EARTH2 2nd Edition by Hendrix – Test Bank

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Complete Test Bank With Answers

 

 

 

Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

 

1. ____________________ is the broad term that describes economically valuable geological materials, whether metallic or non-metallic ores.

ANSWER:   Mineral resource

Mineral resources

 

2. ____________________ form mineral deposits as liquid magma solidifies to form an igneous rock.

ANSWER:   Magmatic processes

 

3. Often, early-formed minerals sink to the bottom of a magma chamber in a process called ____________________.

ANSWER:   crystal settling

 

4. A(n) ____________________ deposit forms when dissolved metals precipitate in a fracture in rock.

ANSWER:   hydrothermal vein

 

5. Electricity is generated in nuclear reactions through fission of ____________________ atoms.

ANSWER:   uranium

 

6. Hydrothermal solutions concentrate metals by the process of ____________________, in which metals are dissolved from country rock and concentrated in another location.

ANSWER:   scavenging

 

7. Golf-ball to bowling-ball sized ____________________ rich in a variety of minerals are found on the Pacific Ocean floor.

ANSWER:   manganese nodules

 

8. Layers of iron-rich minerals sandwiched between beds of silica minerals are called ____________________.

ANSWER:   banded iron formations

 

9. ____________________ are the known amount of ore in the ground.

ANSWER:   Mineral reserves

 

10. Propane, gasoline, and heating oil are examples of fuels refined from ____________________.

ANSWER:   crude oil

petroleum

 

11. A(n) ____________________ may consist of tens of kilometers of interconnected subterranean passages that follow ore veins or coal seams.

ANSWER:   underground mine

 

12. When crude oil is heated above 100 degrees Celsius, organic molecules break down to form the hydrocarbon ____________________, which is the main gas in natural gas.

ANSWER:   methane

 

13. The application of heat and pressure to shale causes the organic matter to become a solid, waxy material called ____________________.

ANSWER:   kerogen

 

14. ____________________ energy resources are replenished by natural processes as we use them.

ANSWER:   Renewable

 

15. A(n) ____________________ produces electricity directly from sunlight.

ANSWER:   solar cell

photovoltaic cell

 

Fill in the blank.

 

16. Ores can be recovered from ____.

  a. igneous rocks only
  b. sedimentary rocks only
  c. metamorphic rocks only
  d. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks

 

ANSWER:   d

 

17. The presence of dissolved ____ in hydrothermal water’s increases the water’s ability to dissolve minerals.

  a. carbon dioxide
  b. silica
  c. salts
  d. sulfur

 

ANSWER:   c

 

18. Evaporite deposits form by ____.

  a. sedimentary sorting
  b. hydrothermal solutions
  c. precipitation from water
  d. magma solidification

 

ANSWER:   c

 

19. ____ is partially decayed organic material that will eventually form coal if exposed to additional heat and pressure.

  a. Peat
  b. Perlite
  c. Bitumen
  d. Bauxite

 

ANSWER:   a

 

20. The majority of rare-earth elements are mined in ____.

  a. ocean floor deposits
  b. tropical countries
  c. the United States
  d. China

 

ANSWER:   d

 

21. ____ commonly erupt jets of mineral-rich, hot water from fractures along the mid-ocean ridges

  a. Black spitters
  b. Black smokers
  c. Black chimneys
  d. Black vents

 

ANSWER:   b

 

22. Differential settling occurs because materials have different ____.

  a. densities
  b. precipitates
  c. volumes
  d. concentrations

 

ANSWER:   a

 

23. _____ is the world’s largest producer of many mineral resources, and ____ is the world’s largest consumer of many mineral resources.

  a. China; the United States
  b. the United States; the United States
  c. China; China
  d. the United States; China

 

ANSWER:   c

 

24. Coal forms when buried peat loses most of its ____ and ____.

  a. hydrogen; oxygen
  b. hydrogen; carbon
  c. oxygen; carbon
  d. nitrogen; hydrogen

 

ANSWER:   a

 

25. ____ releases no sulfur when burned, has a higher net energy yield than other fossil fuels, and can be extracted and used without refining.

  a. Coal
  b. Petroleum
  c. Kerogen
  d. Natural gas

 

ANSWER:   d

 

26. The United States relies most heavily on fossil fuels, particularly ____ to supply its energy.

  a. natural gas
  b. coal
  c. oil
  d. biofuels

 

ANSWER:   c

 

27. Natural gas can be extracted from unconventional reservoirs by ____, where water and sand are is forced into rocks like shale.

  a. horizontal fracturing
  b. pressurized extraction
  c. hydraulic fracturing
  d. tertiary removal

 

ANSWER:   c

 

28. Sand deposits saturated with heavy oil and bitumen that are too thick to pump are called ____.

  a. tar sands
  b. kerogen reserves
  c. placer deposits
  d. oil shales

 

ANSWER:   a

 

29. Energy sources, such as sunlight and wind, are ____.

  a. renewable
  b. nonrenewable
  c. limited
  d. usually more polluting than nuclear fuels

 

ANSWER:   a

 

30. The largest source of renewable energy in the United States is ____.

  a. nuclear energy
  b. hydroelectric power
  c. solar energy
  d. wind energy

 

ANSWER:   b

 

31. A nonmetallic resource is ____.

  a. an ore
  b. a concentration of metals that can be mined profitably
  c. a concentration of fossil fuels
  d. any useful rock or mineral that is not a metal, such as salt, building stone, sand, or gravel

 

ANSWER:   d

 

32. In order for plant matter to decay, what must happen?

  a. Organisms must consume plants’ carbon dioxide.
  b. Oxygen concentrations should be high.
  c. Water currents must slow down.
  d. Oxygen concentrations should be low.

 

ANSWER:   b

 

33. In the U.S., most of the energy produced is used for ____.

  a. running motors during manufacturing processes
  b. mining resources to produce more energy
  c. transporting people and goods.
  d. heating, air-conditioning, and lighting

 

ANSWER:   d

 

34. Geothermal energy has an advantage over solar and wind energy because ____.

  a. it produces more jobs for communities
  b. it has a smaller capacity factor
  c. it doesn’t require the use of water
  d. it has a larger capacity factor

 

ANSWER:   d

 

35. A(n) ____ is a hole in Earth’s surface from which minerals or fuel resources are recovered.

  a. excavation mine
  b. surface mine
  c. extraction mine
  d. spiral mine

 

ANSWER:   b

 

36. Placer ore deposits form ____.

  a. whenever metal-bearing solutions encounter changing conditions that cause precipitation
  b. when magma cools slowly deep underground
  c. when landlocked lakes dry up
  d. when streams or waves sort sediment according to density

 

ANSWER:   d

 

37. Salts (such as halite) that are left behind when water evaporates are called ____.

  a. placer deposits
  b. hydrothermal vein deposits
  c. metallic ores
  d. precipitates

 

ANSWER:   d

 

38. Petroleum forms in ____ rocks.

  a. igneous rocks only
  b. sedimentary rocks only
  c. metamorphic rocks only
  d. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

 

ANSWER:   b

 

39. Turning off the lights or turning down the thermostat and wearing a sweater are examples of which type of energy conservation strategy?

  a. inconvenient solutions
  b. technical solutions
  c. social solutions
  d. dependence reducing solutions

 

ANSWER:   c

 

40. Which statement best describes mineral reserves?

  a. They can increase because new and inexpensive methods of processing lower grade ore can be developed.
  b. They can become profitable if the price of the metal in a mineral deposit increases.
  c. They are constant and do not change.
  d. They can increase because new and inexpensive methods of processing lower grade ore can be developed and can become profitable if the price of the metal in a mineral deposit increases.

 

ANSWER:   d

 

41. Fossil fuels are ____.

  a. formed from the remains of plants and animals
  b. renewable
  c. found mainly in igneous rocks
  d. being formed as rapidly as they are being consumed

 

ANSWER:   a

 

42. Mud converts to shale and organic material converts to liquid petroleum ____.

  a. when pressure and temperature are decreased by burial under younger sediment
  b. very quickly in the ocean
  c. when pressure and temperature are increased due to burial under younger sediment
  d. in the range of 0 to 30° C

 

ANSWER:   c

 

43. Combustion of fossil fuels results in the release of ____, a greenhouse gas.

  a. carbon dioxide
  b. methyl mercury
  c. chlorofluorocarbon
  d. bitumen

 

ANSWER:   a

 

44. An oil reservoir is most similar to ____.

  a. an underground pool or lake
  b. a thick deposit of tar
  c. kerogen saturated shale
  d. an oil-soaked sponge

 

ANSWER:   d

 

45. Although oil shale deposits could supply the U.S. with petroleum for several centuries, they are impractical to mine because ____.

  a. they generate too much waste
  b. they are nonrenewable energy resources
  c. the source rock is too deep to reach
  d. they will generate less energy than will be required to mine them

 

ANSWER:   d

 

46. All mineral resources are renewable since they are created by natural processes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

47. Mining of non-metallic mineral resources like sand and gravel is more profitable than mining metallic mineral resources like gold and silver.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

48. The majority of ore deposits are formed by hydrothermal processes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

49. Several times during the history of Earth, shallow seas covered large portions of North America and precipitated evaporite deposits.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

50. Bauxite is an example of a residual ore deposit.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

51. Bacteria and algae on the seafloor can actually precipitate mineral deposits.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

52. Fossil fuels are renewable.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

53. Plant matter is composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and silicon.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

54. If conditions are favorable, petroleum is forced out of the source rock and migrates to a nearby layer of sandstone or limestone to accumulate in a reservoir.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

55. On the average, more than half of the oil in a reservoir is left behind after a well has “gone dry,” using primary recovery techniques.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

56. Minerals resources are uniformly distributed across the world.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

57. During burial, most of the hydrogen and oxygen are expelled from peat to concentrate carbon and form coal.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

58. Unlike the prices of energy resources, the prices of mineral resources do not fluctuate.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

59. All of the world’s energy needs could potentially be supplied by renewable energy methods.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   True

 

60. Research has found that it is possible to change from a fossil fuel based economy to a renewable energy based economy with the technology that currently exists.

  a. True
  b. False

 

ANSWER:   False

 

 

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