. B) endosteum
  3. C) spongy bone
  4. D) periosteum
  5. E) articular cartilage

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) In adults, the function of the yellow marrow is to ________.

  1. A) store adipose tissue
  2. B) form blood cells
  3. C) store calcium and phosphorus
  4. D) promote lengthwise growth in long bones
  5. E) decrease friction at joint surfaces

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

7) The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that ________.

  1. A) bone is dead
  2. B) bone length is no longer increasing
  3. C) bone diameter is increasing
  4. D) bone diameter is decreasing
  5. E) bone length is increasing

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) Each complex of central canal and matrix rings in compact bone is known as ________.

  1. A) a perforating (Volkmann’s) canal
  2. B) the epiphysis
  3. C) a canaliculus
  4. D) a central (Haversian) canal
  5. E) an osteon (Haversian system)

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

9) What does collagen provide as a component of bone?

  1. A) elasticity
  2. B) hardness
  3. C) flexibility
  4. D) brittleness
  5. E) resistance to compression

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

10) Which of the following is only found associated with a child’s bone?

  1. A) diaphysis
  2. B) marrow cavity
  3. C) epiphyseal plate
  4. D) periosteum
  5. E) articular cartilage

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

11) Which of these bone markings is a projection that serves as a site for muscle or ligament attachment?

  1. A) meatus
  2. B) fossa
  3. C) foramen
  4. D) fissure
  5. E) tubercle

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 140

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) Which of the following bones is considered part of the axial skeleton?

  1. A) femur
  2. B) sternum
  3. C) radius
  4. D) metatarsals
  5. E) scapula

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 146

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

13) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (Haversian system) contains ________.

  1. A) cartilage and lamellae
  2. B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
  3. C) yellow marrow and perforating, or Sharpey’s, fibers
  4. D) blood vessels and nerve fibers
  5. E) red marrow

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

14) A fracture in the ________ can impair the lengthwise growth of bones in a child.

  1. A) epiphyseal plate
  2. B) osteoblasts
  3. C) periosteum
  4. D) medullary cavity
  5. E) articular cartilage

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

15) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

  1. A) elastic connective tissue
  2. B) dense fibrous connective tissue
  3. C) fibrocartilage
  4. D) hyaline cartilage
  5. E) loose fibrous connective tissue

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

16) What type of bone cell is primarily active when bone growth occurs?

  1. A) osteocyte
  2. B) erythrocyte
  3. C) chondrocyte
  4. D) osteoblast
  5. E) osteoclast

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

17) What determines where bone matrix will be remodeled?

  1. A) sex hormones
  2. B) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  3. C) the pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton and calcium ion levels in the blood
  4. D) parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin
  5. E) sodium ion levels in the blood

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

18) There are four stages in the healing of a bone fracture. Which of the following best illustrates the sequence of these stages?

  1. bony callus formation 3. fibrocartilage callus formation
  2. bone remodeling 4. hematoma formation
  3. A) 4, 3, 2, 1
  4. B) 4, 3, 1, 2
  5. C) 1, 2, 3, 4
  6. D) 1, 3, 4, 2
  7. E) 1, 3, 2, 4

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 144-145

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

19) Bone growth in width that occurs due to weight lifting at age 40 is most likely ________.

  1. A) due to rickets
  2. B) none since bones do not grow after adolescence
  3. C) appositional growth
  4. D) occurring at the epiphyseal lines
  5. E) occurring at the epiphyseal plates

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

20) Which of the following could create an open, or compound, fracture?

  1. A) when the bone is crushed
  2. B) when the broken bone ends are forced into each other
  3. C) when the broken bone penetrates through the skin
  4. D) when the bone is broken into many fragments
  5. E) when adjacent bones fracture simultaneously

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 144

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

21) A bone fracture that results in the bone being broken into many fragments is a ________.

  1. A) compound fracture
  2. B) simple fracture
  3. C) comminuted fracture
  4. D) compression fracture
  5. E) greenstick fracture

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

22) The physician knew her patient was most likely a child before she walked into the examination room because the X-ray revealed a(n) ________.

  1. A) impacted fracture
  2. B) compression fracture
  3. C) comminuted fracture
  4. D) greenstick fracture
  5. E) open fracture

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

23) A fracture that is common in osteoporotic bones is a(n) ________.

  1. A) impacted fracture
  2. B) compression fracture
  3. C) spiral fracture
  4. D) depressed fracture
  5. E) simple fracture

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

24) The axial skeleton contains ________.

  1. skull
  2. scapula
  3. true and false ribs
  4. vertebrae
  5. phalanges
  6. A) 1, 3, 4, 5
  7. B) 1, 3, 4
  8. C) 2, 5
  9. D) 2, 3, 4, 5
  10. E) 1, 2, 3, 5

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 146

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

25) Which bones are commonly referred to as the cheekbones?

  1. A) lacrimal bones
  2. B) zygomatic bones
  3. C) parietal bones
  4. D) temporal bones
  5. E) palatine bones

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 146

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

26) Identify the bones that do NOT house a paranasal sinus.

  1. A) frontal bones
  2. B) maxillary bones
  3. C) ethmoid bones
  4. D) sphenoid bones
  5. E) zygomatic bones

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 151

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

27) The fibrous connections between the bones of a fetal skull are ________.

  1. A) alveolar margins
  2. B) sinuses
  3. C) palates
  4. D) crista galli
  5. E) fontanels

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 173-174

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

28) Which of these bones is associated with the hand?

  1. A) talus
  2. B) calcaneus
  3. C) metatarsals
  4. D) tarsals
  5. E) metacarpals

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 161

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

29) The hyoid bone is unique because it ________.

  1. A) is the only bone of the body that does not directly articulate with any other bone
  2. B) is an irregular bone
  3. C) belongs to both the axial and appendicular skeletons
  4. D) has no specific function
  5. E) largely consists of cartilage

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 152, 166

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

30) Which spinal curvature is associated with the lower back and appears when a baby begins to walk?

  1. A) cervical
  2. B) primary
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) thoracic
  5. E) sacral

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 143

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

31) How many true ribs do humans have?

  1. A) three
  2. B) five
  3. C) seven
  4. D) twelve
  5. E) fifteen

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 157, 158

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

32) The dens is a process projecting from the ________.

  1. A) sacrum
  2. B) coccyx
  3. C) intervertebral discs
  4. D) atlas
  5. E) axis

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 156

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

33) In lab, you find a vertebra with transverse foramina. Which type of vertebrae must this be?

  1. A) thoracic
  2. B) cervical
  3. C) lumbar
  4. D) sacrum
  5. E) coccyx

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 156

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

34) Which type of rib lacks an attachment to the sternum?

  1. A) floating ribs
  2. B) true ribs
  3. C) false ribs
  4. D) cervical ribs
  5. E) thoracic ribs

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 158

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

35) The sternum is the result of fusion of three bones called the ________.

  1. A) ischium, ilium, coccyx
  2. B) pubis, ischium, ilium
  3. C) manubrium, body, xiphoid process
  4. D) jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
  5. E) true ribs, manubrium, xiphoid process

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 157

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

36) Which two bones constitute the forearm?

  1. A) radius and humerus
  2. B) humerus and scapula
  3. C) fibula and tibia
  4. D) ulna and radius
  5. E) femur and fibula

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 161

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

37) The tailbone is the ________.

  1. A) ischium
  2. B) sacrum
  3. C) pubis
  4. D) coccyx
  5. E) patella

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 156

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

38) You examine an articulated skeleton in the laboratory and determine the skeleton to be a female since ________.

  1. A) the angle of the female pubic arch is smaller than in a male
  2. B) the distance between the female ischial spines is greater than in a male
  3. C) the distance between the female ischial tuberosities is less than in a male
  4. D) the female iliac bones are less flared than in a male
  5. E) the female pelvis as a whole is deeper, and the bones are heavier and thicker than in a male

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

39)

 

The type of joint shown in Figure 5.4 is ________.

  1. A) a suture
  2. B) a fibrous joint
  3. C) an amphiarthrotic joint
  4. D) a cartilaginous joint
  5. E) a synovial joint

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 168, 169

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

40) A structure found on the femur is the ________.

  1. A) anterior crest
  2. B) trochlea
  3. C) lateral malleolus
  4. D) greater trochanter
  5. E) radial tuberosity

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 164-165

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

41) Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________, whereas articulations permitting no movement are called ________.

  1. A) amphiarthroses; synarthroses
  2. B) synarthroses; amphiarthroses
  3. C) diarthroses; amphiarthroses
  4. D) amphiarthroses; diarthroses
  5. E) diarthroses; synarthroses

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 167

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

42) Plane, hinge, and pivot joints are examples of ________.

  1. A) amphiarthroses
  2. B) synovial joints
  3. C) cartilaginous joints
  4. D) synarthroses
  5. E) fibrous joints

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

43) Which of these bones articulates with the acetabulum of the coxal bone?

  1. A) femur
  2. B) patella
  3. C) fibula
  4. D) sacrum
  5. E) tibia

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 164

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

44) Four of the five answers listed below are parts of the same anatomical area. Select the exception.

  1. A) humerus
  2. B) radius
  3. C) scapula
  4. D) fibula
  5. E) clavicle

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 158-161; 165

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

45) The elbow is classified as a ________.

  1. A) plane joint
  2. B) hinge joint
  3. C) pivot joint
  4. D) saddle joint
  5. E) condylar joint

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5.3   True/False Questions

 

1) The skeletal system is divided into two parts: the axial skeleton, the bones that form the longitudinal axis of the body, and the appendicular skeleton, the bones of the limbs and girdles that attach them to the skeleton.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 134

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) Two basic types of bone tissue are compact bone and smooth bone.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 135

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

3) The arrangement of lamellae around central (Haversian) canals forms osteons (Haversian systems).

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) Hypercalcemia promotes the deposition of calcium to bones using osteoblasts.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) Broken bones do not bleed since bone tissue is avascular.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 144-145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) The last two pairs of ribs are called true ribs because they have no attachments to the sternum.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 158

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

7) Teeth are anchored in the maxillary bones and the mandible.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 151, 152

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

8) The spinal cord passes through the body of each vertebra.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 154

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

9) The intervertebral discs that cushion the spine and absorb shock are composed of fibrocartilage.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 169

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

10) The medial malleolus of the tibia and lateral malleolus of the fibula form the two parts of the ankle.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 165

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

11) There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 153

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) A newborn baby has an S-shaped spinal curvature known as a primary curvature.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 153

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

13) Diarthroses have a greater degree of mobility and flexibility than synarthroses.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 167

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

14) Osteoporosis is a bone-thinning disease that often affects young women.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 175

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5.4   Matching Questions

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) depression fracture
  2. B) spiral fracture
  3. C) impacted fracture
  4. D) greenstick fracture
  5. E) comminuted fracture

 

1) Incomplete bone break

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) Broken bone portion is pushed inward

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

3) Ragged bone break resulting from twisting forces

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

4) Bone breaks into many fragments

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) Broken bone ends are forced into each other

Page Ref: 145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Answers: 1) D 2) A 3) B 4) E 5) C

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) osteoblasts
  2. B) lamellae
  3. C) canaliculi
  4. D) medullary cavity
  5. E) osteoclasts

 

6) Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

7) Layers or rings of calcification that are found in compact bone

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

8) Small channels that radiate through the matrix of compact bone

Page Ref: 138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

9) Cells that can build bony matrix

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

10) Storage area for yellow marrow in adults

Page Ref: 137

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Answers: 6) E 7) B 8) C 9) A 10) D

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) synovial joint
  2. B) fibrous joint
  3. C) cartilaginous joint

 

11) Joint created by the intervertebral discs

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

12) Skull sutures

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

13) Joint created by the teeth and mandible or maxillary bones

Page Ref: 169, 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

14) Joint created by the pubic symphysis

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

15) Hinge joint, such as the elbow joint

Page Ref: 170

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Answers: 11) C 12) B 13) B 14) C 15) A

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) appendicular skeleton
  2. B) axial skeleton

 

16) Tarsals

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

17) Femur

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

18) Phalanges

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

19) Ulna

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

20) Atlas

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

21) Sternum

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

22) Fibula

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

23) Coxal bone

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

24) True ribs

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

25) Parietal bones

Page Ref: 147

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

Answers: 16) A 17) A 18) A 19) A 20) B 21) B 22) A 23) A 24) B 25) B

 

5.5   Essay Questions

 

1) Explain the five functions of the skeletal system.

Answer:

  1. Support—the skeletal system forms the body’s internal structural framework. The bones of the legs act as pillars to support the body trunk when we stand, and the rib cage supports the thoracic wall.
  2. Movement—the skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts.
  3. Protection—bones, such as the skull, thorax, and pelvis, protect the enclosed soft body organs.
  4. Storage—fat is stored in the internal cavities of bones. Bones also serve as a storehouse for minerals, the most important being calcium and phosphorus.
  5. Blood cell formation—hematopoiesis occurs within the red marrow of certain bones.

Page Ref: 135

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

2) Differentiate between the roles the organic matrix and calcium salts play in giving bone strength yet flexibility.

Answer:  The organic matrix of bone, especially collagen fibers, provides bone’s flexibility and great tensile strength (ability to stretch without breaking). The calcium salts give bone its hardness, which resists compression.

Page Ref: 141

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

3) List and explain the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.

Answer:

Step 1 is hematoma formation. A hematoma, or blood-filled swelling, forms when bone breaks and blood vessels rupture. Bone cells are deprived of nutrition and die.

Step 2 is fibrocartilage callus formation. The site of damage experiences growth of new capillaries into the clotted blood and disposal of dead tissue by phagocytes. Connective tissue cells of various types form a mass of repair tissue called fibrocartilage callus. This fibrocartilage callus contains several elements: some cartilage matrix, some bony matrix, and collagen fibers. This fibrocartilage callus acts to splint the broken bone, closing the gap.

Step 3 is bony callus formation. As more osteoblasts and osteoclasts migrate into the area and multiply, fibrocartilage is gradually replaced by a callus of spongy bone (the bony callus).

Step 4 is bone remodeling. Over the next few months, bony callus is remodeled in response to the mechanical stresses placed on it, so that it forms a strong, permanent patch at the fracture site.

Page Ref: 144-145

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

 

4) Explain how the anatomy of compact bone differs from that of spongy bone.

Answer:  Compact bone is composed of osteons (Haversian systems). Concentric rings of matrix, called lamellae, are situated around a central (Haversian) canal. The rings and central canal constitute an osteon, or Haversian system. Other canals, called canaliculi, spread outward from central canals to connect to lacunae which house osteocytes.

Spongy bone is open, airy, and spiky. It is composed of small, needlelike pieces of bone. Spongy bone lacks osteons and the network of canals visible in compact bone.

Page Ref: 135, 137-138

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

5) Explain how bones are remodeled in response to low blood calcium ion levels.

Answer:  When blood calcium ion levels fall too low, parathyroid hormone (PTH) activates bone-destroying cells called osteoclasts to break down the bone’s matrix and release the stored calcium into the blood. PTH determines when bone will be broken down in response to the level of calcium ions in the blood.

Page Ref: 142

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

 

6) List some of the features of a female pelvis that make it different from a male pelvis.

Answer:  The female pelvis:

  1. has a larger and more circular inlet.
  2. is shallower than the male pelvis.
  3. has bones that are lighter and thinner than male pelvis bones.
  4. has a shorter and less curved sacrum.
  5. has a more rounded pubic arch because the angle of the pubic arch is greater.
  6. has shorter ischial spines that are also farther apart.

Page Ref: 162

Bloom’s:  1-2: Remembering/Understanding

7) If 6-year-old Sarah fell and broke her femur, damaging the proximal epiphyseal plate, what might she expect as she grows older? What is an epiphyseal plate and why is it significant to this situation?

Answer:  The epiphyseal plate is a flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young growing bone. Epiphyseal plates cause the lengthwise growth of long bone. Since this child is still growing and has not completed puberty, she may expect impaired growth in that one epiphyseal plate. Lucky for Sarah, there is an epiphyseal plate located at both the distal and proximal ends of the femur. The healthy distal plate can continue to grow.

Page Ref: 137, 142

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

 

8) Maria observes a patient in her clinic with a spinal curvature abnormality. She notices the patient’s spine curves laterally from the midline. Determine the abnormality she observed and explain how she differentiated it from the other two types of spinal abnormalities.

Answer:  Maria observed a patient with scoliosis in which the spinal strays laterally from the midline. Lordosis, or sway back, results in lumbar curvature exaggerated in the ventral (anterior) direction. Kyphosis produces a humped back due to a thoracic curvature exaggerated in the dorsal (posterior) direction.

Page Ref: 154

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

9) Explain how atlas and axis are different from other vertebrae. Discuss the roles they play in the body.

Answer:

  1. Unlike all other vertebra, atlas (C1) has no body. Axis (C2) has a large process called the dens.
  2. The structural differences of these two vertebrae allow you to rotate your head from side to side to indicate “no.” The joint between these two vertebrae is a pivot joint.

Page Ref: 154, 156

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

 

10) Differentiate among the three types of joints based on structural and functional classification. Provide examples of each type of joint.

Answer:

  1. Synarthroses are immovable joints. These joints are structurally classified as fibrous joints since the bones are united by fibrous tissue. Skull sutures are one example of a fibrous joint.
  2. Amphiarthroses are slightly movable joints. These joints are structurally classified as cartilaginous joints since the bone ends are connected by cartilage. The pubic symphysis and intervertebral joints are two examples.
  3. Diathroses are freely movable joints. These joints are structurally classified as synovial joints since the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid. There are many examples of synovial joints, including the elbow, knee, and shoulder.

Page Ref: 167

Bloom’s:  3-4: Applying/Analyzing

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