Environment The Science behind the Stories 5th Edition By Withgott – Test Bank

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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Use the accompanying figure to answer the following questions.
1) This graph helps to explain ________.
A) why the open ocean is so productive
B) the importance of deserts
C) why we need to be concerned with damage to rainforests and coral reefs
D) why tundra has such high net primary productivity of biomass
E) why cultivated lands are a logical choice to replace rainforests
1)
2) Recall that areas with high net primary productivity not only produce high levels of biomass
rapidly, they also take up large amounts of CO2 and give off large amounts of oxygen. What is the
likely result of the increasing amounts of fertilizers in the major rivers emptying into oceans?
A) Eutrophication, followed by hypoxia, is a likely result, ultimately leading to less CO2 uptake
and less oxygen released.
B) Fisheries will improve as the extra nutrients feed shellfish and fish.
C) Eutrophication, followed by hypoxia, is a likely result, ultimately leading to less CO2 uptake
and more oxygen released.
D) Productivity in these areas will increase permanently, leading to more CO2 uptake and more
oxygen released.
E) Eutrophication, followed by hypoxia, is a likely result, ultimately leading to more CO2
uptake and more oxygen released.
2)
3) Overall, it appears that biomes with more available fresh water ________.
A) don’t differentiate between fresh water as rainfall and fresh water as ice in glaciers
B) tend to have about the same productivity as those without much fresh water
C) tend to have more productivity than those without much fresh water
D) tend to have less productivity than those without much fresh water
E) No real conclusions can be drawn.
3)
1
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Match the following.
A) hydrosphere
B) ecosystem
C) transpiration
D) water table
E) evaporation
F) biosphere
G) atmosphere
H) condensation
I) lithosphere
J) aquifer
K) biomass
L) precipitation
4) Matter contained in living organisms 4)
5) The solid earth beneath our feet 5)
6) The process by which water moves from Earth’s surface (such as in lakes or rivers) to the
atmosphere
6)
7) Release of water vapor by plants through their leaves 7)
8) Upper limit of groundwater in soil or rocks 8)
9) Water returns from the clouds to Earth’s surface as this 9)
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
10) ________ is any network of relationships among a group of components, which interact with and
influence one another through the exchange of energy, matter, or information.
A) A system
B) An interchange
C) Hierarchy
D) An ecosystem
E) An environmental collaboration
10)
11) A system stabilized by negative feedback, with opposing processes offsetting each other, is said to
be in ________.
A) normal balance
B) environmental balance
C) harmonic resonance
D) static control
E) dynamic equilibrium
11)
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12) In some areas, cattle on an open range may compact fragile soils while grazing. This can damage
plant roots, leading to fewer, smaller plants, which may in turn cause cattle to graze more and
work harder to obtain food. This is an example of a ________.
A) food web
B) dynamic equilibrium
C) homeostatic system
D) positive feedback loop
E) negative feedback loop
12)
13) The eutrophication that has taken place in Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and other locations
appears to be due to ________.
A) excess nutrients from fertilizers
B) heavy metals dumped in the sewage
C) weather alone, because it is only obvious in the summer
D) pesticide use along the waterways
E) global warming from human use of fossil fuels
13)
14) What are Earth’s structural spheres?
A) lithosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
B) centrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
C) geosphere and atmosphere
D) lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere
E) lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
14)
15) The majority of Earth’s fresh water exists ________.
A) in the atmosphere
B) in the form of ice
C) in freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers
D) in the oceans
E) in groundwater
15)
16) Containing elements of both forests and coastal marshes, the swamplands of extreme southern
Louisiana would be an example of ________.
A) a superbiome
B) a closed ecosystem
C) an abiotic system
D) an ecotone
E) a dead zone
16)
17) The first essential step in changing atmospheric nitrogen into more usable NH3 is called ________.
A) biogeochemical cycling
B) N-fixation
C) ammonification
D) nitrification
E) denitrification
17)
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18) The biosphere is best defined as ________.
A) all Earth’s organisms and the nonliving environment with which they interact
B) a grouping of plants and animals that interact with one another
C) a regional grouping of plants, animals, and abiotic factors
D) all living and nonliving parts, including the flow of energy and matter
E) all Earth’s organisms and their physical and aquatic environment where energy and matter
are cycled
18)
19) The biosphere consists of the ________.
A) sum of all the planet’s living organisms and the abiotic portions of the environment with
which they interact
B) air surrounding our planet, plus the water we drink
C) saltwater and fresh water in surface bodies and the atmosphere
D) solid earth beneath our feet, plus the air we breathe
E) abiotic portions of the environment
19)
20) Ecotones are the ________.
A) areas between territories of organisms
B) transitional zones between ecosystems
C) sounds that animal communities make in ecosystems
D) studies of specific biomes by ecologists
E) interactive behaviors leading to communication
20)
21) Biodiversity is partially influenced by net primary productivity. Where can the highest terrestrial
rates of NPP be found?
A) deciduous forests
B) polar regions
C) tundra
D) tropical rainforests
E) deserts
21)
22) Macronutrients ________.
A) are the only nutrients that can be tracked in nutrient cycles
B) are large molecules necessary for making macromolecules
C) are required in large amounts for organisms to survive
D) are what large predators eat
E) can only be taken up by plants from rock cycles
22)
23) Experiments done in Canadian lakes and in coastal regions of the Baltic Sea and Long Island
Sound have demonstrated that ________.
A) the only micronutrient that is important is carbon
B) only one micronutrient, phosphorus (phosphates), limits growth throughout the world
C) various macronutrients appear to limit growth throughout the world
D) only one micronutrient, nitrogen (nitrates), limits growth throughout the world
E) the same few micronutrients limit growth throughout the world
23)
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24) The largest pool of carbon in the carbon cycle is ________.
A) the hydrosphere
B) in plants and animals
C) sedimentary rock
D) the atmosphere
E) the ocean
24)
25) The phosphorus in all biological tissues can traced back to ________.
A) phosphorus dissolved in the ocean and taken up by shellfish
B) phosphorus weathered from rock
C) atmospheric phosphorus gas
D) phosphorus in animal bones
E) volcanic activities
25)
26) Negative feedback processes tend to function within ecosystems to ________.
A) stabilize the ecosystem
B) reinforce harmful changes
C) cause ecological relationships to flourish
D) cause ecological relationships to disintegrate
E) cause further ecological destruction
26)
27) Nitrogen fixation is a process that makes nitrogen available to plants and is carried out by
________.
A) plants during photosynthesis
B) volcanic eruptions
C) nitrogen gas dissolving in fresh water and in the ocean
D) mutualistic and free‑living bacteria
E) parasitic bacteria
27)
28) Humans have dramatically altered the rate of nitrogen fixation into forms usable by autotrophs
________.
A) due to the burning of fossil fuels to meet our energy needs
B) by producing synthetic fertilizers and applying them to crops, lawns, and parks
C) by using antibiotics to reduce the numbers of denitrifying bacteria
D) because of the erosion of farmlands through poor agricultural practices
E) by selectively removing leguminous plants
28)
29) Aquifers are ________.
A) oceans
B) the result of transpiration
C) underground water reservoirs
D) natural ponds and lakes
E) recharge lakes at water quality facilities
29)
30) By damming rivers, we are ________.
A) decreasing evaporation
B) decreasing transpiration
C) increasing transpiration while decreasing evaporation
D) increasing transportation
E) increasing evaporation
30)
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31) Mutualistic relationships between bacteria and certain root nodules play an important role in the
global cycling of ________.
A) nitrogen
B) rock
C) water
D) carbon
E) phosphorus
31)
32) Ecological modeling ________.
A) is a form of ecosystem restoration
B) has so far proven useless in predicting ecological events
C) has been rejected because it requires the dismantling and dissecting of a functioning
ecosystem
D) involves constructing and testing simplified representations of ecological systems
E) is used by evolutionary biologist to predict future evolutionary events
32)
33) Ecological modeling can help us ________ ecosystem services.
A) understand
B) replace destroyed
C) decrease the cost of maintaining
D) create many new
E) control the growth of
33)
34) In an aquatic ecosystem experiencing eutrophication, levels of dissolved macronutrients ________
and dissolved oxygen levels ________.
A) increase; increase
B) increase; decease
C) decrease; decrease
D) remain stable; increase
E) decrease; increase
34)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
35) Compare and contrast positive and negative feedback loops. Give an example of each and how common each
is in natural systems.
36) Give a brief overview of the carbon cycle. Include the source of carbon that enters ecosystems, how it moves
through ecosystems, what it is used for, and where it is ultimately deposited. What part of this cycle is believed
to contribute to global warming?
37) Human activity has affected every aspect of the nitrogen cycle. List the ways that humans have altered
nitrogen content starting with how nitrogen becomes available to producers, where it goes, and what impacts it
has. What are the ecological concerns regarding the dramatic changes people have made in the global nitrogen
cycle?
38) Human activity has affected every aspect of the water cycle. Identify three ways that humans have altered the
water cycle. What are the major concerns regarding our alteration of the water cycle?
39) Describe the hypotheses and the results obtained in the FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) project.
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40) What factors contribute to the “dead zone” in Chesapeake Bay?
41) Define the term emergent properties and give an example from a natural system.
42) Identify the anthropogenic sources of phosphorus, and explain why they are a problem.
43) How and why do ecologists use GIS software?
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Read the following scenario and answer the questions below.
In the early years of the 20th century there were lush stands of tall grasses in the valley on the east side of the Chiricahua
Mountains in Arizona, stretching to Mexico on the south and New Mexico on the east. Dramatic summer rainstorms
dumped huge amounts of water, very quickly, on the rocky upper slopes. The water ran down the slopes and into the
grasslands, where it quickly soaked into the soft, porous soil where prairie dogs were active. Cattle ranching was in full
swing, utilizing the rich grasses, but the ranchers did not appreciate the multitudes of prairie dogs that lived in the
grasslands. Prairie dogs constantly dig through soil, making new burrows and eating grasses, roots and all. It was
commonly believed that cattle would stumble in the prairie dog holes, break legs, and die of starvation. In addition, many
ranchers were convinced that the prairie dogs would destroy the grasses because they directly competed with the cattle for
food. The ranchers had already done away with most predators that might possibly affect cattle, and now they turned their
attention to the prairie dogs. The ranchers became a part of a new federally sponsored movement to poison the grassland
prairie dogs. This movement took root and spread through the 1920s and 1930s.
44) Prairie dog activities probably contribute to ________.
A) the localized extinction of prairie grasses
B) the soil being loose and to nutrient cycling, allowing new grass roots to grow and prosper
C) the grass roots being subject to diseases
D) the soil being loose and to little nutrient cycling, causing grasses to fall over
E) the soil hardening during rains and to little nutrient cycling, causing grasses to die
44)
45) When the rains came down on the rocky mountainsides, the water ran down into the grasslands
where the prairie dogs were active and ________.
A) quickly evaporated, drying the loose soil
B) quickly soaked into the loose soil, watering the grasses
C) quickly ran off the loose soil, eroding the soil
D) gathered atop the loose soil, forming large muddy spots
E) formed ponds
45)
46) In the late 1800s and early 1900s farmers and ranchers slaughtered coyotes, bobcats, wolves,
mountain lions, eagles, and rattlesnakes, trying to protect their cattle. One direct result may have
been ________.
A) a decrease in the prairie dog population
B) an increase in soil quality
C) an increase in the prairie dog population
D) an increase in predation
E) a decrease in soil quality
46)
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47) Once the prairie dogs were poisoned and no longer a part of the ecosystem, which of the following
probably occurred?
A) Soils slowly became looser because of the cattle, so soil moisture increased.
B) Soils slowly became looser because of the cattle, decreasing infiltration of moisture into the
soil.
C) Soils slowly became looser because of the cattle, so fewer nutrients were recycled.
D) Soils slowly compacted because of the cattle, decreasing infiltration of moisture into the soil.
E) Soils slowly compacted because of the cattle, increasing infiltration of moisture into the soil.
47)
48) In a previous chapter you read about “keystone species.” How do the prairie dogs in this story
meet the definition of a keystone species?
A) When the prairie dogs were removed, the cattle declined; this meets the definition of a
keystone species.
B) Their burrows caused cattle to break their legs and die. This made them directly responsible
for the welfare of another species, which meets the definition of a keystone species.
C) Their burrows loosened the soil and served as homes for other species; they helped with
nutrient recycling. They helped water infiltrate into the soil and kept soil loose for grass roots.
When they were removed, the system deteriorated.
D) They don’t meet the definition of a keystone species; the system did fine without them. The
predators turned to cattle, and the grasses did better in the compact soil.
E) The availability of prairie dogs kept the predators in check; when they were removed, the
predator populations grew dramatically. They kept the soil aerated and compact.
48)
49) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this scenario is that ________.
A) cattle improved the soils, contributing to this ecosystem.
B) prairie dogs were part of a negative feedback loop once they were removed.
C) prairie dogs were unimportant components of this ecosystem; their removal caused no
subsequent problems.
D) predators were unimportant components of this ecosystem; their removal caused no
subsequent problems.
E) once humans change one thing in an ecosystem, they may find unexpected results occurring
elsewhere in the ecosystem.
49)
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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED9
1) C
2) A
3) C
4) K
5) I
6) E
7) C
8) D
9) L
10) A
11) E
12) D
13) A
14) E
15) B
16) D
17) B
18) A
19) A
20) B
21) D
22) C
23) E
24) C
25) B
26) A
27) D
28) B
29) C
30) E
31) A
32) D
33) A
34) B
35) A system’s output can serve as input to that same system, a circular process described as a feedback loop. In a
negative feedback loop, output from a system being pushed in one direction acts as input that moves the system in the
opposite direction. The output and input essentially neutralize one another, stabilizing the system. An example would
be the regulation of our body temperature. Negative feedback loops are relatively common in nature. In a positive
feedback loop, inputs don’t stabilize a system but drive them further toward one extreme or another. An example of
this process in natural systems is erosion. These are relatively rare in nature but are common in natural systems
altered by human actions.
36) Plants take up CO2 from the atmosphere and then incorporate the carbon into their tissue. Animals then eat plants
and gain carbon. Carbon is used for all the tissues and molecules of living organisms, such as carbohydrates, fats, and
proteins, and as an essential ingredient in DNA. When animals and plants die, their tissues are metabolized by
decomposers and much partially degraded biomass (especially from plants) is then deposited into soils. At each stage
along the way, some carbon is released back to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. The use of fossil fuels (previously
undecomposed organic materials) causes stored CO2 to be released to the atmosphere. This is occurring at very high
rates and is contributing to global warming.
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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED9
37) Humans have spent a great deal of money on producing and distributing nitrogen and have doubled the amount of
nitrogen available for use by plants. The Haber-Bosch process allows us to fix nitrogen into usable molecules. We
have increased the amount of nitrogen that makes its way into waterways, mostly as runoff from fertilizer. This has
caused alterations in terrestrial community composition and eutrophication in water systems. We have also increased
the distribution of nitrogen through atmospheric pollution, primarily from nitrogen oxides resulting from burning
fossil fuels, that then comes down as acid rain. Concerns include climate change through increased concentrations of
nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas, depleted nutrients from soils, eutrophication of surface waters, and acidified surface
water and soils.
38) Humans have dammed rivers to create reservoirs, resulting in increased evaporation and infiltration of surface water
into aquifers. We have also removed vegetation from many areas so infiltration into the soil, transpiration, and return
of water to the atmosphere have all slowed, increasing runoff and erosion. Furthermore, our withdrawals of surface
water and groundwater for agriculture, industry, and domestic uses deplete rivers, lakes, and streams and lower
water tables.
One concern for the future will be shortages of potable water. Shortages in specific areas of many countries are
already evident. Groundwater is being removed at high rates due to agriculture and manufacturing in this country.
Water tables in previously plentiful aquifers are dropping at rapid rates and may ultimately limit agricultural
production and manufacturing, as well as the availability of clean, fresh water supplies for people worldwide.
39) This ambitious project was designed to determine whether forests could be a possible factor in removing and
sequestering CO2 in a future challenged by global climate change. To test this hypothesis, forests in several U.S. and
international locations were doused with huge amounts of CO2 which simulated a 50% rise in ambient levels. Some of
the things learned so far are that elevated CO2 levels increase photosynthesis and tree growth but that the rates of
growth eventually slow and level off. The increased biomass still falls to the forest floor where it is metabolized by
decomposers, releasing the fixed carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2. Also, the elevated CO2 levels may delay
leaf aging, resulting in higher tree mortality from frost damage in winter. Finally, in some cases the insect pests of
forest trees tended to increase under experimental conditions.
40) There has been a rapid acceleration of anthropogenic fixing of atmospheric nitrogen and releasing it into the
hydrosphere. This is manifested through fertilizer runoff into the waterways feeding into Chesapeake Bay. There
excess nitrogen and phosphorus, combined with more nutrient loading from sewage discharge, has contributed to a
rise in phytoplankton biomass. The excess biomass is partly eaten by consumers but a large amount sediments out as
dead material and is metabolized by benthic decomposers. All of this increased aerobic metabolism depletes the
waters of essential dissolved oxygen, leading to a hypoxic dead zone.
41) Emergent properties are characteristics of a system that are not evident in the system’s components (the whole is
greater than the sum of its parts). The component parts of a tree (leaves, branches, roots, bole) do not lead to the whole
tree’s emergent properties as a source of shade for understory vegetation, a home for birds and insects, a rich resource
filled with nectar and pollen during flowering season, and/or a source of food for many organisms in the form of fruits
or nuts.
42) The major anthropogenic source of phosphorus is effluent from sewage treatments, which tends to be phosphate rich.
Fertilizers also provide large amounts of anthropogenic phosphorus, and many detergents play a part as well.
Introduction of phosphates from all of these sources into surface waters causes eutrophication and algal growth,
leading to murkier waters, hypoxic zones, and other changes in the structure and function of ecosystems.
43) GIS (geographic information system) software is used by landscape ecologists to analyze and visualize how
geographic elements of a landscape are arrayed spatially. The elements can be arranged as layers to form a composite
map, useful for mapping niches of various species and establishing management strategies for any landscape, natural
or urban.
44) B
45) B
46) C
47) D
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Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED9
48) C
49) E
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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Use the accompanying figure to answer the following questions.
1) Which step in the figure shows the dissociation of carbonic acid?
A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E
1)
2) An increase in atmospheric CO2 levels would increase the production of which of the following in
the ocean?
A) HCO3- B) CO C) CH4 D) CaCO3 E) H2O
2)
3) An increase in atmospheric CO2 levels would cause a decrease of which of the following in the
ocean?
A) CaCO3 B) HCO3- C) Ca2+ D) H+ E) H2CO3
3)
1
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
Match the following.
A) salt marsh
B) estuary
C) surface zone
D) pycnocline
E) pelagic zone
F) littoral zone
G) bottom trawling
H) neritic zone
I) mangrove forest
J) drift netting
K) deep zone
4) Ecosystem that lies along the shoreline between the farthest reach of the highest tides and
the lowest reach of the lowest tide
4)
5) Ocean zone where water is dense and sluggish and not affected by winds, sunlight, and
daily temperature fluctuations
5)
6) Tree-dominated ecosystem in tropical and subtropical latitudes that consists of gently
sloping sandy and silty coastal areas
6)
7) Area where a river flows into the ocean, mixing fresh water and saltwater 7)
8) Ocean zone that comprises approximately 18% of the ocean’s water; where density
increases and temperature decreases with depth
8)
9) Fishing technique for capturing groundfish 9)
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
10) About 80% of the ocean’s water exists in the ________.
A) deep zone
B) euphotic zone
C) pycnocline
D) thermocline
E) surface zone
10)
11) Ocean water is saltiest ________.
A) where there is high evaporation and low precipitation
B) at the equator
C) where rains are the heaviest
D) in estuaries
E) where there is a large amount of glacial melting
11)
2
12) Water in the surface zone of the ocean is, for the most part, ________.
A) well mixed
B) the densest
C) low in oxygen
D) the saltiest
E) the coldest
12)
13) Which of the following is not characteristic of currents?
A) driven by wind
B) driven by density differences
C) always rapid and powerful
D) driven by temperature
E) driven by gravity
13)
14) The area that underlies the shallow water bordering continents is called the ________.
A) continental shelf
B) pycnocline
C) topographic shelf
D) surface zone
E) bathymetric zone
14)
15) The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ________.
A) required that by 2015 all oil tankers in U.S. water be double hulled
B) was a global treaty signed by all oil‑transporting nations
C) increased gas taxes to pay for the Exxon Valdez spill
D) restricted oil movement to land rather than sea
E) is not effective at altering national oil incidents
15)
16) What are groundfish?
A) various species that live in littoral habitats, such as tuna and whitefish
B) fish that are ground up and used for bait
C) various species that live in benthic habitats, such as halibut and flounder
D) various species that are found in estuaries
E) fish that form the base of the food web of deep‑water habitats
16)
17) Sea otters act as keystone species in the ________.
A) salt marshes
B) mangrove forests
C) kelp forests
D) coral reefs
E) deep ocean systems
17)
18) Zooxanthellae are ________.
A) symbiotic bacteria that decompose tissues of dead animals in oceans
B) an endangered species of fish in the Pacific Ocean
C) symbiotic bacteria that fix nitrogen in oceans
D) symbiotic algae that provide corals with energy via their photosynthetic activity
E) an invasive species of kelp in the Indian Ocean
18)
3
19) Which of the following is true of eutrophication in marine systems?
A) It can aid corals by killing parasites.
B) It can lead to algal blooms and red tides that kill fish.
C) It provides needed limiting nutrients.
D) It does not occur.
E) It is rare and occurs only in bad weather.
19)
20) As water warms, it ________.
A) dissolves increased amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
B) decreases in temperature
C) decreases in density
D) becomes more alkaline
E) sinks
20)
21) The exceptionally strong warming of the eastern Pacific is referred to as ________.
A) La Niña
B) the Coriolis effect
C) El Niño
D) Eastern Pacific Deep Water Warming
E) Eastern Pacific Shallow Water Warming
21)
22) Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________.
A) oil spills
B) plastic dumping
C) radiation
D) abandoned fishing nets
E) overharvesting
22)
23) Oceanographers are studying the thermohaline currents to determine ________.
A) whether global climate change may slow or alter their path
B) whether fresh water is more dense than saltwater
C) whether they could be replaced with artificial currents if damaged by changing temperatures
D) if warm water from polar and glacial melt is affecting the chemistry of the currents
E) whether they are becoming more acidic
23)
24) El Niño and La Niña ________.
A) both increase water temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico
B) both decrease water temperatures in the eastern Pacific Ocean
C) both increase water temperatures in the eastern Pacific Ocean
D) occur in precise patterns every 10 years
E) produce changes of opposite direction in global temperature and precipitation patterns
24)
25) A 2003 study reported that ________% of large-bodied fish and sharks were lost in the first decade
of industrialized fishing.
A) 90 B) 20 C) 40 D) 50 E) 10
25)
4
26) Upwelling ________.
A) results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface
B) occurs where winds blow at right angles toward the coastline
C) transports oxygen up toward the ocean surface
D) is the flow of warm water up toward the ocean surface
E) occurs in areas where there are no currents
26)
27) Downwelling ________.
A) is the flow of cold water down toward the ocean floor
B) occurs in areas where currents diverge, or flow away from each other
C) occurs where winds blow at right angles toward the coastline
D) occurs in areas where surface currents converge, or flow toward each other
E) of ocean water results in areas of high primary productivity at the ocean surface
27)
28) Bathymetry is best defined as the study of ________.
A) human populations
B) coral reefs
C) fish populations
D) earthquakes
E) ocean depths
28)
29) Hydrothermal vents ________.
A) provide chemicals to symbiotic bacteria that support ecosystems at the ocean floor
B) occur in tropical areas at the ocean surface
C) create ocean currents
D) make the photic zone of ocean pelagic areas the most productive
E) are passageways for fish within coral reefs
29)
30) Kelp are ________.
A) poisonous if ingested by fish or humans
B) a species of endangered fish
C) large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for
invertebrates and fish
D) mostly found in tropical waters
E) plants that grow on the deep ocean floor
30)
31) Salt marshes ________.
A) occur mostly in temperate areas
B) presently have remained undisturbed by human activities
C) occur mostly in arctic areas
D) contain too much salt to be inhabited by many organisms
E) occur mostly in tropical areas
31)
32) Approximately ________% of the world’s marine fish populations are either fully exploited or
overexploited.
A) 80 B) 50 C) 40 D) 20 E) 67
32)
5
33) In 1992, the Canadian government ________.
A) ordered a complete ban on cod fishing
B) banned the use of trawl fishing
C) gave subsidies to fishermen who were losing money due to low fish harvests
D) started harvesting manganese nodules from the ocean floor
E) enacted laws to protect many species of whales
33)
34) Bycatch ________.
A) is fishing for two species of fish concurrently
B) is fishing only at the surface of the ocean
C) is the practice of returning female and young fish back to the ocean
D) is fishing only at deep levels of the ocean
E) refers to the accidental capture of animals
34)
35) Most present‑day fisheries managers ________.
A) want all laws regarding fishing to be abolished
B) wish to set aside areas of ocean where systems can function without human interference
C) favor taxes on commercial fishing boats
D) favor protection of commercially valuable species and not others
E) favor short‑term solutions to marine ecosystem problems
35)
36) Most marine-protected areas ________.
A) are in the open oceans
B) prohibit the installation of oil pipelines and fiber‑optic cable lines within them
C) ban all fishing and extractive activities
D) have been established without the consent of the United States
E) are along the coastlines of developed nations
36)
37) Marine reserves ________.
A) are people responsible for policing the open ocean waters
B) are people responsible for policing the coastlines
C) are opposed by most environmentalists
D) provide no benefits to fishers, so are unanimously opposed by them
E) are “no‑take” areas in the oceans
37)
38) Red tides are caused by ________.
A) nutrient upwelling
B) the position of the moon
C) increased ocean oxygen content
D) nutrient pollution leading to marine algae blooms
E) increased ocean carbon dioxide content
38)
39) In 2006, Congress ________ to address the issue of solid wastes in oceans.
A) instituted the FAO
B) passed the Marine Debris Research, Prevention and Reduction Act
C) passed the U.S. Oil Pollution Act
D) passed the Mangrove Protection Act
E) first established Marine Protected Areas
39)
6
40) In thermohaline circulation of global current systems, surface water is ________.
A) driven by winds from north to south
B) cold and dense
C) saltier and colder
D) less salty, less dense, and warmer
E) warm and dense
40)
41) The rapid melting of Greenland’s ice cap could disrupt the NADW formation by ________.
A) adding huge amounts of dense fresh water to the deep ocean
B) adding heat and salt to deep ocean waters
C) acidifying ocean water
D) adding excess nutrients to cold northern waters
E) adding huge amounts of less dense fresh water to the surface of the system
41)
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
42) Discuss the importance of the goods and services that ocean ecosystems provide for humans.
43) Explain the NADW in the context of global climate change.
44) Discuss the impacts of human‑made pollution on ocean ecosystems.
45) Discuss how fishing practices can damage ecosystems. Include problems associated with driftnets, longline
fishing, and bottom-trawling.
46) On what concept has traditional fisheries management been based? What approach do scientists think would
improve current management techniques?
47) Summarize some of the positive effects of establishing marine reserves.
48) What are the motives for establishing marine sanctuaries and reserves?
49) What does it mean to say that we are “fishing down the food chain”?
50) Explain how increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and warmer coastal waters resulting from global
climate change may affect coral reefs.
51) Explain the response of Canadian cod populations in the area of the Grand Banks after the 1992 moratorium on
cod fishing.
7
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Read the following scenario and answer the questions below.
Diets that incorporate seafood can be healthy for us and kind to the environment. However, all seafood is not comparable, so
choice is important. Mollusks such as oysters, mussels, and scallops are good choices if they are grown suspended in water,
because dredging for these mollusks damages seafloors. On fish farms, this involves growing organisms on nets, trays, or
racks. Because mollusks are filter feeders, farmed mollusks can actually improve water quality. Although shrimp are also
filter feeders, shrimp farms, especially in Southeast Asia, are often built in coastal areas where mangroves are destroyed to
make room for farms. As long as excessive quantities of grain or wild fish are not used for feed, aquaculture can be a very
good alternative to open ocean fishing because it can reduce bycatch, the pressure on wild stocks, and the fossil fuel use
required at sea. Exceptions are farms that raise transgenic salmon, which often spread disease, or where the farmed fish
become oversized and outcompete the native fish. These salmon consume massive quantities of fish feed, so better fish
choices are farm‑raised talapia, striped bass, and sturgeon.
In the wild, Pacific halibut, salmon, sablefish, and sardines are good choices because they are fished selectively. Wild
grouper, shark, swordfish, tuna, and orange roughy must be consumed cautiously because water they inhabit usually
contains high levels of mercury, PCBs, dioxins, or pesticides, which can biomagnify in food webs and bioaccumulate in fish
tissues. Wild Chilean sea bass, Atlantic cod, and Atlantic halibut should be avoided because their populations have been
overfished. Orange roughy have been overfished, reproduce slowly, and are fished with bottom‑trawlers that frequently
damage bottom habitat.
52) The main environmental problem caused by harvesting bottom-dwelling mollusks is ________.
A) habitat destruction
B) introduction of invasive species
C) bioaccumulation
D) high bycatch
E) removal of keystone species
52)
53) Farm‑raised shrimp are not a good environmental seafood choice because ________.
A) trawling destroys coral reefs
B) of the bioaccumulation of toxins
C) shrimp farms are often associated with reduction in mangrove forest habitat
D) they require high quantities of wild fish feed
E) of high bycatch
53)
54) Which of the following is not true about aquaculture?
A) It can create mutants and spread diseases that harm native species.
B) It directly depletes wild fish populations.
C) It can result in habitat destruction.
D) It is always unsustainable.
E) It can be resource intensive.
54)
55) Why are marine reserves ecologically better than fish farms?
A) They are met with less opposition by fishers because they provide tremendous economic
benefits.
B) Farmed fish are quickly depleted.
C) They require no government regulation.
D) They restore damaged habitats and allow overfished species to reproduce and spread.
E) Farmed fish are genetically inferior.
55)
8
56) Which of the following should be avoided because of PCB contamination?
A) mussels
B) tuna
C) oysters
D) wild salmon
E) talapia
56)
57) Which of the following is not a problem with harvesting orange roughy?
A) overfishing
B) toxicity
C) habitat destruction
D) high bycatch
E) trawling
57)
9
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED20
1) C
2) A
3) A
4) F
5) K
6) I
7) B
8) C
9) G
10) A
11) A
12) A
13) C
14) A
15) A
16) C
17) C
18) D
19) B
20) C
21) C
22) E
23) A
24) E
25) A
26) A
27) D
28) E
29) A
30) C
31) A
32) A
33) A
34) E
35) B
36) E
37) E
38) D
39) B
40) D
41) E
10
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED20
42) The oceans facilitate transportation and commerce, influence global climate, teem with biodiversity, and provide us
with many resources. Oceans provide an affordable means of moving people and products over vast distances. The
historical impacts of shipping on human culture and commerce are profound, accelerating the global reach of certain
cultures and the interaction of long-isolated peoples. The thousands of ships plying the world’s oceans today carry
everything from cod to cargo containers to crude oil. Due to water’s high heat capacity, oceans can moderate climate
by absorbing heat from the atmosphere. They are a source of thermal energy, and they can also release heat into the
atmosphere. Humans use oceans as sources of commercially valuable energy. Oil and methane hydrate sediments
represent fossil fuel resources in the ocean. In recent decades, engineers have developed turbines that generate
electricity using the ebb and flow of the tides for energy. There are thousands of species of fish in the oceans that
provide us with food. People also extract minerals from the ocean floor. By using large vacuum cleaner-like hydraulic
dredges, miners collect sediments and mineral deposits such as sand and gravel from deep beneath the sea. Sulfur is
extracted from salt deposits in the Gulf of Mexico, and phosphorite is extracted from many offshore areas, including
several near the California coast. Other valuable minerals found on or beneath the sea floor include calcium carbonate
(used in making cement), silica (used as fire‑resistant insulation and in manufacturing glass), and rich deposits of
copper, zinc, silver, and gold ore. Many minerals are found concentrated in manganese nodules, small ball‑shaped
accretions that litter parts of the ocean floor.
Also, the sea has always been a primal symbol and experience for humans, representing vastness, the beyond, and the
abode of higher beings. Oceans have a great value in their intangible ecosystem services, giving us a source of artistic
inspiration, beauty, and peace of mind which are mainstays of the tourism industry worldwide.
43) The North Atlantic Deep Water Circulation Pattern is a sort of conveyor belt that moves less salty (fresher), less dense
warmer water from the equatorial zones northward, carrying heat to higher latitudes in the Atlantic Ocean, thus
moderating Europe’s climate. Recently, scientists have realized that interrupting the NADW could trigger climate
change. If global warming causes large portions of the Greenland ice sheet to melt, freshwater runoff into the North
Atlantic would increase. Surface waters would become less dense from the dilution and warming because warm
freshwater is less dense than cold saltwater. This could stop the northward flow of warm equatorial water, whereby
the entire North Atlantic region, including much of Europe, could cool rapidly as a result.
44) Oceans have long been a sink for human wastes. Even into the mid-20th century, it was common for coastal cities in
the United States to dump trash and pump untreated sewage onto mudflats and into embayments. Coastal dumping
practices have left a toxic legacy around the United States, but marine pollution continues today including oil, plastic,
industrial chemicals, sewage sludge, excess nutrients, and abandoned fishing gear. Pollutants such as crude oil are also
a problem. The majority of oil pollution in the oceans comes not only from catastrophic large spills, such as the Exxon
Valdez and BP’s Deepwater Horizon blowout of 2010, but from cumulative small sources, including leakage from small
boats and runoff from human activities on land. In addition, the amount of petroleum spilled into the oceans each
year is equaled by the amount that seeps into the water from naturally occurring seafloor deposits. Pollution from
petroleum products is extremely detrimental to the marine environment and the human economies that draw
sustenance from that environment. The extent of this damage is only now being appreciated in the case of the
Deepwater Horizon event in the Gulf of Mexico. Petroleum can physically coat and kill intertidal and free‑swimming
marine organisms, and ingested chemical components in petroleum can poison marine life. Plastic bags and bottles,
fishing nets, gloves, fishing line, buckets, floats, abandoned cargo, and nearly everything else that humans transport
on the sea or dispose into it can present problems for marine organisms and for people who depend upon the sea.
Because most plastic is not biodegradable, it can drift for decades before washing up on beaches. Some marine
animals, including seabirds, fish, and endangered sea turtles, can mistake floating plastic debris for food (such as
mistaking clear plastic for jellyfish), and many die as a result. Artificial pollution from fertilizer runoff or other nutrient
inputs can also have dire effects on marine ecosystems, as we saw with the Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone. The release of
excess nutrients into surface waters can spur unusually high growth rates and population densities of phytoplankton,
causing eutrophication in both freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, particularly highly productive coral reefs and
coastal shallows.
11
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED20
45) The removal of species at high trophic levels from marine environments, particularly those that act as keystone
species, can have serious ramifications for marine ecosystems. Fishing practices can also harm ecosystems in other
ways. Many practices catch more than just the species they target. Bycatch accounts for the deaths of many thousands
of fish, sharks, marine mammals, and birds each year. Boats that drag driftnets through the water capture substantial
numbers of large animals such as dolphins, seals, and sea turtles, as well as countless nontarget fish. Most of these end
up dying from drowning or from air exposure on deck. Similar bycatch problems exist with longline fishing. Besides
catching nontarget turtles and sharks, longline fishing kills many albatrosses. Other fishing practices can directly
damage entire ecosystems. Bottom‑trawling crushes many organisms in its path and leaves long swaths of sea bottom
damaged, especially those areas with structural complexity, such as reefs, that animals use for shelter.
46) For decades, fisheries management has been based on scientific assessments and has sought to ensure sustainable
harvests. Historically, fisheries managers have studied fish population biology and used that knowledge to regulate
the timing of harvests, the techniques used to catch fish, and the scale of the harvest. The goal was to allow for
maximal harvests of particular populations while keeping fish available for the future, a concept called maximum
sustainable yield. If data indicated that current yields looked unsustainable, managers might limit the number or total
mass of that fish species that could be harvested or might restrict the type of gear fishers can use. Numerous marine
scientists and some managers now suggest a shift away from management of individual fish species and toward
viewing marine resources as elements of larger ecological systems. This means considering the effects of fishing
practices on habitat quality, on interspecific interactions, and on other ecological factors that may have indirect or long
‑term effects on populations.
47) Continuing studies of marine reserves such as those off the coast of Florida and in St. Lucia’s Soufriere Marine
Management Area have shown the clear benefits to fish and other marine wildlife. Besides boosting fish biomass and
total catch and producing record‑size fish, marine reserves were found to produce rapid and long‑term increases in
abundance, diversity, and productivity of many marine organisms. They decreased mortality and habitat destruction,
lessened the likelihood of extirpation of species, and “seeded the seas” because protected species spread outside the
reserve area. Establishing marine reserves is challenging because marine reserves are inherently more open than
terrestrial systems making them difficult to manage and patrol, and it is clear that reserves need to be backed up by
other management tools such as restrictions of commercial and sport fishing.
48) With the great majority of commercial species overfished or fished to the limit, marine reserves and sanctuaries give
some of these species’ populations a change to recover. These protected areas allow habitats of marine life to recover
in biodiversity and productivity, and the proven success of reserves in many types of ocean environments is having a
“spillover” effect as protected species spread outside reserves.
49) Sizes of caught fish decline with higher rates of fishing. As we overfish the seas, we have largely eliminated stocks of
large predators, many of whom are adult commercial fish species and are keystone species. Now we are fishing our
way through more moderately sized consumers. Because food chains are not infinitely long, we will eventually be left
with only primary consumers, which may not be very palatable. The removal of keystone species from any food has
cascade effects that can produce serious and far-reaching disruptions. These include the possibility of allowing other
species to replace the decimated fish species as new top consumers.
50) If water temperatures increase, many species of coral will eject their zooxanthellae, subsequently bleaching and dying.
Also, rising carbon dioxide levels will increase the amounts of carbon dioxide that will dissolve in ocean waters. This
produces acidification of ocean waters, and increased acidity increases the conversion of limestone, which comprises
the corals’ skeletal material, into soluble bicarbonate, thus increasing the mortality of corals. On the other hand, corals
may be able to colonize waters that were previously too cold for them and also move into low-elevation areas that
may become flooded by expanding oceans.
12
Answer Key
Testname: UNTITLED20
51) Cod populations did not immediately rebound after the initial moratorium, so in 1994, the Canadian government
extended the moratorium. Meanwhile, populations of capelin (a fish that is normally preyed upon by cod) grew
rapidly and began preying upon young cod. After cod populations did not rebound by 2003, the Canadian
government extended the moratorium indefinitely. A portion of the Grand Banks was reopened for cod fishing in
2009 upon evidence of a slight recovery in cod numbers. A 2011 study showed that cod populations had climbed to
35% of their historic numbers (up from 5%). The rebound is attributed to the moratorium and the fact that capelin
population numbers had crashed as a result of the combination of outstripping their food supply and being fished by
fishermen.
52) A
53) C
54) B
55) D
56) B
57) D
13

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