Essentials of Cultural Anthropology 2nd Edition by Kenneth J. Guest – Test Bank

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CHAPTER 5: Race and Racism

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the name for the flawed system of classification, with no scientific basis, that uses certain physical characteristics to divide the human population into supposedly discrete groups?
a. genotype c. hypodescent
b. miscegenation d. race

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. What comprises all of the inherited genetic factors that provide the framework for an organism’s physical form?
a. genotype c. gene pool
b. race d. phenotype

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. A Saint Bernard and a Chihuahua are of the same species but look very different. It is possible to breed the two and get a puppy that might look like something else entirely but still be a dog. The study of dogs might be of interest to an anthropologist because it:
a. demonstrates the concept of intersectionality.
b. could help us understand the nature of ethnicity.
c. could help us better understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype.
d. provides a vital platform for the study of DNA.

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Difficult              REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. We can understand the observable differences in body ratios—height versus width—that anthropologists have documented as a matter of ________, or the way genes are expressed in an organism’s physical form.
a. race c. ethnicity
b. inheritance d. phenotype

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. What example does Jonathan Marks use as a useful way to consider the inherent problem of racially dividing people?
a. Doctors sorting according to brain size.
b. Children sorting according to block size.
c. Anthropologists sorting according to height.
d. Coaches sorting according to athletic prowess.

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. All human beings of every race share what percent of their DNA?
a. 90 c. 98.9
b. 95.5 d. 99.9

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. What would physical anthropologists be more likely to consider in their work with the physical characteristics of Homo sapiens?
a. culture c. phenotype
b. genotype d. lineage

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. If a person inherits genes for a dark complexion and blue eyes from his or her parents, what aspect of inheritance does this refer to?
a. RNA c. genotype
b. phenotype d. DNA

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. A person may inherit a genetic pattern for above-average height, but may only reach average height due to poor nutrition. What is this an expression of?
a. genotype c. cline
b. phenotype d. poverty

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. What do we call the idea that government policies should favor people born in the United States over immigrants such as Mexicans or Canadians (legal or otherwise)?
a. genotype c. nativism
b. racial ideology d. microaggression

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. The current argument over whether to build a wall between Mexico and the United States reflects, in part, what long-standing aspect of how race is constructed and managed in the United States?
a. genotype c. microaggression
b. intersectionality d. nativism

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. In the period between 1933 and 1936, the Nazi regime implemented laws that defined who was and was not Jewish according to ancestry. Any person with three or four Jewish grandparents was considered a “full-blooded” Jew. This approach to dividing and categorizing people relies on the assumption that:
a. phenotype determines race.
b. race is a cultural reality, but not a biological one.
c. Judaism is a religion, not a race.
d. race is a biological reality.

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. For the seventy years leading up to 1860, the U.S. Census counted enslaved peoples as three-fifths of a person. This was done for what purpose?
a. to implement the process of racialization
b. as a means to maintain a strong economic system
c. in order to lay the groundwork for institutional racism
d. to uphold the idea of white supremacy

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Three hundred years of forced transport of millions of Africans to North and South America resulted in ________.
a. colonialism c. a new race
b. The U.S. Census Questionnaire d. white supremacy

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Which term refers to laws implemented after the U.S. Civil War to legally enforce segregation, particularly in the South after the end of slavery?
a. civil rights c. Jim Crow
b. discrimination d. racialization

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. After the Civil War, many states passed laws mandating the segregation of American citizens of European and African descent. These laws were the result of what existing beliefs?
a. entrenched ideas about white superiority
b. strong feelings about the Civil War
c. strong anti-Lincoln sentiment
d. dislike of the Emancipation Proclamation

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. What rule assigns the children of racially mixed unions to the subordinate group?
a. miscegenation c. racialization
b. hypodescent d. genotype

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. President Barack Obama’s mother was a white woman from Kansas and his father was a black man from Kenya. What deeply embedded concept of racial division is revealed by the way people regard his race and even debate his birthplace?
a. hypodescent c. civil rights
b. genotype d. racialization

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Chinese immigrants to the United States were quickly separated according to an arbitrary set of characteristics, including slight differences in skin color. The Irish immigrants were similarly segregated, despite having white skin. What was one of the bases on which the Irish were segregated and racialized?
a. intelligence c. height
b. hypodescent d. religion

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. Despite the initial racist attitudes directed toward Irish, Jewish, and Italian immigrants, these groups eventually “became white” through:
a. greater accuracy in the census.
b. intermarriage and upward mobility.
c. the elimination of ethnic categories.
d. legal changes.

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. What specific term do we use for the process of categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial characteristic to a person or group of people?
a. miscegenation c. phenotype
b. racialization d. hypodescent

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. The process of categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people, is referred to as what?
a. discrimination c. segregation
b. hypodescent d. racialization

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. In Brazil, race is not merely a matter of skin color but also includes consideration of what?
a. Age and marital status
b. marital status and children
c. job status and spousal status
d. wealth and education

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. What continuing aspect of racism in the United States is illuminated by the Susie Phipps case?
a. genotype c. hypodescent
b. microaggression d. nativism

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Since racial categorization in Brazil is not exclusively a function of skin color, Brazilians can change their racial identity through a change in what characteristic?
a. political affiliation c. kinship
b. hairstyle d. affluence

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. What do we call laws in the United States that allowed such things as “white only” swimming pools, restaurants, schools, beaches, and the like, similar to apartheid in South Africa?
a. civil rights laws c. intersectionality laws
b. Jim Crow laws d. laws of hypodescent

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. When did the cultural practice of the “one drop of blood” rule end in the United States?
a. 1865 c. It has not ended in practice.
b. 1970 d. 1982

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Brazilians have hundreds of ways of categorizing people according to race. The particular system they use is based on a continuum of what?
a. language c. genotypes
b. ethnicities d. color shades

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. Patterns by which racial inequality is structured through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems are referred to as ________.
a. discrimination c. institutional racism
b. racialization d. racial ideology

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. The failure of the New York State school system to create an annual school budget that would ensure all students received the same level of funding reflects what aspect of racism?
a. racialization c. colonial
b. racial ideology d. institutional racism

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. When an individual acts on personal prejudiced beliefs and discriminates against someone based on imagined differences between them, this is referred to as what kind of racism?
a. institutional c. colonial
b. individual d. profiling

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. What do we call a set of popular ideas about race that allows the discriminatory behaviors of individuals and institutions to seem reasonable, rational, and normal?
a. white supremacy c. nativism
b. racialization d. racial ideology

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Remembering

 

  1. What do societies do in order to make discriminatory ideas and behavior seem reasonable and normal?
a. rely on racial ideology
b. silently use racialization
c. enact legal support for nativism
d. publicly deny the existence of racial differences

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Easy                    REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. While health, education, decent housing, and employment are something that most of us would agree are fundamental to all people, what is a primary reason that these have historically been denied to many people in the United States?
a. white privilege c. microaggressions
b. intersectionality d. genotype

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. The right to own a gun is today considered fundamental to many people in the United States. While the Second Amendment to the Constitution is often considered the origin of this ideal, it actually was instituted by elites as one of many special “white rights” to ensure cooperation against rebellions. What concept is this an example of?
a. culture c. white privilege
b. intersectionality d. individual racism

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Leading up to the Civil War, many enslaved African Americans made the decision to escape their captors and flee to the North in hopes of securing personal freedom. The Underground Railroad is an example of what aspect of racism?
a. institutional c. racialization
b. personal d. resisting

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. A person who believes that Italians are somehow inferior and therefore refuses to give an Italian person a job is demonstrating what kind of racism?
a. color-blind racism c. institutional racism
b. individual racism d. colonialist racism

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Until 1954, state-supported and sanctioned segregation along racial lines was completely legal, and school administrators often refused to allow black, Hispanic, or Asian American children to enter a school building. What is this an example of?
a. institutional racism c. individual racism
b. color-blind racism d. racialization

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. A set of ideas about a group of people, such as, “All Irishmen are drunks who beat their wives,” or “All Arabs are terrorists,” can make it seem natural and normal to discriminate against these groups. What kind of racism is this called?
a. color-blindness c. racist ideology
b. institutional racism d. individual racism

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. People from the Middle East have been considered “white” in the United States for some time, but since the terrorist attacks on September 11, anyone with brown skin who seems foreign is now considered “different” and possibly an enemy. What is this the result of?
a. discrimination c. racialization
b. segregation d. individual racism

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. In many countries, members of the dominant ethnic or racial group tend to favor other members of their own group, give them the benefit of any doubt, and take what they say more seriously. Minorities are often discounted as less important or even hostile for insisting on being treated fairly. In the United States, what do we call this discrepancy between the experiences of the dominant and the minority groups?
a. white privilege c. racialization
b. segregation d. resisting racism

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. In Living with Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience (1994), sociologist Joe Feagin and psychologist Melvin Sikes write about middle-class African Americans who, despite their class status, continue to face racial discrimination. What concept did this study serve to highlight?
a. intersectionality c. racialization
b. color-blind racism d. individual racism

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. What do we call the British Empire’s military, economic, and political control over many regions including Canada, the Caribbean, Bahrain, Mandatory Palestine, and India?
a. colonialism c. nativism
b. hypodescent d. institutional racism

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. The U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the subsequent war was the result of a long legacy of French and U.S. involvement in Vietnamese economic, military, and political life. Which term best describes that involvement?
a. democracy c. despotism
b. colonialism d. imperialism

 

 

ANS:    B                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. The story of Shellcracker Haven and how the local white residents were gradually disenfranchised from their lives and work because of their class status is a strong reflection of the tendency to do what to others?
a. resist racism c. racialize
b. colonize d. stereotype

 

 

ANS:    D                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. A primary difference between the early census process and the census of 2010 was the:
a. ability to self-select racial category.
b. inclusion of “blurriness” as a racial category.
c. elimination of the racial category.
d. number of racial category choices available.

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Applying

 

  1. Maria Kromidas’s work in New York City schools reveals that children are creating a “new” racial category based on the post-September 11 media stories they receive. In this particular category, people are categorized by what factors?
a. foreign, strange, and Muslim
b. dark-skinned, Muslim, and wealthy
c. Muslim, Arabic, and different
d. foreign, dark-skinned, and poor

 

 

ANS:    A                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Understanding

 

  1. What do physical anthropologists call the continuum of human variation that occurs in a particular geographic space?
a. an ethnicity c. a cline
b. a racial group d. a genetic family

 

 

ANS:    C                           DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Remembering

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Compare and contrast the concepts of genotype and phenotype. How do you think these concepts help us understand race, and why?

 

ANS:

Genotype refers to the inherited genetic factors that provide a framework for an organism’s physical form; these factors constitute the total genetic endowment that the organism, in turn, can pass down to its descendants. In contrast, phenotype refers to the way genes are expressed in an organism’s physical form (both visible and invisible) as a result of the interaction of genotype with environmental factors such as nutrition, disease, and stress. Students should be able to list some of the strengths and limitations of each of these concepts. While these concepts are based in scientific reasoning, they have been historically used to substantiate racist behavior, equating certain physical characteristics with innate abilities, characteristics, or predispositions.

 

DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Identify three reasons why anthropologists feel that the concept of “race” is a flawed system of classification, and give an example to support each reason.

 

ANS:

Race categories have no biological basis; races are constructed completely differently in various cultures, and race categories are almost always used to convey benefits to one group and harm others. Students should provide an example from the class for each of these.

 

DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.1 Do biologically separate races exist?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain how the idea of “white” or “whiteness” changed over time in the United States.

 

ANS:

Originally, “white” only included people of northern and western European descent. People from Africa, Asia, and southern and eastern Europe were excluded. Following World War II, the occupational and educational opportunities presented by economic expansion and the GI Bill of Rights brought millions of former soldiers into the middle class. This softened many of the lines that had formerly separated groups of southern and eastern European immigrants and made them “white” American instead of Italian, Irish, Jewish, or Greek.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Evaluating

 

  1. Explain how and why the “one drop of blood rule” was traditionally used to determine race in American culture.

 

ANS:

Also known as the rule of hypodescent, the “one drop of blood rule” states that any child of mixed ancestry was assigned to the race of the lower or subordinate race parent. This supported ideas of white supremacy and the very sharp separation of whites from so-called inferior races in American culture. The text notes that nonwhites were thought to be biologically different, intellectually inferior, and not fully human in a spiritual sense. These beliefs of white superiority justified practices of slavery and, later, segregation. To maintain the sharp distinction between whites and nonwhites, “whiteness” was rigidly regulated. Intermarriage was outlawed and mixing was punished by loss of white status. Intermarriage and so-called mixed children would have blurred the line between races and the racial ideology that rationalized slavery, and segregation would have been undermined.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Compare and contrast how races have been constructed in two different cultures discussed in the text. What similarities are there, and how are they different? What does this tell us about the concept of race in general?

 

ANS:

In the United States, races were traditionally based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Race lines were rigid and enforced by the rule of hypodescent, which categorized any children of mixed relationships as belonging to the subordinate racial category. Whites were on top, with all other categories being subordinate. In Malaysia, race has been constructed along ethnic lines, with three races: Indian, Chinese, and Malay, with Indians on top, Chinese in the middle, and Malays at the bottom. Brazil has hundreds of racial categories based on skin color, and they are closely tied into class. Classes are based on landownership, wealth, and education and combined with racial categories to determine social status in Brazilian society. This allows a person’s level of affluence to modify his or her racial identity. Affluence can “lighten” skin color and raise social status. The creation of race categories is actually completely arbitrary and aimed at justifying unequal statuses.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. How does the U.S. census, taken every ten years since 1790, provide a window into the changing conception of “race”?

 

ANS:

Students should discuss how the census form provides clear indications that race has been and still is an evolving human construction. The changing race categories do not reflect a change in human genotype or phenotype, but in how the government organizes the diversity of people within its borders. The census construction of race reflects the U.S. government’s power to establish certain categories and apply those categories to make decisions about government resources.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Evaluating

 

  1. Explain how and why Jim Crow laws came to the American South.

 

ANS:

Following the end of the Civil War and the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, the country began the process of reuniting and rebuilding. Despite the effort to make whites and blacks equal, established patterns of inequality and entrenched ideas of white superiority fostered the passage of Jim Crow segregation laws throughout the American South. These laws enforced preexisting boundaries between whites and blacks in housing, education, voting rights, property ownership, and access to public services like bathrooms and water fountains. Vigilante white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan were formed in order to enforce what many saw as the “natural order of race” in the country. Murder through lynching became a means to intimidate blacks, enforce segregation, and ensure behavior that many whites considered normal and appropriate.

 

DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.3 How is race constructed in the United States?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain what is meant by the concept of “white privilege.”

 

ANS:

Anthropologist Peggy McIntosh notes that white privilege involves an “invisible package of unearned assets,” or advantages that are the result from generations of racial discrimination. The often unspoken result is that most whites have unwittingly enjoyed the benefit of certain cultural norms, values, and institutions. Unearned advantages and unearned power are conferred systematically and differentially on one group over others in areas such as health, education, housing, employment, banking, and mortgages, and especially the criminal justice system.

 

DIF:      Moderate            REF:     5.4 What is racism?                                     MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Compare and contrast the concepts of individual racism with institutional racism. Provide examples from class to support your points.

 

ANS:

Individual and institutional racism both require a racial ideology to justify discrimination. In the United States, the concept of white supremacy served this purpose. It was believed that whites were intellectually and morally superior to other races and discrimination against others was therefore justified. It involves making negative assumptions about a person’s abilities or intentions based on his or her perceived race, and may be shown through lack of respect or through suspicion, scapegoating, and violence ranging from police brutality to hate crimes. Many of the small daily slights that whites convey, often unintentionally, serve to both reinforce and distance whites from others. Institutional racism manifests racial inequality through key cultural institutions, policies, and systems. These include education, housing, health, employment, the legal system, law enforcement, and the media. The text notes that institutional racism originates in historical events and legal sanctions, but even when outlawed can persist through contemporary patterns of institutional behavior that perpetuates historical injustice. Examples include Jim Crow segregation, the expropriation of indigenous lands in the settlement of the West, and immigration restrictions. Through these legal forms of institutional racism, the political, economic, and educational systems were organized to privilege whiteness in the United States.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.4 What is racism?                                     MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain the concept of racialization and how it applies to Middle Eastern people in the United States. Why is this process reflected in the New York school system as studied by Maria Kromidas?

 

ANS:

Racialization involves categorizing, differentiating, and attributing a particular racial character to a person or group of people. Middle Eastern people were considered “white” in the United States, but after September 11, 2001, many Americans have begun to racialize these people. This involves marking these people as “brown, foreign, strange, and Muslim,” and they are now being considered “different” from other Americans and possibly as an enemy. Kromidas’s work among schoolchildren revealed that even while in the eyes of the Census Bureau a group of people might be seen as racially and ethnically diverse, the persistence of racial stereotypes and the racialization is a problem. The power of the media and how the children take in and manipulate the images they are exposed to is a large part of why this happens.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.4 What is racism?                                     MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain how European colonial expansion gave rise to race and racism.

 

ANS:

As European explorers and merchants moved into new areas, they were confronted by many new and different people with various customs. Classification of these people based exclusively on phenotype created a hierarchy of races, with the Europeans on top. With these categories, people’s physical appearances were linked to assumptions about intelligence, physical abilities, capacity for culture, and basic worth. These assumptions were used to justify colonial conquests, the transatlantic slave trade, and the eradication of indigenous populations.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

  1. Explain what is meant by a “racial democracy” in Brazil. What are the effects of this?

 

ANS:

The government of Brazil abolished racial categories in the 1930s, despite the hundreds of different skin color shades and words that are ascribed to race, and officially banned racism in the 1950s. The existence of a kind of color continuum is now seen as a mark of tolerance rather than racism. In spite of this, however, there exists a huge degree of inequality in the country, with some of the poorest places situated in the midst of the most affluent.

 

DIF:      Difficult               REF:     5.2 How is race constructed around the world?

MSC:   Analyzing

 

 

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