Discovering Psychology 7th Edition By Hockenbury – Test Bank

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Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

1. Define learning and conditioning as psychologists use the terms, and give examples of three forms of learning.

 

 

2. Describe the basic process of classical conditioning, using an original example. Be sure to identify the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR.

 

 

3. According to Pavlov, what factors can affect the strength of a classically conditioned response?

 

 

4. Based on Pavlov’s research with dogs, describe and provide examples of the following concepts: generalization and discrimination, higher order conditioning, extinction, and spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning.

 

 

5. Describe the school or approach to psychology that John Watson founded, and explain why he founded it.

 

 

6. Describe the famous “Little Albert” study, including the implications of the study’s results.

 

 

7. Discuss criticisms of the famous “Little Albert” study.

 

 

8. Provide two examples of how Watson applied classical conditioning principles to advertising.

 

 

9. In your textbook, the author explains how classical conditioning can influence drug responses by using an example of caffeine. Describe another example that is not used in your text to illustrate the link between classical conditioning and a specific drug response.

 

 

10. Explain how Robert Rescorla demonstrated that mental processes are involved in classical conditioning.

 

 

11. Describe John Garcia’s research, and explain why his findings were originally rejected.

 

 

12. Why did conditioned taste aversions appear to violate the original principles of classical conditioning, and how did they come to be explained?

 

 

13. Explain how the idea of biological preparedness can be applied to human phobias.

 

 

14. Who was Edward Thorndike, and what were his contributions to the study of learning?

 

 

15. What did Skinner and other behaviorists believe should be the appropriate subject matter of psychology? That is, what should we study?

 

 

16. Compare and contrast positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement, and provide an original example of each.

 

 

17. Define punishment, describe the two types of punishment, and explain the drawbacks of using punishment.

 

 

18. Describe at least three strategies that can be used to change behavior without resorting to punishment.

 

 

19. Define a discriminative stimulus, and give at least two examples of a discriminative stimulus not used in the text.

 

 

20. According to your text, what was Skinner’s most radical—and controversial—belief? Explain how the concept of gamification is built upon Skinner’s operant conditioning principles.

 

 

21. What is the partial reinforcement effect? What is extinction in operant conditioning, and what is the relationship between partial reinforcement, continuous reinforcement, and extinction?

 

 

22. Pick two of the four basic schedules of reinforcement, describe them, and give at least one example of the reinforcement schedule operating in daily life.

 

 

23. How did Edward Tolman demonstrate the role of mental processes in operant conditioning?

 

 

24. What is learned helplessness and how was it first demonstrated?

 

 

25. Describe Martin Seligman’s research on learned helplessness in dogs.

 

 

26. Discuss some of the ways that the concept of learned helplessness has been applied to human behavior, and how learned helplessness can be overcome in academic settings.

 

 

27. Define instinctive drift, and explain its implications for operant conditioning.

 

 

28. Compare and contrast operant and classical conditioning in terms of types of behavior studied, responses conditioned, extinction processes, and cognitive and evolutionary influences on each.

 

 

29. What conditions increase the likelihood that a behavior will be imitated?

 

 

30. Identify three species of animals that have shown evidence of observational learning. Describe one study that had provided evidence of observational learning in animals.

 

 

31. Explain what mirror neurons are and discuss research on the role of mirror neurons in imitation and observational learning in humans and other animals.

 

 

32. Describe a study that shows indirect evidence of mirror neurons in humans.

 

 

33. Discuss how the principles of observational learning have been applied to promote social change and healthy behaviors.

 

 

34. Discuss the relationship between exposure to violent media and increases in aggressive behavior, and explain why some psychologists are cautious in their conclusions about the effects of media violence.

 

 

35. Explain what is meant by the “adaptive nature of learning” as it relates to classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observation/imitation.

 

 

36. Describe three learning principles that you can use to improve self-control.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. The answer should include the following information: In psychology, learning is defined as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual’s experience that reflects adaptation to the environment. As the result of that experience, new behaviors are acquired or old behaviors modified to better cope with the immediate environmental surroundings. Conditioning is the process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses. The conditioning process is common in learning simple habits to complex skills. Examples will vary.
2. The answer should include the following information: Classical conditioning is the process of learning an association between two stimuli. It involves pairing a neutral stimulus (a sign, Billy Bob’s Burgers) with an unlearned, natural stimulus (food in the mouth; UCS) that automatically elicits a reflexive response (in this case, salivation; the UCR). If the two stimuli (sign + food) are repeatedly paired, eventually the neutral stimulus (sign; now the CS) elicits the same reflexive response (salivation; CR) as the natural food stimulus even if the food is not present.
3. The answer should include the following information: Pavlov discovered many factors that could affect the strength of the conditioned response. First, frequent pairings of the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus produces a stronger association between the two variables. Second, the timing of stimulus presentations affected the strength of the conditioned response; the conditioned stimulus must be presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus— a half-second is the optimal time interval between the onset of the conditioned stimulus and the beginning of the unconditioned stimulus. Generalization refers to the notion that once conditioned, a dog will salivate to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Discrimination occurs when a particular conditioned response is made to one stimulus but not to another, similar stimulus. Higher order conditioning, sometimes called second order conditioning, occurs when a conditioned stimulus comes to function as an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial. For example, Pavlov paired a ticking metronome with food until the sound of the ticking metronome became a conditioned stimulus. Next, Pavlov repeatedly paired a new unconditioned stimulus, a black square, with the ticking metronome but no food. After several pairings, the black square elicited salivation. Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (in Pavlov’s original work, the ringing bell) is repeatedly presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus (the food) causing the conditioned response to gradually disappear. However, if the animal were allowed a period of rest after the extinction process, the conditioned response reappeared when the conditioned stimulus was again presented. This reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response is called spontaneous recovery.
4. Generalization refers to the notion that once conditioned, a dog will salivate to new stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus. Discrimination occurs when a particular conditioned response is made to one stimulus but not to another, similar stimulus. Higher order conditioning, sometimes called second order conditioning, occurs when a conditioned stimulus comes to function as an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial. For example, Pavlov paired a ticking metronome with food until the sound of the ticking metronome became a conditioned stimulus. Next, Pavlov repeatedly paired a new unconditioned stimulus, a black square, with the ticking metronome but no food. After several pairings, the black square elicited salivation. Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus (in Pavlov’s original work, the ringing bell) is repeatedly presented without being paired with the unconditioned stimulus (the food) causing the conditioned response to gradually disappear. However, if the animal were allowed a period of rest after the extinction process, the conditioned response reappeared when the conditioned stimulus was again presented. This reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response is called spontaneous recovery.
5. The answer should include the following information: John Watson believed that the early psychologists, structuralists, and functionalists, took the wrong approach to studying behavior by choosing to focus on subjective mental processes that could not be objectively observed. Watson advocated that the scientific study of behavior should focus on what could be objectively observed. Watson founded a new school that would come to dominate the development of American psychology for decades called behaviorism.
6. The answer should include the following information: Watson was interested in the role of classical conditioning in emotions. In collaboration with his graduate student, Rosalie Rayner, he attempted to show that classical conditioning could be used to deliberately establish a conditioned emotional response in a human subject. Their subject was a baby, they called “Albert B.,” but who became known as “Little Albert.” Little Albert was a healthy, unusually calm baby with no fear when initially presented with a tame white rat, a rabbit, a dog, and a monkey. Watson had noticed that fear could be triggered by banging a steel bar behind the baby’s head. In this case, the sudden bang of the bar is the unconditioned stimulus, and the unconditioned response is fear. Watson and Rayner attempted to condition Little Albert to fear the tame white rat (the conditioned stimulus). Watson stood behind Little Albert and when he reached for the rat, Watson banged the steel bar with a hammer. The unexpected loud noise (in this case, the unconditioned stimulus) startled Little Albert (the unconditioned response). After only about a half dozen pairings of the loud bang with the white rat, the rat alone triggered the conditioned response, intense fear in Little Albert. This experiment also demonstrated stimulus generalization. Albert was now afraid of other furry animals and objects.
7. The answer should include the following information: While the Little Albert study became quite well known in the developing field of psychology, there were a number of criticisms leveled at the experiment. For example, the experiment was not carefully designed or conducted. Albert’s fear and distress were not objectively measured but were subjectively evaluated by Watson and Rayner. There were also ethical issues with the experiment. Watson and Rayner did not extinguish Little Albert’s fear of furry animals and objects, even though they believed that such conditioned emotional responses would “persist and modify personality throughout life.” This type of experiment could not ethically be conducted today.
8. The answer should include the following information: Watson explained to advertisers that in order to make consumers react, they needed to tell them something that was associated with fear, that would stir up a mild rage, that would call out an affection or love response, or otherwise strike at a deep psychological habit need. For example, in an ad campaign for Johnson & Johnson Baby Powder, Watson intentionally tried to stimulate an anxiety response in young mothers by creating doubts about their ability to care for their infants. In another campaign for Pebeco toothpaste, Watson targeted newly independent women who smoked. The ad raised the fear that attractiveness might be diminished by the effects of smoking—and Pebeco, therefore, could help increase sexual attractiveness.
9. The answer should include the following information (students are free to choose any drug in this answer): A regular alcohol drinker may notice that he or she begins to feel slightly “buzzed” after just a few sips of beer, wine, or liquor. However, it may take an hour or more for the alcohol to reach significant levels in the bloodstream. If the drinker is feeling more “buzzed” before blood levels of alcohol rise, he or she has probably developed a classically conditioned response to the sight, smell, and taste of alcohol.
10. The answer should include the following information: Rescorla demonstrated that classical conditioning involves more than learning the simple associations in a study using rats.  One group of rats heard a tone (the conditioned stimulus) that was paired with a brief electric shock (the unconditioned stimulus) 20 times. A second group of rats experienced the same number of tone–shock pairings. However, in this group, the animals also experienced an additional 20 shocks with no tone. Rescorla then tested both groups of animals for the conditioned fear response by presenting the tone alone. Since each group had received 20 tone-shock pairings, Rescola expected that both groups would display the same levels of conditioned fear. However, rats in the first group displayed a much stronger fear response to the tone than did the rats in the second group. Rescorla believed that classical conditioning must be predictable; the process depends on the information the conditioned stimulus provides about the unconditioned stimulus. In order for the animals to learn the association, the conditioned stimulus must be a reliable signal that predicts when the unconditioned stimulus will occur.  Animals in the first group were presented with this situation; this was not the case for the rats in the second group. Rescola argued that both groups were actively processing information about the reliability of the signals they encountered and they actively assess the predictive value of stimuli. Thus, animals must use cognitive processes to draw inferences about the signals they encounter in their environments.
11. The answer should include the following information: John Garcia demonstrated that taste aversions could be produced in laboratory rats under controlled conditions. Garcia used rats for these experiments having them drink saccharin-flavored water (the neutral stimulus). The animals were subsequently injected with a drug (the unconditioned stimulus) that produced gastrointestinal distress (the unconditioned response). After recovery, the animals would no longer drink saccharin-flavored water again. The rats had developed a taste aversion to the flavored water, such that it had become a conditioned stimulus. Many psychologists initially did not believe Garcia’s findings because they appeared to violate the basic principles of classical conditioning; a number of leading psychological journals refused to publish Garcia’s research.
12. The answer should include the following information: Conditioned taste aversions challenged the idea that any stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus. Garcia and his students showed that the specific conditioned stimulus does make a difference in classical conditioning. Garcia’s results paved the way for the development of the concept of biological preparedness—the idea that an organism is predisposed to make specific associations between certain stimuli and responses. If a stimulus and response association is not one that an organism is biologically prepared to make, then the association may not occur or may occur only with considerable work. The associations that are easily made probably reflect the evolutionary history and survival mechanisms of the particular species.
13. The answer should include the following information: Human phobias tend to be related to things like snakes, spiders, excessive heights, and small enclosed places. This association suggests that humans are biologically prepared to develop fears of objects or situations that involve snakes, spiders, heights, etc. since they may have once posed a threat to our ancestors’ survival. Humans appear to be particularly prepared to detect and make conditioned fear responses to snakes and spiders. Researchers have suggested that a “fear module” may have developed in the brain that is highly sensitized to evolutionarily relevant stimuli like snakes and spiders. People that were prepared to rapidly identify and avoid such organisms were more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on that knowledge and their genes to subsequent generations.
14. The answer should include the following information:

Classical conditioning is involved in the learning of reflexive behaviors that are automatically elicited by specific stimuli. However, it was the acquisition of voluntary behaviors that interested Edward Thorndike. He initiated the pioneering experiments with cats, chicks, and dogs that set the stage for the work of B. F. Skinner. Thorndike was the first psychologist to systematically investigate animal learning and how voluntary behaviors are influenced by their consequences.  Thorndike developed “puzzle boxes” and used hungry cats to determine if they could learn to escape a cage with a simple act. Next to the cage a plate of food was placed that they could see and smell. According to Thorndike, successful escape behaviors became “stamped in,” so that the cat was more likely to repeat these behaviors when placed in the puzzle box again. Unsuccessful behaviors were gradually eliminated. His experiments led him to formulate the law of effect. Behavioral responses that were followed by a “satisfying state of affairs” were “strengthened” and were more likely to occur again given similar circumstances; responses that were followed by an unpleasant or “annoying state of affairs” were “weakened” and were less likely to occur again.

15. The answer should include the following information: Behaviorists, including Skinner, believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying only phenomena that could be objectively measured and verified—outwardly observable behavior and environmental events.
16. The answer should include the following information: In positive reinforcement, an operant behavior is strengthened because it has been followed by a reinforcing stimulus. The textbook gives several examples. In sales, if a person achieves a particular sales quota (the operant), they receive a bonus check (the reinforcing stimulus). Another example is that a child is told to clean up their room (the operant) and they receive an ice cream (the reinforcing stimulus). In these examples, the addition of the reinforcing stimulus has an effect of making the person more likely to repeat the operant in similar situations in the future, we say that positive reinforcement has occurred. However, what is considered a reinforcing stimulus can vary from person to person, species to species, and situation to situation. On the other hand, negative reinforcement involves an operant behavior that is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus. In this case, a response increases because it produces a change that is positive. For example, a child is crying, and the parent changes her diaper. Your roommate is playing loud music, and you put ear plugs in. In these cases, an aversive stimuli, some physical or psychological discomfort is present and the person would like to escape or avoid these circumstances. Behavior is negatively reinforced when they let the person escape the aversive stimulus that presents or completely avoid it before it occurs.
17. The answer should include the following information: In punishment, a behavior is followed by an aversive consequence that decreases the likelihood of the behavior’s being repeated. Punishment always decreases the probability that the operant will be performed in the future. There are two types of punishment. First, positive punishment, also called punishment by application, involves a response being followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus. In this case, an aversive stimulus is added to a situation to reduce the occurrence of that behavior. For example, a student submits a late paper (the operant) and the teacher subtracts points from their paper prior to grading it. In this case, since the presentation of the punishing stimulus has the effect of decreasing the behavior it follows, punishment has occurred. Second, negative punishment, or punishment by removal, occurs when a stimulus is removed from the environment thereby decreasing an undesirable behavior. In this case, the withdrawal of a reinforcing stimulus, some type of privilege, possession, or some other desirable object or activity results in a change in behavior. A poor grade on a test (the operant) may mean that access to a gaming console is restricted (loss of reinforcing stimulus). Driving too fast (the operant) results in a heavy fine (loss of reinforcing stimulus–money). Punishment has several drawbacks. It decreases a specific response, but it may not promote the appropriate one.  Punishment may produce undesirable behaviors such as fear, anxiety, or hostility. Lastly, punishment may not work and the undesirable behavior may return despite the consequences.
18. The answer should include the following information: (Students’ answers will vary.) First, the best approach to problematic behavior is to reinforce an alternative behavior that is both constructive and incompatible with the problem behavior. A whining child can be reinforced only when they speak in a normal voice. Apply extinction to stop the behavior; determine what is reinforcing /maintaining the problem behavior and eliminate that reinforcer. Another approach would be to reinforce the non-occurrence of the problem behavior. This strategy involves setting a time period and if the unwanted behavior does not occur, the individual is reinforced. Finally, the use of time-out can be a good approach to resolve problematic behavior by removing the opportunity to obtain positive reinforcement.
19. The answer should include the following information: (Students’ answers will vary.) For psychologists, an operant behavior is under stimulus control if it is triggered (or suppressed) by certain stimuli. An organism must be able to discriminate between these stimuli in order to respond to them in different ways. Thus, these signals become a discriminative stimulus for operant behavior to occur. For example, a particular ringtone may set the occasion for you to answer your cell phone (or maybe not answering your cell phone depending on the ringtone). As another example, you might tell different types of jokes to your parents than you would tell your friends.
20. The answer should include the following information: Skinner’s most radical and controversial belief was that such ideas as free will, self-determination, and individual choice are just illusions. Although far-fetched, some contemporary researchers are developing new ideas about how operant conditioning principles can be used to meet socially desirable goals. A movement called gamification advocates turning daily life into a kind of virtual reality game, in which “points” or other conditioned reinforcers are awarded to reward healthy or productive behaviors. For example, some businesses give reductions on health insurance premiums to employees who rack up enough points on a specially equipped pedometer that monitors their daily activity level.
21. The answer should include the following information: During the acquisition of a behavior, it is important to strengthen a response by reinforcing every occurrence of the behavior. In the case of a rat’s bar-pressing, every response is initially reinforced (continuous reinforcement). However, in real life, we are only likely to be reinforced sometimes. This is called partial reinforcement. For a rat pressing a bar, researchers are moved to a partial reinforcement schedule to maintain the rat’s behavior. This phenomenon is the same thing that happens to us when we gamble. However, if the rat never is reinforced, the behavior will stop or undergo extinction. Skinner found that partially reinforced behaviors tend to be more resistant to extinction than are behaviors that are continuously reinforced.
22. The answer should include the following information: On a fixed ratio (FR) schedule, such as FR-20, every 20 responses would be reinforced. For a rodent’s bar-pressing behavior, every 20 bar presses would be rewarded with a food pellet. Fixed-ratio schedules typically produce a high rate of responding that follows a burst–pause–burst pattern. In everyday life, the fixed-ratio schedule is reflected in any activity that requires a precise number of responses in order to obtain reinforcement. A salesperson may only get paid after they make so many sales per day. In a variable-ratio (VR) schedule, behavior is only reinforced after an average number of responses, which varies from trial to trial. In a lab setting, a rat on a variable-ratio-20 (VR-20) schedule might press the bar 15 times on the first trial before being reinforced and 25 times on the second trial before reinforcement. Thus, an unpredictable number of responses is reinforced although over a number of trials, the ratio of responses to reinforcers will work out to a predetermined average. For fixed-interval (FI) schedules, a reinforcer is delivered for the first response produced after a preset time interval has passed. In the lab, a rat maintained on a five-minute fixed-interval schedule (FI-5) would receive no food pellets for any bar presses made during the first five minutes. However, once the five-minute interval elapsed, they would be reinforced for the first bar press. This schedule of reinforcement produces a scallop-shaped pattern of responding in which the number of responses tends to increase as the time for the next reinforcer draws near. Studying behavior might follow a similar pattern with more studying occurring just prior to a test. Finally, a variable-interval (VI) schedule occurs when a response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response. An example of this would be delivering a food pellet to a rat after the first bar press following a one-minute interval, another pellet for the first response following a 30-second interval, and a third food pellet for the first response following a 45-second interval. Overall, the rat is reinforced on a VR 45-second interval.
23. The answer should include the following information: Edward Tolman firmly believed that cognitive processes played an important role in the learning of complex behaviors. Tolman studied rats in mazes to demonstrate the importance of cognitive processes in operant conditioning. A typical experiment would involve placing a rat in a “start” box with a food reward in the “goal” box at the end of a maze. The rat would initially make many mistakes in running the maze. However, after a series of trials, it would eventually learn to run the maze quickly with very few errors. Tolman did not believe that the rats were learning a series of responses, but rather were developing a cognitive map or mental representation of the maze.  Tolman showed experimentally that rats can use their cognitive map to determine an alternative route to the goal box, if the route that it would typically take is blocked.
24. The answer should include the following information: Learned helplessness occurs when people or animals become conditioned to believe that a situation is unchangeable or inescapable. This phenomenon was initially demonstrated when psychologists were trying to determine if classically conditioned responses would affect the process of operant conditioning in dogs.  Animals were strapped into harnesses and then exposed to a tone (the neutral stimulus) paired with an electric shock (the UCS), which elicited fear (the UCR). After conditioning, the tone alone (the CS) elicited the conditioned fear response. Next, the dogs were transferred to a new operant chamber called a shuttlebox. The chamber had a low barrier in the middle of it that divided the chamber in half. In one half of the chamber, the floor could be electrified, the other side was not. Thus, all the dogs had to do was make a simple escape behavior by jumping over the barrier to escape the shock when the floor was electrified. Dogs that had not been conditioned as those indicated above learn this simple operant behavior very quickly. However, when the classically conditioned dogs were placed in the shuttlebox and one side became electrified, the dogs did not try to jump over the barrier. Rather than perform the simple behavioral response and escape the shock, the animals laid down and whined.
25. The answer should include the following information: Maier and Seligman identified the phenomenon of learned helplessness as graduate students. They were interested in the passive behavior of dogs following classical conditioning in which the animals had learned that shocks were inescapable. Animals were strapped into harnesses and then exposed to a tone (the neutral stimulus) paired with an electric shock (the UCS), which elicited fear (the UCR). After conditioning, the tone alone (the CS) elicited the conditioned fear response. No active behavior that they engaged in, such as whining, barking, or struggling in the harness—would allow them to avoid or escape the shock—even though it was mild. The dogs had “learned” to be helpless and became passive: The interpretation was that they had developed the cognitive expectation that their behavior would have no effect on the environment. Learned helplessness has been shown to play a role in psychological disorders, such as depression and how people respond to stressful events.
26. The answer should include the following information: (Students’ answers will vary.) Learned helplessness has been demonstrated in many different species including humans.  Exposure to uncontrollable, aversive events can produce passivity and learned helplessness.  College students that have experienced failure in academic settings may feel that school is beyond their control. Students who believe that academic tasks are unpleasant, unavoidable, and beyond their control, may develop a sense of helpless passivity and become prone to engage in self-defeating responses, such as procrastinating or giving up. When faced with the demands of exams, papers, and studying, they experience feelings of learned helplessness rather than rising to the occasion and putting effort into studying and doing well on an exam.
27. The answer should include the following information: Instinctive drift refers to the tendency of an animal to revert to instinctive behaviors that may interfere with a conditioned response. The concept originated with B.F. Skinner’s students Keller Breland and Marian Breland. The Brelands noted that animals engaged in these nonreinforced, instinctive behaviors such that chicken chased balls much like they would if they were chasing an insect. Raccoons instinctively dip their food in water and rub it between their paws or put the food on the ground and turn it over with their paws. The Brelands found that this biological predisposition to perform these instinctual behaviors could interfere with learned behaviors they were trying to condition that would result in reinforcement.
28. The answer should include the following information: Classical conditioning deals with reflexive, involuntary behaviors that are elicited by a stimulus. This type of learning occurs by associating two stimuli: CS + UCS. These conditioned responses will decrease if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone since the organism expects that the CS reliably predicts the UCS. In contrast, operant behavior involves no reflexive, voluntary behaviors that are emitted by an organism. The organism has learned to associate a response and the consequence that follows it. The responses involve active behaviors that operate on the environment. However, the conditioned response will decrease if that behavior is not reinforced; the organism has come to expect reinforcement (or perhaps punishment). Finally, behaviors that are similar to natural or instinctive behaviors are more readily conditioned.
29. The answer should include the following information: People are more likely to imitate behavior if they are rewarded for their behavior. Additionally, people that are warm and nurturing or people that have some control over you or influence your life in some way (e.g. parents) are more likely to be imitated. People that are similar to you in terms of age, sex, and interests and people that are perceived as having higher social status are more likely to be imitated. Further, tasks or behaviors will be imitated if they are not extremely easy or difficult.  Finally, we imitate behavior in situations that are unfamiliar or ambiguous and when we lack confidence in our abilities in a specific situation.
30. The answer should include the following information: Many animals have been shown to learn new behaviors through observational learning and imitation. These organisms include hamsters, guppies, and ring-tailed lemurs. Chimpanzees and apes also use observation learning.  One study examined this phenomenon in free-ranging orangutans in an Indonesian animal preserve. The orangutans imitated the behavior of both humans and other orangutans, but they were more likely to imitate high-status or dominant models than low-status models. The orangutans were also more likely to imitate models with whom they had close relationships, such as biological parents, siblings, or their human caregivers. Human strangers were virtually never imitated.
31. The answer should include the following information: A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal engages in a specific behavior, or when the animal observes the same action performed by another animal. The original phenomenon was reported by neuroscientists from Italy working on motor behavior in macaque monkeys. Research has shown that mirror neurons do not merely reflect visual processing but are also involved in mentally representing and interpreting the actions of others. Researchers have shown that this phenomenon occurs not just in neurons related to motor behavior, but also sensory behavior. The same neurons activated when a monkey cracks open a peanut are also activated when a monkey hears a peanut shell breaking.  Research suggests that there may be populations of cells that fire together during this phenomenon.
32. The answer should include the following information: The Italian neuroscientist Giacomo Rizzolatti and his colleagues were studying the electrophysiology of neurons in the premotor cortex of macaque monkeys, while the monkeys engaged in simple motor behaviors. As one of the monkeys was prepared for recording, a lab assistant picked up a peanut in front of the monkey causing a neuron to fire in the monkey’s brain. This was the same neuron that fired when the monkey engaged in this behavior of picking up a peanut. Based on this experiment, mirror neurons were proposed—neurons that fire both when an action is performed and when the action is perceived. Because these animals are primates, we can infer that similar neurons are found in our brains.
33. The answer should include the following information: Bandura’s finding that children imitate aggressive behavior suggests that behaviors depicted in films and television shows may also be modeled by humans. The MTV reality series 16 and Pregnant features the struggles of pregnant teens and young mothers. Evidence suggests that teen birth rates have dropped nearly 6% in areas where it was shown. Additionally, the researchers also surveyed Google searches and social media and found large increases in searches and tweets regarding birth control after an episode aired. These data suggest that the media can have a positive influence on social behavior.
34. The answer should include the following information:  A distressing amount of violence is shown on television in the United States. Violent behavior is portrayed in almost two-thirds of all television programs; violent behavior is not punished and is often perpetrated by the heroes of the show. Additionally, most programs do not show the long-term consequences of violence. Studies have shown that there is a short-term increase in laboratory measures of aggressive thoughts and behavior. Correlational research also suggests a link between exposure to violence portrayed in the media and aggression both in and out of the classroom. However, this research is correlational, and correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Most of the experimental studies on aggression have involved artificial measures that may not accurately measure the likelihood of aggressive behavior in the real world. Some psychologists believe that research should focus on investigating the factors that are most likely to be associated with the harmful effects of aggressive behavior.
35. The answer should include the following information: The adaptive nature of learning reminds us that when faced with an ever-changing environment, an organism’s capacity to learn is critical to adaptation. For instance, there are survival advantages to being able to learn that a neutral stimulus can signal an important upcoming event, as in classical conditioning. An organism also enhances its odds of survival by being responsive to the consequences of its actions, as in operant conditioning. And, by observing the actions and consequences experienced by others, behaviors can be acquired through imitation. Therefore, it is probably because these abilities are so useful in so many environments that the basic principles of learning are demonstrated with such consistency across so many species, including humans.
36. The answer should include the following information: There are a total of five strategies that may be used to improve self-control discussed in the book. One strategy involves making an advanced commitment to your long-term goal, one that will be difficult to revise should a conflicting reinforcer come into play. Second, when there is a long-term reinforcer that you are working towards, use self-reinforcement for current behaviors that contribute to the long-term goal—small steps should get reinforced. Third, set up your environment so that you don’t trigger unwanted behaviors that would distract you from your long-term goals. Fourth, focus your attention on the delayed reinforcer that is your ultimate goal. Fifth, use observational learning to facilitate achieving your long-term goal. Look to good role models who delayed reinforcement and achieved their long-term objectives.

 

 

 

1. The process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses is called:
  A) stimulus discrimination.
  B) stimulus generalization.
  C) conditioning.
  D) extinction.

 

 

2. There are two basic types of conditioning: _____ and _____ conditioning.
  A) primary; secondary
  B) learned; observed
  C) classical; operant
  D) automatic; independent

 

 

3. Who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning?
  A) Robert Rescorla
  B) B. F. Skinner
  C) John B. Watson
  D) Ivan Pavlov

 

 

4. What was Pavlov investigating when he began his studies on the phenomenon that eventually became known as classical conditioning?
  A) the development of learned helplessness in dogs given inescapable shock
  B) the use of food rewards in training dogs
  C) reflexive responses to sound, such as ringing bells
  D) the role of saliva in digestion

 

 

5. The term “elicit” is used in:
  A) operant conditioning and means that the response is emitted in order to obtain a reward or avoid punishment.
  B) classical conditioning and means that the stimulus ”draws out” or causes an existing behavior to occur.
  C) observational learning to refer to obtaining an imitative response, such as using a jump rope or swinging a baseball bat.
  D) operant conditioning to refer to creating a new response to inescapable punishment, such as passivity or unresponsiveness.

 

 

6. In response to a cold temperature, your body will shiver reflexively. Using Pavlov’s terminology, the cold temperature would be termed a(n):
  A) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  B) unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) conditioned response (CR).

 

 

7. In response to cutting up an onion, airborne irritants released by the onion will cause your eyes to automatically water or produce tears. Using Pavlov’s terminology, the tears would be termed a(n):
  A) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  B) unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) conditioned response (CR).

 

 

8. Which of the following behaviors is a reflex, meaning that it is governed by the nervous system and occurs automatically?
  A) studying hard to get good grades
  B) throwing a ball on command
  C) shivering in response to cold
  D) watching TV because it is fun and relaxing

 

 

9. To produce a learned response in classical conditioning, a(n) _____ are repeatedly paired.
  A) neutral stimulus and a stimulus that naturally elicits a response
  B) stimulus and a response
  C) behavioral response and a natural environmental consequence
  D) unconditioned stimulus and a voluntarily emitted behavioral response

 

 

10. Essentially, classical conditioning is a process of learning:
  A) that consequences follow a voluntarily emitted behavior.
  B) new responses by observing others’ behaviors.
  C) the relationship between a behavior and a reinforcer.
  D) an association between two stimuli.

 

 

11. Six-year-old Blair liked going to school right up until her first-grade teacher, Ms. Hanemayer, took maternity leave. The substitute teacher, Mrs. Snarly, was strict and scolded Blair on several occasions, making her cry. On one Saturday morning as Blair was helping her father with grocery shopping, she suddenly came face to face with Mrs. Snarly. Blair instantly burst into tears. Blair’s crying at just the sight of Mrs. Snarly is an example of:
  A) instinctive drift.
  B) an unconditioned response.
  C) an unconditioned stimulus.
  D) a conditioned response.

 

 

12. Six-year-old Blair liked the first grade right up until her teacher, Ms. Havemayer, took maternity leave. The substitute teacher, Mrs. Snarly, was strict and scolded Blair on several occasions, making her cry. On one Saturday morning as Blair was helping her father with grocery shopping, she suddenly came face to face with Mrs. Snarly. Blair instantly burst into tears. For Blair, Mrs. Snarly in the grocery store is an example of a(n):
  A) conditioned stimulus.
  B) unconditioned response.
  C) unconditioned stimulus.
  D) conditioned response.

 

 

13. When Rani was having problems at school, she often talked things over with her grandfather. Her grandfather, who always smoked a pipe, was warm, reassuring, and always supportive. Years later, Rani still finds the smell of pipe tobacco soothing. In classical conditioning terms, Rani’s fondness for the smell of pipe tobacco may be described as a(n):
  A) conditioned response.
  B) unconditioned response.
  C) example of latent learning.
  D) example of higher order conditioning.

 

 

14. If you shine a bright light directly into a person’s eye, the pupil of the eye will reflexively constrict. Using Pavlov’s terminology, the bright light would be termed the _____, and the pupil constricting would be termed the _____.
  A) CS; UCS
  B) CR; UCR
  C) UCS; UCR
  D) CS; CR

 

 

15. Steven Spielberg’s classic movie Jaws was a thriller about a great white shark that terrorized tourists at a local beach. Just before the shark’s appearance, eerie music began playing. As the unseen shark came closer, the tempo of the music picked up. After the audience had experienced this a few times, the sound of the music triggered the emotional reaction of fear in the audience even though the shark still had not appeared. At that point, the sound of the eerie music was a(n):
  A) unconditioned response (UCR).
  B) conditioned response (CR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

 

 

16. Initially, an infant has no response to a nurse’s white uniform. But after a couple of painful experiences of getting a vaccination shot from a nurse in a white uniform, the infant will react with fear in response to a nurse in a white uniform who simply walks into the examining room. In this example, the sight of a nurse in a white uniform has become a(n) _____ to the infant.
  A) unconditioned response (UCR)
  B) conditioned response (CR)
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS)
  D) unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

 

 

17. In his original studies of digestion, Pavlov placed food on a dog’s tongue to make the dog salivate. In this situation, the dog’s salivating was a(n):
  A) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  B) unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) conditioned response (CR).
  D) operant response (OR).

 

 

18. Prior to conditioning, a dog does not salivate to the sound of a ringing bell. At this point, the ringing bell is a(n):
  A) unconditioned stimulus.
  B) unconditioned response.
  C) neutral stimulus.
  D) conditioned response.

 

 

19. If you touch something hot, you will reflexively withdraw your hand. Using Pavlov’s terminology, reflexively withdrawing your hand would be termed a(n):
  A) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  B) unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) conditioned response (CR).

 

 

20. Prior to conditioning, a dog will salivate in response to food placed in its mouth. Using classical conditioning terms, the food would be labeled the _____, while the dog salivating would be labeled the _____.
  A) conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus
  B) conditioned stimulus; conditioned response
  C) unconditioned response; unconditioned stimulus
  D) unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response

 

 

21. After repeatedly pairing the sound of a bell with food being placed in a dog’s mouth, the sound of the bell alone will make the dog salivate. At this point, the sound of the bell is a(n):
  A) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  B) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  C) unconditioned response (UCR).
  D) conditioned response (CR).

 

 

22. After repeatedly pairing the sound of a bell with food being placed in a dog’s mouth, the sound of the bell alone will make the dog salivate. The dog’s salivation to the sound of the bell is called the:
  A) unconditioned response (UCR).
  B) conditioned response (CR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

 

 

23. A young child has learned to associate the sight of a nurse’s white uniform with the fear and pain of getting an injection. Using Pavlov’s terminology, when the white uniform elicits a fear response, it would be termed a(n):
  A) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  B) unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) conditioned response (CR).

 

 

24. Pavlov found that a conditioned response would be stronger if:
  A) the UCS was always presented before the CS.
  B) the CR always occurred before the UCR.
  C) there were many pairings of the CS and the UCS.
  D) the interval between the CS and the UCS was an hour or longer.

 

 

25. Which of the following has the greatest impact on the strength of the conditioned response?
  A) the magnitude of the reinforcer
  B) the timing of stimulus presentations
  C) the size of the unconditioned response
  D) the degree of latent learning during conditioning trials

 

 

26. Pavlov found that a conditioned response would be stronger if the:
  A) UCS was not paired with the CS.
  B) interval between the CS and the UCS was no more than a few seconds.
  C) UCS always came before the CS.
  D) interval between the CS and the UCS was an hour or longer.

 

 

27. A young child has learned to associate the sight of a nurse’s white uniform with the fear and pain of getting an injection. If the young child begins reacting with fear to the sight of any white jacket, what has occurred?
  A) stimulus generalization
  B) spontaneous recovery
  C) stimulus discrimination
  D) higher order conditioning

 

 

28. If you own a dog that tends to salivate and get excited when you shake a box of dog biscuits, you may have noticed that your dog also drools when you shake a bag of cat food. If so, this would be an example of:
  A) stimulus generalization.
  B) spontaneous recovery.
  C) stimulus discrimination.
  D) higher order conditioning.

 

 

29. Your dog tends to salivate and get excited when you shake a box of dog biscuits. However, your dog does not drool when you shake a bag of cat food. This is an example of:
  A) stimulus generalization.
  B) spontaneous recovery.
  C) stimulus discrimination.
  D) higher order conditioning.

 

 

30. When Micah was 2-years-old he was frightened by his Aunt Mabel’s little dog, which had nipped him on the leg. Because of the incident, Micah developed a strong fear of small dogs but not of large dogs. This best illustrates which of the following?
  A) spontaneous recovery
  B) stimulus discrimination
  C) stimulus generalization
  D) higher order conditioning

 

 

31. Pavlov found that once he conditioned a dog to salivate in response to a tone, a tone that was slightly higher or lower in pitch would also make the dog salivate. This phenomenon is called:
  A) spontaneous recovery.
  B) stimulus discrimination.
  C) backward conditioning.
  D) stimulus generalization.

 

 

32. A conditioned stimulus from one learning trial is used in place of an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial, where it is paired with a second conditioned stimulus. The second conditioned stimulus then comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. This is a description of a procedure called:
  A) stimulus generalization training.
  B) higher order conditioning or second order conditioning.
  C) latent learning training.
  D) the extinction procedure.

 

 

33. After establishing a classically conditioned response to a tone, the experimenter then set up a second trial using a new conditioned stimulus, a red light. He repeatedly paired the new conditioned stimulus (the red light) with the conditioned stimulus from the first trial (the tone). This procedure resulted in the conditioned response being elicited by the red light alone, even though it had never been paired with the unconditioned stimulus. The experimenter has demonstrated:
  A) extinction.
  B) higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
  C) learned helplessness.
  D) the partial reinforcement effect.

 

 

34. Fred’s dog was classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell. Fred then repeatedly paired the bell with another stimulus, a whistle. Now whenever he blows the whistle, his dog salivates, even though the whistle has never been paired with food. This example illustrates:
  A) higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
  B) spontaneous recovery.
  C) a placebo response.
  D) biological preparedness.

 

 

35. Every Friday, Dr. Cruz would give a quiz in his psychology class. Students quickly learned to be nervous on Friday mornings, just before each quiz. Halfway through the semester, Dr. Cruz stopped giving quizzes on Fridays and the students’ anxiety began to diminish with each passing week in which there was no quiz. The decrease in the students’ anxiety may be attributed to the process of:
  A) spontaneous recovery.
  B) extinction.
  C) stimulus generalization.
  D) latent learning.

 

 

36. After a dog had been conditioned to salivate at the sight of meat powder, the meat powder was presented to the dog every three minutes and held just out of the dog’s reach. Over the course of several trials, the amount of saliva secreted by the dog decreased to zero, indicating that _____ had occurred.
  A) negative reinforcement
  B) biological preparedness
  C) extinction
  D) spontaneous recovery

 

 

37. After a dog had been conditioned to salivate to the sight of a triangle, the triangle alone was presented to the dog every three minutes. Over the course of several trials, the amount of saliva secreted by the dog in response to the triangle decreased to zero. At that point, the dog was put back in his cage for the night. What happened the next morning when the triangle was presented to the dog again?
  A) Because of latent learning, the dog did not salivate.
  B) Spontaneous recovery likely occurred, and the dog salivated in response to the triangle.
  C) Learned helplessness developed, and the dog did not respond in any way.
  D) Because the triangle was no longer a discriminative stimulus, the dog did not salivate.

 

 

38. In classical conditioning, if the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus, what will occur?
  A) stimulus generalization
  B) stimulus discrimination
  C) extinction
  D) spontaneous recovery

 

 

39. The phenomenon of spontaneous recovery provides support for the idea that:
  A) a conditioned response that is extinguished is not unlearned or completely eliminated.
  B) a conditioned stimulus can return to being a neutral stimulus after extinction.
  C) stimulus generalization is a stronger, more easily produced response than stimulus discrimination.
  D) it is easier to produce learned associations between natural stimuli than artificial stimuli.

 

 

40. Behaviorism was an early school or approach to psychology that was founded by:
  A) Edward L. Thorndike.
  B) John B. Watson.
  C) B. F. Skinner.
  D) Albert Bandura.

 

 

41. John B. Watson believed that psychology should focus on the study of:
  A) consciousness.
  B) observable behavior.
  C) conditioned stimuli.
  D) physiological processes.

 

 

42. The early school or approach to psychology called behaviorism emphasized the scientific study of:
  A) mental processes in humans and animals.
  B) the cognitive process involved in human and animal intelligence.
  C) observable behaviors rather than mental processes.
  D) how associations are formed between mental events and overt behaviors.

 

 

43. Professor Lake is a strong advocate of the behavioral perspective. He would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements?
  A) Human behavior is shaped by experience and environmental events.
  B) Human behavior can best be explained by genetics and heredity.
  C) Most human behavior is the result of unconscious psychological conflicts.
  D) The understanding of mental processes is the key to understanding human behavior.

 

 

44. It was _____ who made the following claim: ”Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select.”
  A) Ivan Pavlov
  B) B. F. Skinner
  C) Edward L. Thorndike
  D) John B. Watson

 

 

45. John Watson believed that human emotions were:
  A) due to repressed psychological conflicts.
  B) the result of natural selection and evolutionary adaptation.
  C) operant responses, strengthened through reinforcement and weakened through punishment.
  D) reflexive responses that involved the muscles and glands.

 

 

46. Which of the following best illustrates classical conditioning?
  A) After watching another three-year-old stick out her tongue at the daycare worker, Beth does the same thing.
  B) Jenny studied hard to achieve a high grade point average.
  C) Because his older brother once locked him in the closet, Allen gets anxious in small, enclosed rooms.
  D) Susan gives her daughter five dollars a week to help with chores around the house.

 

 

47. Which of the following does NOT illustrate classical conditioning?
  A) Whenever Elizabeth smells British Sterling cologne, she feels a tingle of romantic excitement because it reminds her of her boyfriend, who always wears that cologne.
  B) The sound of a neighbor’s drill sends a shudder up Janeen’s spine because it reminds her of the dentist’s office.
  C) Jack felt energized after drinking three cups of coffee, even though the coffee was actually decaffeinated.
  D) Leslie always pays her electric bill on time in order to avoid a late charge.

 

 

48. The famous ”Little Albert” study conducted by John Watson and Rosalie Rayner demonstrated that:
  A) even a baby can be conditioned to salivate to the sound of a bell.
  B) it was possible to classically condition an emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus.
  C) it was possible to operantly condition voluntary behavior in infants if the right reinforcer were presented immediately following the target behavior.
  D) all emotional reactions are inborn, naturally occurring reflexes.

 

 

49. In Watson and Rayner’s famous ”Little Albert” study, what was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)?
  A) the loud clanging sound
  B) the sight of the white rat
  C) fear in response to the loud clanging sound
  D) fear in response to the sight of the rat

 

 

50. What was the unconditioned response (UCR) in Watson and Rayner’s famous ”Little Albert” study?
  A) the loud clanging sound
  B) the sight of the white rat
  C) fear in response to the loud clanging sound
  D) fear in response to the sight of the rat

 

 

51. What was the conditioned response (CR) in Watson and Rayner’s famous ”Little Albert” study?
  A) the loud clanging sound
  B) the sight of the white rat
  C) fear in response to the loud clanging sound
  D) fear in response to the sight of the rat

 

 

52. What happened after ”Little Albert” was classically conditioned to fear a tame white rat?
  A) Stimulus generalization occurred; Albert responded with fear to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.
  B) The sight of the hammer produced spontaneous recovery of the unconditioned response.
  C) Stimulus discrimination occurred; Albert responded with fear to white rats but not to other furry animals or to fuzzy objects.
  D) The conditioned fear response was quickly and easily extinguished.

 

 

53. Which of the following represents a valid criticism of the methodology of Watson and Rayner’s ”Little Albert” study?
  A) Using a loud clang as a conditioned stimulus is not an acceptable scientific practice.
  B) The behavior of an infant is not representative of adult human behavior.
  C) Albert’s fear and distress were not objectively measured, but were subjectively evaluated by the experimenters themselves.
  D) The experimenters did not evaluate Albert’s responsiveness to different stimuli.

 

 

54. In the famous study of ”Little Albert,” John Watson and Rosalie Rayner:
  A) used changes in heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure as their operational definition of fear in the infant.
  B) did not extinguish the conditioned emotional reaction in the infant.
  C) were criticized for their conclusions because the infant was fearful of many different objects before the study began.
  D) successfully removed the infant’s conditioned fear of furry animals and fuzzy objects.

 

 

55. Which of the following represents a valid criticism of the ethics of Watson and Rayner’s ”Little Albert” study?
  A) Watson and Rayner filmed the infant’s behavior without permission.
  B) Watson and Rayner intentionally induced a lasting fear in an infant, and they did not attempt to extinguish it when the experiment was over.
  C) It is unethical to use infants and animals in the same research study.
  D) Treatment of the rats, rabbits, and other animals used in the study did not conform to APA regulations.

 

 

56. Whenever Kim and Russ become romantic, they always play Ravel’s classic instrumental work Boléro in the background. One day, as Kim is walking past a music appreciation class, she realizes that the class is listening to Ravel’s Boléro. As she continues to walk down the hall, she smiles to herself as intimate thoughts of Russ cross her mind. Which of the following best represents the unconditioned stimulus in this example?
  A) the sound of Ravel’s Boléro
  B) intimate physical contact with her partner
  C) the sight of the musical appreciation classroom
  D) sexual arousal in response to the classical work Boléro

 

 

57. Steven Spielberg’s classic movie Jaws was a thriller about a great white shark that terrorized tourists at a local beach. Just before the shark’s appearance, eerie music began playing. As the unseen shark came closer, the tempo of the music picked up. After the audience had experienced this a few times, the sound of the music triggered the emotional reaction of fear in the audience even though the shark still had not appeared. At that point, fear in response to the sound of the eerie music was a(n):
  A) unconditioned response (UCR).
  B) conditioned response (CR).
  C) conditioned stimulus (CS).
  D) unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

 

 

58. John Watson had a major impact not only on psychology but also on American business. Which statement best describes Watson’s influence on American business?
  A) Watson demonstrated the effectiveness of conditioned reinforcers and behavior modification techniques in improving worker productivity.
  B) Watson’s research on conditioned responses in animals was used to improve veterinary practice and to develop new products for pets and livestock.
  C) Watson was a pioneer in using classical conditioning in advertising campaigns so that consumers would associate emotional responses with particular consumer products.
  D) Watson’s classical conditioning techniques demonstrated the importance of having employees wear uniforms with the company’s logo.

 

 

59. Which of the following advertising techniques is based on classical conditioning principles?
  A) including a $1.00 mail-in rebate in the ad for Brand X
  B) a salesperson explaining why Brand X is superior
  C) a sexy model using Brand X
  D) a picture of a shelf filled with Brand X products

 

 

60. Modern research on advertising and marketing techniques has shown that:
  A) most people are not affected by the use of classical conditioning methods in advertising.
  B) attitudes toward a product or a particular brand can be influenced by the use of classical conditioning techniques in advertising campaigns.
  C) modern advertising has abandoned the use of classical conditioning techniques, since they have been shown to be ineffective.
  D) pairing products with stimuli that naturally elicit fear is the only way in which classical conditioning techniques affect brand preferences or product choices.

 

 

61. Habitual coffee drinkers often experience an almost immediate sense of alertness when they sip a fresh cup of coffee, even though it takes about twenty minutes for the caffeine in the coffee to reach significant levels in the bloodstream. What is the best explanation for this phenomenon?
  A) After being repeatedly paired with the drug caffeine, the smell and taste of coffee have become a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response of alertness.
  B) Negative reinforcement of a biologically prepared response is occurring.
  C) Coffee drinking reinforces alertness on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
  D) The alertness is an example of the spontaneous recovery of a biologically prepared response.

 

 

62. A psychological and/or physiological response to what is actually a fake treatment or drug is called:
  A) spontaneous recovery.
  B) an unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) an operant response.
  D) a placebo response or placebo effect.

 

 

63. Katie loves strong coffee and cheerfully admits that she depends on caffeine to help her wake up every day. One morning her husband served her two cups of decaffeinated coffee without telling her. Nevertheless, she still felt more alert after drinking the decaffeinated coffee. Katie’s alertness after drinking decaffeinated coffee is a(n):
  A) example of higher order conditioning.
  B) example of latent learning.
  C) operantly conditioned response to the taste and smell of coffee, and other discriminative stimuli.
  D) classically conditioned response to the taste and smell of coffee, and other stimuli associated with it.

 

 

64. Bill always starts his day with a cup of strong coffee. Bill stayed overnight at his mother’s home, and she made him a cup of coffee when he got up. Later, he was surprised to discover that his mother’s coffee was decaffeinated, because he had felt more alert after drinking the coffee. In this example, what are the CS and CR?
  A) The CS is the drug caffeine, and the CR is alertness.
  B) The CS is the smell and taste of coffee, and the CR is the drug caffeine.
  C) The CS is alertness, and the CR is the smell and taste of coffee.
  D) The CS is the smell and taste of coffee, and the CR is alertness.

 

 

65. How does the cognitive view of classical conditioning differ from the traditional behavioral perspective?
  A) The cognitive view maintains that mental processes as well as external events are an important component in the learning process.
  B) The cognitive view holds that learning, including classical conditioning, cannot take place in the absence of reinforcement.
  C) The cognitive view asserts that internal processes such as thinking, anticipating, or deciding are not observable and therefore should not be a part of the study of classical conditioning.
  D) The cognitive view maintains that all mental processes, including memory and language, are the result of prior conditioning.

 

 

66. Which psychologist proposed a cognitive explanation of classical conditioning?
  A) Edward C. Tolman
  B) Robert Rescorla
  C) John Garcia
  D) John B. Watson

 

 

67. In the context of learning and classical conditioning, the cognitive perspective emphasizes the:
  A) study of an animal’s natural behavior pattern and environment as influences in learning.
  B) study of the relationship between outwardly observable behaviors and environmental events, rather than mental processes.
  C) role played by mental processes in learning.
  D) study of human behavior rather than animal behavior.

 

 

68. If Robert Rescorla were having a conversation with John B. Watson, what would Rescorla tell Watson?
  A) ”John, it is the timing of the stimuli that determines if classical conditioning will occur.”
  B) ”Animals cannot process information but people can, and that explains the differences between animals and people in classical conditioning.”
  C) ”John, there is no need to assess the information that the conditioned stimulus provides since classical conditioning only occurs with reflexive behaviors.”
  D) ”Organisms actively process information about the reliability of a stimulus and determine if the stimulus has predictive value.”

 

 

69. From the cognitive perspective, classical conditioning:
  A) depends on the information the conditioned stimulus (CS) provides about the unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  B) involves learning to associate any two responses that occur closely in time.
  C) depends on developing an understanding of the similarities between conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli.
  D) involves learning to associate a behavior with its consequence.

 

 

70. Your textbook described a classic experiment by Robert Rescorla that involved two groups of rats. One group of rats heard a tone just before each of 20 shocks. The second group of rats experienced the same 20 tone-shock pairings, but also experienced an additional 20 shocks that were not paired with a tone. How did the two groups differ?
  A) Because they experienced more shocks, the rats in the second group displayed a much stronger fear response to the tone than did the rats in the first group.
  B) As predicted by the basic principles of classical conditioning, there were no differences between the two groups of rats.
  C) The rats in the first group developed learned helplessness, while the rats in the second group did not.
  D) The rats in the first group displayed a much stronger conditioned fear response to the tone than did the rats in the second group.

 

 

71. In psychologist Robert Rescorla’s classical conditioning experiment, one group of rats experienced a tone just before each of 20 shocks. A second group of rats experienced the same number of tone-shock pairings plus an additional 20 shocks with no tone. Rescorla found that the rats in the first group showed a much stronger conditioned fear response than the rats in the second group. How did Rescorla explain this finding?
  A) It was an example of the partial reinforcement effect.
  B) Spontaneous recovery had occurred in the second group of rats.
  C) The tone was a more reliable predictor of the shock for the first group of rats.
  D) The interval between the tone and the shock was too great for the second group of rats to acquire a strong conditioned response (CR).

 

 

72. In Pavlov’s original experiments, dogs were classically conditioned to respond to the ringing of a bell with salivation. According to Robert Rescorla, what had the dogs learned?
  A) that the bell was a signal that reliably predicted that food would follow
  B) a reflexive association between a ringing bell and food
  C) that salivating at the sound of a bell would be reinforced by food
  D) learned helplessness because of being restrained by the harness

 

 

73. Your friend Madison became very ill a few hours after eating the fried chicken special in the college cafeteria. Now Madison feels queasy whenever she smells fried chicken. Having read the learning chapter in your psychology class, you explain that:
  A) since Madison only experienced one pairing of the fried chicken and illness, her queasy feelings cannot be a classically conditioned response.
  B) Madison has experienced a learned taste aversion, which can occur after only one pairing of food and illness.
  C) Madison has been negatively reinforced for eating fried chicken, because consuming it led to an aversive consequence.
  D) latent learning has occurred and Madison can overcome the queasy feeling by forcing herself to eat the fried chicken.

 

 

74. Ever since she foolishly drank too much beer at a rock concert and got sick all over her boyfriend, Sharon becomes nauseous at the smell or taste of beer. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is _____.
  A) her boyfriend; nausea
  B) nausea; loud music
  C) nausea; the smell or taste of beer
  D) the smell or taste of beer; nausea

 

 

75. Which psychologist studied the development of taste aversions, noting how they seemed to violate the basic principles of classical conditioning?
  A) Robert Rescorla
  B) John Garcia
  C) Edward C. Tolman
  D) John B. Watson

 

 

76. Psychologist John Garcia conditioned rats to have a taste aversion to sweet-tasting water by injecting them with a drug that made them ill. Using classical conditioning terminology, what was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in this experimental situation?
  A) the sweet-tasting water
  B) the drug
  C) getting ill in response to the drug
  D) getting ill in response to the sweet-flavored water

 

 

77. Psychologist John Garcia conditioned rats to have a taste aversion to sweet-tasting water by injecting them with a drug that made them ill. Using classical conditioning terminology, what was the conditioned response (CR) in this experimental situation?
  A) the sweet-tasting water
  B) the drug
  C) getting ill in response to the drug
  D) getting ill in response to the sweet-flavored water

 

 

78. As studies with rats have shown, taste aversions can be produced when the interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is:
  A) no less than half a second and no longer than one second.
  B) at least five seconds but no longer than 10 seconds.
  C) as long as one hour but no longer.
  D) as long as 24 hours.

 

 

79. Conditioned taste aversions demonstrate:
  A) the power of punishment to suppress behavior.
  B) that certain stimuli are easier to associate than others.
  C) that any neutral stimulus is capable of becoming a conditioned stimulus.
  D) that the interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus must be only a few seconds, or classical conditioning will not occur.

 

 

80. Rats can most easily be classically conditioned to learn an association between which two stimuli?
  A) between a flashing light and a taste
  B) between a taste and physical discomfort, such as nausea or illness
  C) between a loud noise and a taste
  D) between a taste and a painful event, such as electric shock

 

 

81. Psychologist John Garcia found that rats did not learn to associate a taste with flashing lights and noise. However, rats do learn to associate a taste with getting ill. Which of the following concepts best accounts for this observation?
  A) latent learning
  B) biological preparedness
  C) spontaneous recovery
  D) the partial reinforcement effect

 

 

82. The notion that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses is termed:
  A) biological preparedness.
  B) latent learning.
  C) instinctive drift.
  D) the law of effect.

 

 

83. The evolutionary approach to classical conditioning emphasizes that:
  A) an animal’s unique characteristics and natural behavior patterns can influence what it is capable of learning.
  B) stimuli that are related to reproduction are most likely to produce classically conditioned responses.
  C) the general rules of classical conditioning are the same regardless of the response being conditioned.
  D) primates and humans are less susceptible to classical conditioning procedures than lower animals like reptiles and fish.

 

 

84. Josh, a graduate student in psychology, wishes to use classical conditioning to condition a learned taste aversion in pigeons. Given what you read about biological preparedness in the text, which of the following would be the easiest stimulus to use as his conditioned stimulus?
  A) a painful stimulus, such as electrical shock
  B) a taste stimulus, such as flavored water
  C) a visual stimulus, such as colored water
  D) an auditory stimulus, such as a loud noise

 

 

85. Martin Seligman noted that phobias seem to be quite selective, involving only certain stimuli. To explain this, Seligman proposed that:
  A) humans are biologically prepared to develop fears of objects or situations that may once have posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.
  B) children learn from their parents at a very early age to fear these types of stimuli.
  C) people rely primarily on vision, so visual stimuli lead to better fear conditioning.
  D) most phobias are due to early childhood experience with painful or frightening stimuli.

 

 

86. Phobias of heights, storms, snakes, and spiders are much more common than phobias of cars, stairs, stoves, or sharp objects. According to psychologist Martin Seligman, the reason is that:
  A) we are more likely to develop phobias for objects or situations that posed a threat to our evolutionary survival.
  B) it is superstitious behavior due to accidental reinforcement.
  C) we have become conditioned through films and television shows to fear certain stimuli, even though we have never been personally threatened by those stimuli.
  D) instinctive drift is occurring.

 

 

87. When psychologists have tried to produce conditioned fears in young children to such objects as curtains, wooden ducks, or wooden blocks, they were:
  A) unsuccessful.
  B) able to produce conditioned fears to wooden ducks but not to wooden blocks or curtains.
  C) successful in all three cases, showing that fears can be classically conditioned to virtually any stimuli.
  D) successful only when the object was paired with an extremely loud noise.

 

 

88. The evolutionary perspective helps explain why the most common phobias are fears of:
  A) wooden ducks, blocks, or curtains.
  B) foods that have been paired with illness cues.
  C) spiders, snakes, and heights.
  D) mushrooms and flowers.

 

 

89. Researchers found that people easily acquire a conditioned fear response to pictures of snakes and spiders when the slides were paired with a mild electric shock. However, people did NOT easily acquire a conditioned fear response to pictures of flowers and mushrooms when these images were paired with a mild electric shock. Which perspective provides the best explanation of this finding?
  A) the cognitive perspective
  B) the behaviorist perspective
  C) the Pavlovian perspective
  D) the evolutionary perspective

 

 

90. Researchers found that people easily acquire a conditioned fear response to pictures of snakes and spiders when the slides were paired with a mild electric shock. However, people did NOT easily acquire a conditioned fear response of pictures of flowers and mushrooms when these images were paired with a mild electric shock. According to the text discussion, this is an example of:
  A) biological preparedness.
  B) negative reinforcement.
  C) higher order conditioning.
  D) learned helplessness.

 

 

91. How can you explain the finding that quail could be easily conditioned to associate an illness with blue-colored water but rats could not?
  A) Quail are less intelligent than rats.
  B) Rats are color-blind, while quail are not.
  C) Rats are biologically prepared to associate the color blue with danger rather than illness.
  D) Quail are biologically prepared to associate visual stimuli with illness, while rats are not.

 

 

92. Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves _____.
  A) reflexive behaviors; voluntary behaviors
  B) responses emitted by organisms; responses elicited by unconditioned stimuli
  C) responses acquired through observational learning; responses acquired through imitation
  D) voluntary behaviors; reflexive behaviors

 

 

93. The first psychologist to systematically investigate animal learning and to study how voluntary behaviors are influenced by their consequences was:
  A) Edward C. Tolman.
  B) B. F. Skinner.
  C) Ivan Pavlov.
  D) Edward L. Thorndike.

 

 

94. Who formulated the ”law of effect”?
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) John B. Watson
  C) Edward L. Thorndike
  D) Ivan Pavlov

 

 

95. What is the ”law of effect”?
  A) It was a notion suggested by Marion and Keller Breland that described how wild animals are affected by their instinctual behaviors when trying to learn new behaviors.
  B) It was the theoretical model suggested by John B. Watson to describe the effect of fear on infants.
  C) It was the basic rule that Albert Bandura used to explain how imitation occurs in a wide variety of social situations.
  D) It was a principle formulated by Edward Thorndike that described how voluntary behaviors can be modified by their consequences.

 

 

96. Caleb had a wonderful time on his first date with Shauna. Because of this, he asked Shauna to go out on a second date. What best explains Caleb’s behavior of asking Shauna for another date?
  A) latent learning
  B) response generalization
  C) spontaneous recovery
  D) the law of effect

 

 

97. In a series of studies, Thorndike put hungry cats into specially constructed cages called ”puzzle boxes.” There was a plate of food just outside the cage where the cats could see and smell it. At the end of his studies, Thorndike concluded that the cats:
  A) were able to escape so quickly because of their insight and reasoning abilities.
  B) were classically conditioned to fear the puzzle box.
  C) were classically conditioned to salivate at the sight of the puzzle box.
  D) used trial and error to escape from the puzzle box.

 

 

98. Which of the following statements best captures the essence of Thorndike’s law of effect?
  A) New stimuli can be conditioned to produce reflexive behaviors.
  B) Learning can only occur when the CS provides information about the probability of the UCS occurring.
  C) Rewarded behaviors are more likely to be repeated, while unrewarded behaviors are less likely to be repeated.
  D) By first observing the actions of others, success can occur the first time a task is attempted.

 

 

99. Skinner strongly believed that psychology should restrict itself to the study of:
  A) mental processes and unconscious motivations.
  B) phenomena that could be objectively measured and verified.
  C) behaviors that were considered abnormal or harmful to an individual.
  D) behaviors that were most unobservable in primate species.

 

 

100. Skinner coined the term operant to describe:
  A) active behaviors that operate on the environment to generate consequences.
  B) the operational relationship between a conditioned stimulus as it relates to a reinforcer.
  C) involuntary behaviors that were subject to the laws of learning but operated independently.
  D) the relationship between behaviors and conditioned stimuli that elicited the behaviors.

 

 

101. Which of the following terms would Skinner most likely reject?
  A) operant
  B) objective
  C) voluntary
  D) involuntary

 

 

102. An operant could be defined as:
  A) someone whose actions you observe.
  B) a voluntary action.
  C) an automatic, reflexive behavior.
  D) the mental image of an object or action.

 

 

103. After carrying a step stool to the kitchen, five-year-old Laura is able to reach the Scotch tape dispenser on the kitchen counter. What is the operant in this example?
  A) the Scotch tape dispenser
  B) the image of the step stool in the child’s mind
  C) carrying the step stool to the kitchen
  D) the age of the child

 

 

104. In operant conditioning, reinforcement is:
  A) defined as any stimulus that automatically elicits an unconditioned response (UCR).
  B) defined as any stimulus that automatically elicits a conditioned response (CR).
  C) defined by the effect that it produces—increasing or strengthening the occurrence of a behavior.
  D) based upon behaviors that are elicited by discriminative stimuli.

 

 

105. Which of the following statements best captures the basic idea of operant conditioning?
  A) Behavior is shaped and maintained by its consequences.
  B) By pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus, the neutral stimulus can come to produce the same response.
  C) Mental processes play a critical role in the process of imitating the behavior of others.
  D) Behavior can only be understood by considering underlying mental processes.

 

 

106. Delores could see the sock on the floor behind the clothes dryer. She straightened out a wire clothes hanger, fashioned a hook on the end, and used it to fish the sock out from behind the dryer. Using operant conditioning terminology, straightening out the wire hanger and poking it behind the dryer would be the _____ and the retrieved sock would be the _____, assuming this increased Delores’ use of the clothes wire to retrieve socks in the future.
  A) conditioned response; conditioned stimulus
  B) unconditioned response; unconditioned stimulus
  C) primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
  D) operant; reinforcing stimulus

 

 

107. Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as:
  A) addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of an aversive stimulus.
  B) primary reinforcer is to conditioned reinforcer.
  C) increase in behavior is to decrease in behavior.
  D) addition of a reinforcing stimulus is to removal of a reinforcing stimulus.

 

 

108. Positive reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior’s being repeated.
  A) increases; increases
  B) increases; decreases
  C) decreases; increases
  D) decreases; decreases

 

 

109. Whenever Stephanie changes the engine air filter in her car, she unscrews the two bolts that hold the filter cover on, then places the two bolts by the car’s front tire to avoid dropping (and losing) them in the car’s engine. Using operant conditioning terminology, placing the bolts by the tire is:
  A) an unconditioned response that is being positively reinforced.
  B) an operant that is being reinforced on a fixed-interval schedule.
  C) the operant that is being negatively reinforced.
  D) the operant that is being positively reinforced.

 

 

110. To avoid losing any data on his computer, Tom consistently backs up his computer data to a second hard drive. Using operant conditioning terms, Tom’s behavior of backing up his data to a second hard drive is an example of:
  A) positive reinforcement.
  B) negative reinforcement by escape.
  C) negative reinforcement by avoidance.
  D) punishment.

 

 

111. After she realized that the mosquito had bitten her and her hand was starting to itch, Akai rubbed some cortisone cream on the swollen spot, and the itching stopped. The next time a mosquito bit her, she applied cortisone cream immediately to relieve the itching. Using operant conditioning terms, this is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement by escape.
  B) positive reinforcement.
  C) negative reinforcement by avoidance.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

112. To keep himself from getting mosquito bites when he mows the lawn, Kevin always sprays himself with an insect repellent before he starts mowing. Using operant conditioning terms, this is an example of:
  A) positive reinforcement.
  B) negative reinforcement by avoidance.
  C) extinction.
  D) negative reinforcement by escape.

 

 

113. Whenever she sees a bolt of lightning streak across the sky, Maria quickly unplugs her computer equipment to keep it from being damaged by an electrical surge. Using operant conditioning terms, Maria’s behavior is being maintained by:
  A) punishment.
  B) negative reinforcement by escape.
  C) negative reinforcement by avoidance.
  D) positive reinforcement.

 

 

114. You take two aspirin to relieve a headache. Thirty minutes later, the headache is gone. You are now more likely to take aspirin to deal with bodily aches and pain in the future. In other words, _____ has occurred.
  A) punishment
  B) negative reinforcement by escape
  C) negative reinforcement by avoidance
  D) positive reinforcement

 

 

115. A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species is called a _____, and a stimulus or event that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a primary reinforcer is called a _____.
  A) positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
  B) primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
  C) negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
  D) conditioned reinforcer; secondary reinforcer

 

 

116. Which of the following would be considered a conditioned reinforcer?
  A) food
  B) water
  C) sexual contact
  D) money

 

 

117. Miss Cantrell began using stickers to reward her first-graders who stayed in their seats and completed their arithmetic worksheets on time. Using operant conditioning terms, Miss Cantrell is using a _____ to reward desired behavior.
  A) primary reinforcer
  B) negative reinforcer
  C) conditioned reinforcer
  D) punishment reinforcer

 

 

118. Awards, frequent flyer points, and college degrees are examples of:
  A) primary reinforcers.
  B) negative reinforcers.
  C) conditioned reinforcers.
  D) aversive stimulus.

 

 

119. The respect of your peers, the approval of your instructors or managers, a smile, a touch, or a nod of recognition can all be possible examples of:
  A) primary reinforcers.
  B) negative reinforcers.
  C) conditioned reinforcers.
  D) punishment by removal.

 

 

120. At the Acme Widget Company, the top salesperson each month is rewarded with a private parking space by the front door of the company. Using operant conditioning terms, the salesperson’s behavior is being maintained by:
  A) a conditioned reinforcer.
  B) negative reinforcement.
  C) a primary reinforcer.
  D) reinforcement by removal.

 

 

121. ”I’ll make you a deal,” Cody’s mother says. ”If you clean up your room, then you can have a glazed donut.” Using operant conditioning terms, Cody’s mother is using _____ to reward desired behavior.
  A) punishment by avoidance
  B) a conditioned reinforcer
  C) a primary reinforcer
  D) negative reinforcement

 

 

122. A _____ reinforcer is one that has acquired reinforcing value by being associated with a _____ reinforcer.
  A) negative; positive
  B) positive; negative
  C) primary; conditioned
  D) conditioned; primary

 

 

123. Which of the following would be an example of a primary reinforcer?
  A) getting an A+ in Introductory Psychology
  B) a smile from a friend
  C) a check for $10,000
  D) a cold drink on a hot day

 

 

124. After lightning caused an electrical power surge and damaged his computer, Damon no longer turns his computer on during thunderstorms. This change in Damon’s behavior is the result of:
  A) positive reinforcement.
  B) negative reinforcement.
  C) punishment.
  D) shaping.

 

 

125. Negative reinforcement _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, and positive punishment _____ the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.
  A) increases; increases
  B) increases; decreases
  C) decreases; increases
  D) decreases; decreases

 

 

126. After buying an electric grass trimmer, Richard changed into his shorts and went out in his bare feet to trim the grass. When he moved the trimmer too close to his leg, the rotating line gashed and cut his ankle. Richard no longer wears shorts or goes barefoot when he uses the grass trimmer. Richard’s behavior of dressing inappropriately for gardening has been changed as a result of:
  A) punishment by application.
  B) punishment by removal.
  C) negative reinforcement.
  D) learned helplessness.

 

 

127. After getting cactus needles stuck in her hand, 2-year-old Rachel no longer touches cactus plants. Using operant conditioning terms, this is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) punishment by application.
  D) punishment by removal.

 

 

128. An employee wears jeans to work and is reprimanded by his supervisor for dressing inappropriately. From then on, the employee wears a formal suit to work. This is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

129. Your dog jumps up on a visitor and you smack him with a rolled up newspaper. The next time you have a visitor, your dog doesn’t jump on them. This is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

130. You make a comment in your workgroup meetings, and a coworker responds with a sarcastic remark. You no longer speak during your workgroup meetings. This is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

131. The fifth time that Tyler was late for school he was given a detention. However, the following day he was late for school again. In this situation it is likely that:
  A) Tyler has been negatively reinforced for being late for school.
  B) detention is an effective form of punishment and Tyler’s behavior will eventually change.
  C) punishment has not occurred, because the operant response of being late for school was not suppressed.
  D) Tyler has not formed a cognitive map of the shortest route to school and consequently takes the long way and is frequently late.

 

 

132. Punishment is most effective if:
  A) it immediately precedes the operant.
  B) it consistently follows the operant.
  C) it occasionally follows the operant.
  D) there is considerable delay between the operant and the punishment.

 

 

133. Which of the following statements about punishment is FALSE?
  A) Punishment is most effective if it consistently follows a response.
  B) If punishment is intense, it may produce undesirable results, such as complete passivity or hostility.
  C) The effects of punishment are often temporary.
  D) Punishment is the most effective way to teach or promote new behaviors that are more desirable or appropriate.

 

 

134. After Fernanda buys stock in a ”hot” new start-up company, the company fails and she loses all of her money. Fernanda no longer invests in start-up companies. This is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

135. Because he was flirting with another woman, a guy gets dumped by his girlfriend. The guy no longer flirts with other women in front of his girlfriends. This is an example of:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) higher order conditioning.
  C) positive punishment.
  D) negative punishment.

 

 

136. Whenever Jan tries to talk on the telephone, her five-year-old daughter Isabel repeatedly interrupts her. If Jan wanted to use the strategy of reinforcing the non-occurrence of the problem behavior, she should:
  A) politely ask Isabel to please stop interrupting her every time the bad behavior occurs.
  B) send Isabel to a corner every time she interrupted Jan while she is on the phone.
  C) reward Isabel for not interrupting her during a phone call.
  D) tell her friend that she would call her back and immediately attend to whatever it was that Isabel wanted.

 

 

137. Which of the following alternatives to punishment represents the BEST method for reducing a problem behavior?
  A) Jose is reinforced for working quietly in class instead of being punished for talking in class.
  B) Charlene is picked up and cuddled whenever she has a temper tantrum.
  C) Shane and Jason have to stay after school because they had a fight at the start of class in the morning.
  D) Because of her defiant behavior, Lana is told that she will not be eligible to get gold stars or stickers for her homework.

 

 

138. Trisha’s three young children frequently argue and fight. To reduce this problematic behavior, Trisha set an appropriate time limit during play time, and if the children refrained from squabbling during that period, they were immediately given positive reinforcement. According to the In Focus box: Changing the Behavior of Others, this strategy is called:
  A) punishment by removal.
  B) the time-out from positive reinforcement procedure.
  C) reinforcing the non-occurrence of the problem behavior.
  D) punishment by application.

 

 

139. After Peter used bad language to get a laugh from the other children, his teacher sent him to a quiet area, free of distractions and social contact, for a short time period. In the In Focus box: Changing the Behavior of Others, this strategy is called:
  A) the Premack principle.
  B) the law of effect.
  C) the time-out from positive reinforcement procedure.
  D) the reinforcement of incompatible behavior strategy.

 

 

140. According to the In Focus box: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment, which of the following is NOT an effective way to change the behavior of others?
  A) Stop reinforcing the behavior you want to decrease.
  B) Positively reinforce the behavior you want to increase.
  C) Reinforce an incompatible behavior.
  D) Increase the frequency of reinforcement once the desired behavior is well established.

 

 

141. Terry wants his young daughter, Lauren, to help him with the housework, so he tells her that she can play on his computer as soon as she finishes doing the dinner dishes and putting away the clean laundry. Terry is using a more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred activity. According to the In Focus box: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment, this behavioral strategy is called:
  A) the Premack principle.
  B) time-out from positive reinforcement.
  C) reinforcing an incompatible behavior.
  D) the partial reinforcement effect.

 

 

142. Whenever the phone rings young Daniel always runs over and answers it. In the context of operant conditioning, in this situation the ringing phone is a _____ for Daniel’s response.
  A) conditioned reinforcer
  B) primary reinforcer
  C) positive reinforcer
  D) discriminative stimulus

 

 

143. In operant conditioning, a discriminative stimulus is defined as a(n):
  A) environmental stimulus or cue in the presence of which a particular response is more likely to be reinforced.
  B) stimulus that evokes a wide variety of behaviors.
  C) consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.
  D) reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing for a given species.

 

 

144. Standing at the curb, you wait for the ”Don’t Walk” crossing signal to change to ”Walk.” Using operant conditioning terms, the ”Don’t Walk/Walk” crossing signal is a(n) _____ in this situation.
  A) positive reinforcer
  B) discriminative stimulus
  C) operant
  D) primary reinforcer

 

 

145. Whenever there is a knock on the front door, Rex the dog runs down the hallway and barks at the door. For Rex, a knock on the door is a _____ for running down the hallway and barking.
  A) conditioned stimulus
  B) positive reinforcer
  C) discriminative stimulus
  D) primary reinforcer

 

 

146. According to B. F. Skinner:
  A) every person is responsible for his or her own behavior.
  B) the ideas of free will and self-determination are the guiding forces behind human behavior.
  C) environmental factors determine a person’s behavior.
  D) mental processes are important in understanding human behavior but not animal behavior.

 

 

147. Which of the following statements about B. F. Skinner is TRUE?
  A) Skinner believed that ”the scientific analysis of behavior” would lead to a totalitarian society based on punishment.
  B) Skinner advocated greater use of punishment to control behavior.
  C) Skinner strongly advocated the study of mental processes to understand behavior.
  D) Skinner believed that human behavior is determined by environmental consequences, not by individual choice or free will.

 

 

148. Which of the following statements about B. F. Skinner’s views is FALSE?
  A) Skinner advocated that society should be redesigned using principles of operant conditioning to shape desired behaviors.
  B) Skinner believed that environmental conditions cause criminal and other undesirable behaviors in society.
  C) Skinner believed that notions such as a person having free will and self-determination are really just illusions.
  D) Skinner advocated the greater use of punishment to control human behavior and achieve a more perfect society.

 

 

149. B. F. Skinner extended his ideas regarding operant conditioning to human behavior and social problems. He wrote about these views in his book, Beyond Freedom and Dignity. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects Skinner’s views as asserted in his book?
  A) ”Each individual is responsible for his or her own individual freedom.”
  B) ”Our biological tendencies create behavioral tendencies.”
  C) ”A person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him.”
  D) ”We are all ultimately responsible for the choices that we make.”

 

 

150. A movement called _____ advocates turning daily life into a kind of virtual reality, in which ”points” or other conditioned reinforcers are awarded to reward healthy or productive behaviors.
  A) gamification
  B) Occupy Wall Street
  C) pointillism
  D) tokenization

 

 

151. Some businesses give reductions on health insurance premiums to employees who rack up enough points on a specially equipped pedometer that monitors their daily activity level. This is an example of a movement called _____ that is based on principles of operant conditioning.
  A) gamification
  B) Occupy Wall Street
  C) pointillism
  D) tokenization

 

 

152. The textbook describes a movement called gamification that advocates turning daily life into a kind of virtual reality game, in which ”points” or other conditioned reinforcers are awarded to reward healthy or productive behaviors. What is a potential danger of gamification according to the textbook?
  A) Marketing professionals are already studying ways to use gamification to influence consumer preferences and buying decisions.
  B) Gamification is based on the traditional prescientific view of human behavior and will lead to the destruction of society.
  C) The principles of operant conditioning only work on animals, and applying operant conditioning to human beings can result in unforeseen consequences.
  D) Gamification is likely to precipitate the zombie apocalypse.

 

 

153. A Skinner box, or operant chamber, is a(n):
  A) type of puzzle box used to investigate the law of effect and trial and error learning.
  B) experimental apparatus used to study the relationship between active behaviors and their consequences.
  C) maze with a ”start” box and a ”goal” box used to study the formation of cognitive maps and latent learning.
  D) room with one way-mirrors used in observational learning research.

 

 

154. If you reinforce successively closer approximations of a behavior until the desired behavior is displayed, you are using the operant conditioning procedure called:
  A) negative reinforcement.
  B) stimulus discrimination.
  C) shaping.
  D) generalization training.

 

 

155. Martina is an animal trainer at Sea World. To teach a new dolphin to jump through a hoop high above the water, Martina first reinforces the dolphin for approaching the hoop while it is under the water. Then, she reinforces the dolphin for swimming through the hoop under water. Gradually raising the hoop, Martina progressively reinforces each small step toward the goal behavior. Martina is using the process of _____ to train the dolphin.
  A) punishment by application
  B) partial reinforcement
  C) shaping
  D) observational learning

 

 

156. ”Okay, that was good! Now this time, don’t close your eyes. Keep your eye on the ball, so you know when to close your hands,” Mark said in the process of teaching his 5-year-old to play catch. In operant conditioning terms, Mark is using _____ to teach his daughter how to catch a ball.
  A) the partial reinforcement effect
  B) shaping
  C) generalization training
  D) negative reinforcement

 

 

157. Clint used the vending machine near his dorm quite frequently, but the last few times he tried to get a drink the vending machine malfunctioned and he lost his money. Now he no longer uses this vending machine. Which of the following has occurred in this situation?
  A) instinctive drift due to a biological predisposition
  B) a decrease in an operant response due to negative reinforcement
  C) generalization of an operant response
  D) extinction of an operant behavior

 

 

158. In an operant conditioning experiment, a pigeon learned to peck at a blue disk to get a food pellet. The researcher then withheld reinforcement, and eventually the bird stopped pecking the disk. This example illustrates:
  A) extinction.
  B) the partial reinforcement effect.
  C) learned helplessness.
  D) the effect of negative reinforcement.

 

 

159. In the context of responses and a reinforce, partial reinforcement is to _____ as continuous reinforcement is to _____.
  A) sometimes; never
  B) always; sometimes
  C) sometimes; always
  D) never; always

 

 

160. A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced with a food pellet every time it presses the bar. This is an example of:
  A) the partial reinforcement effect.
  B) a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  C) continuous reinforcement.
  D) superstitious behavior.

 

 

161. In your philosophy class, you have found that your professor never calls on you when you raise your hand. As a result you no longer raise your hand to ask or answer questions. In learning theory, no longer raising your hand would be the result of:
  A) partial reinforcement.
  B) stimulus discrimination.
  C) extinction.
  D) negative reinforcement.

 

 

162. Whose behavior is most likely to show the greatest resistance to extinction?
  A) Carlos, who gets everything he asks for from his grandparents when they are out shopping
  B) Lydia, who is always told ”No, we cannot afford that” by her parents when they are out shopping
  C) Kaitlyn, who does not ask for anything from her grandparents when they are out shopping
  D) Rick, who sometimes gets what he asks for from his parents when they are out shopping

 

 

163. Behavior that is conditioned with _____ reinforcement is _____ resistant to extinction.
  A) continuous; more
  B) partial; less
  C) no; more
  D) partial; more

 

 

164. Unbeknownst to the rest of the world, Roger was wearing green underwear when he aced his calculus test at the beginning of the semester. Ever since, Roger always wears green underwear on test days in his college classes. In operant conditioning terms, Roger’s superstitious behavior is the result of:
  A) accidental reinforcement.
  B) a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  C) shaping.
  D) behavior modification.

 

 

165. According to B. F. Skinner, superstitious behaviors are the result of:
  A) continuous reinforcement.
  B) accidental reinforcement.
  C) fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement.
  D) mental processes involving faulty reasoning.

 

 

166. The different schedules of reinforcement produce different patterns of responding. In the graph shown, which pattern represents the highest rate of responding?

 

  A) A
  B) B
  C) C
  D) D

 

 

167. The different schedules of reinforcement produce different patterns of responding. In the graph shown, the fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is reflected in which pattern of responding?

 

  A) A
  B) B
  C) C
  D) D

 

 

168. The different schedules of reinforcement produce different patterns of responding. In the graph shown, what do patterns C and D share in common?

 

  A) They are both fixed schedules of reinforcement.
  B) They are both variable schedules of reinforcement.
  C) They are both ratio schedules of reinforcement.
  D) They are both interval schedules of reinforcement.

 

 

169. A rat in a Skinner box receives a food pellet every ten times the bar is pressed. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) variable-ratio
  C) fixed-interval
  D) variable-interval

 

 

170. Christina is making some extra money as a phone solicitor for her university’s fund-raising drive. She is paid $5 for every twenty calls she makes, regardless of whether the person donates. Christina is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-interval
  B) fixed-ratio
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

171. On the first trial, the rat had to press the bar three times to get a pellet of food. On the second trial, seven bar presses were needed. Although it continued to vary from trial to trial, on the average the rat was reinforced for every five bar presses. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-interval
  B) fixed-ratio
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

172. Jonathan frequently plays the slot machines and sometimes comes out slightly ahead in his winnings. Like all gambling behavior, Jonathan’s gambling behavior is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-interval
  D) variable-ratio

 

 

173. Cal works in a factory and is paid based upon his productivity. For every 100 widgets that Cal assembles, he receives $10. The owners of the factory are using a _____ schedule of reinforcement to pay Cal.
  A) fixed-interval
  B) fixed-ratio
  C) variable-interval
  D) variable-ratio

 

 

174. Why do variable-ratio schedules produce steady rates of responding?
  A) Reinforcers are delivered on a regular basis.
  B) Aversive consequences are less likely to occur with this schedule of reinforcement.
  C) It is not possible to predict which response will lead to the delivery of a reinforcer.
  D) The timing between reinforcers is predictable although the number of responses may vary.

 

 

175. A rat in a Skinner box is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after one minute has elapsed. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-interval
  B) fixed-ratio
  C) variable-interval
  D) variable-ratio

 

 

176. Andrew works for NASA and gets paid once a month, whereas his friend George works at a fast-food restaurant and gets paid once a week. Despite the difference in when they are paid, both are paid on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

177. On the first trial, a rat in a Skinner box is reinforced for the first bar press it makes after 50 seconds have elapsed. On the second trial, the first bar press after 70 seconds is reinforced. Although it varies from trial to trial, the average works out to one reinforcer every 60 seconds. The rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) variable-interval
  D) variable-ratio

 

 

178. At the beginning of the semester, the humanities instructor explains that there will be ten pop quizzes over the semester, so students are strongly encouraged to keep up with their reading and attend every class. The humanities instructor is most likely using a _____ schedule of reinforcement to encourage studying and class attendance.
  A) variable-ratio
  B) fixed-interval
  C) fixed-ratio
  D) variable-interval

 

 

179. Over the years at Cosmos Widget Factory, Mr. Cosmos has noticed that each employee tends to be most productive in the weeks just before his or her biannual performance review. Had Mr. Cosmos read Chapter 5 on ”Learning,” he would know that his employees’ behavior was:
  A) the result of being conditioned on a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  B) an example of learned helplessness.
  C) an example of stimulus control.
  D) the result of being conditioned on a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.

 

 

180. It is the passage of time rather than the number of responses that helps to determine when a reinforcer will be delivered. This describes which of the following?
  A) accidental reinforcement.
  B) latent learning
  C) a ratio schedule
  D) an interval schedule

 

 

181. The application of learning principles to help people learn more effective or adaptive behaviors is called:
  A) behavior modification.
  B) operant training.
  C) classical conditioning.
  D) discrimination training.

 

 

182. When competitive swimmers stayed focused on their practice techniques during swim team practice, they were rewarded by their coach playing popular music over the loudspeakers in the pool area. When they were inattentive or started ”goofing off,” the coach played recordings of gloomy, off-key organ music. In this example, the coach is using _____ to help his swimmers stay focused.
  A) biological preparedness
  B) latent learning
  C) classical conditioning
  D) behavior modification

 

 

183. The psychologists and teachers at the Center for Children with Special Needs have designed an elaborate program that teaches the children how to feed themselves, brush their teeth, and so forth using a carefully designed program of shaping and reinforcement. This is an example of:
  A) behavior modification.
  B) instinctive drift.
  C) classically conditioned responses.
  D) biological preparedness.

 

 

184. In applying conditioning principles in the workplace, a large retailer allowed employees to choose their own reinforcers. A casual dress code and flexible work hours proved to be effective in increasing productivity. The employer has used _____ to improve employee performance.
  A) classical conditioning
  B) behavior modification
  C) higher order conditioning
  D) the partial reinforcement effect

 

 

185. Psychologist Edward C. Tolman’s studies with rats in mazes led him to conclude that:
  A) reinforcement is not necessary for learning to occur.
  B) learning will not occur in the absence of reinforcement.
  C) rats learn nothing more than a sequence of left and right turns.
  D) continuous reinforcement is necessary for operant conditioning to occur.

 

 

186. Helen always drives down Sheridan Avenue to go to the college campus. One morning Helen discovers that Sheridan Avenue is closed at 23rd Street because of flooding. Helen immediately takes a different route to the campus. How would psychologist Edward Tolman explain Helen’s behavior?
  A) She is classically conditioned to fear water.
  B) She has formed a cognitive map of the area.
  C) Helen was observing the actions of others in the situation.
  D) The standing water was a reliable predictor of danger.

 

 

187. Road construction prevents you from getting to the shopping mall using the route that you always travel. You think about the situation for a moment and then come up with a different route to take. To figure out this alternative route, you are using what Tolman referred to as:
  A) biological preparedness.
  B) stimulus generalization.
  C) a cognitive map.
  D) instinctive drift.

 

 

188. One of Tolman’s classic research studies involved three groups of rats running mazes for several days. The rats in Group 1 received a food reward at the end of the maze every time they ran the maze. The rats in Group 2 never received a food reward in the maze. In contrast, the rats in Group 3 did not receive a food reward at the end of the maze until the eleventh day of the study. What behavior did the rats in Group 2 and Group 3 display on day 12?
  A) The number of errors made by the rats in Group 2 remained about the same but the number of errors made by the rats in Group 3 decreased sharply, showing that they had learned the layout of the maze without being reinforced.
  B) The number of errors made by the rats in Group 2 and Group 3 remained about the same, showing that neither group had learned the layout of the maze.
  C) The number of errors made by the rats in both groups sharply decreased, showing the importance of observational learning.
  D) The number of errors made by the rats in Group 2 remained about the same but the number of errors made by the rats in Group 3 increased, showing that rewards can interfere with both motivation and performance.

 

 

189. Edward C. Tolman would have most likely made which of the following statements?
  A) ”Animals cannot respond to the complexities of a learning environment, only humans can.”
  B) ”Animals are adept at learning a sequence of responses, and this is what helps the animals run through a maze so quickly and accurately.”
  C) ”Psychologists should be examining the underlying motivation for the behaviors performed rather than just observing behavior.”
  D) ”Animals develop a mental representation of the layout of a maze, which allows them to run quickly and accurately through a maze.”

 

 

190. Rats are allowed to wander through a maze for several days with no food reward at the end of it. On the tenth day, a food reward is placed at the end of the maze. Which of the following results would provide evidence for latent learning?
  A) The rats take just as long to get to the end of the maze on day 11 as they did on day 1.
  B) The rats show a gradual improvement in how quickly they reach the end of the maze from day 1 to day 11.
  C) The rats improve very little in how quickly they reach the end of the maze for the first ten days, but dramatically improve their performance on day 11.
  D) Every day, the rats take longer and longer to get to the end of the maze.

 

 

191. Edward C. Tolman’s concept of latent learning helps to demonstrate that:
  A) only people can develop cognitive maps of their environments.
  B) animals learn more by mental representation than by reinforcement.
  C) learning will not occur unless behavior is ”stamped in” by a rewarding consequence.
  D) rewards affect performance of what has been learned rather than the process of learning itself.

 

 

192. Which learning researcher believed that operant conditioning involved an organism learning ”what leads to what,” or the cognitive expectation that a particular consequence would follow a particular behavior?
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) Ivan Pavlov
  C) Edward C. Tolman
  D) Edward L. Thorndike

 

 

193. According to psychologist Edward C. Tolman, learning that is not immediately demonstrated in overt behavior is termed:
  A) learned helplessness.
  B) response extinction.
  C) latent learning.
  D) trial-and-error learning.

 

 

194. The phenomenon called learned helplessness was identified by two young psychology graduate students named:
  A) B. F. Skinner and John B. Watson.
  B) John Garcia and Albert Bandura.
  C) Martin Seligman and Stephen Maier.
  D) Robert Rescorla and Edward C. Tolman.

 

 

195. _____ began his research career by studying learned helplessness in dogs, and later, in humans. He applied his findings to psychological problems in humans, including major depressive disorder, and he investigated why some people succumb to learned helplessness while others persist in the face of obstacles.
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) John Garcia
  C) Martin Seligman
  D) Robert Rescorla

 

 

196. Elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1996, _____ launched a new movement called positive psychology, which would emphasize research on human strengths, rather than human problems.
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) John Garcia
  C) Martin Seligman
  D) Robert Rescorla

 

 

197. A shuttlebox was used by:
  A) Martin Seligman and Steven Maier to demonstrate the phenomenon of learned helplessness.
  B) B. F. Skinner to demonstrate the phenomenon of shaping.
  C) John Garcia to demonstrate the phenomenon of taste aversions.
  D) Ivan Pavlov to demonstrate the phenomenon of stimulus generalization.

 

 

198. The text describes the conditioning of learned helplessness in dogs. According to the text discussion, why did the dogs display learned helplessness?
  A) The dogs were reinforced for passive behavior.
  B) All other operant responses were punished.
  C) The dogs had developed the cognitive expectation that there was nothing they could do to escape or change their environment.
  D) The behavior they needed to learn was too complex for dogs to perform.

 

 

199. If exposure to inescapable and uncontrollable aversive events produces passive behavior, the response of passivity is termed:
  A) learned helplessness.
  B) biological preparedness.
  C) avoidance due to negative reinforcement.
  D) instinctive drift.

 

 

200. Roy is having trouble passing his calculus course. No matter how hard he studies, he cannot seem to pass a calculus test. Eventually, Roy gives up and stops studying or even coming to calculus class. Roy’s behavior can be explained as an example of:
  A) the partial reinforcement effect.
  B) classical conditioning.
  C) biological preparedness.
  D) learned helplessness.

 

 

201. College students who experience feelings of learned helplessness may respond to academic setbacks, such as failing a test, in which of the following ways?
  A) giving up prematurely on subsequent academic tasks or procrastinating instead of persisting
  B) becoming more motivated to succeed and increasing their efforts on subsequent academic tasks
  C) expressing their frustration through angry outbursts or other violent behavior
  D) by pairing up with a successful student and imitating that student’s study habits

 

 

202. After dogs have experienced inescapable shocks, they are placed in a shuttlebox in which they can easily jump over a barrier from one side of the shuttlebox to the other. If the dogs have developed learned helplessness, they would most likely respond to another shock by:
  A) jumping over the barrier to escape the shock.
  B) doing nothing.
  C) jumping out of the shuttlebox altogether.
  D) trying to bite the experimenter.

 

 

203. Athletes who believe they have no control over factors that lead to poor performance are less likely to believe they can succeed in the future and are less likely to persist in the face of failure. This illustrates the phenomenon of:
  A) the Premack principle.
  B) the partial reinforcement effect.
  C) learned helplessness.
  D) biological preparedness.

 

 

204. Angela’s friend Drew told her that he was thinking about dropping out of college because no matter how hard he studied, he couldn’t seem to get his grades above a C average. Angela realized that Drew was experiencing feelings of learned helplessness. What should she advise Drew to do? He should:
  A) try harder.
  B) break tasks down into smaller, manageable goals and seek information about exactly what was needed to succeed in each class.
  C) go to a career counselor and seek advice about jobs that did not require a college degree.
  D) blame the faculty for his poor performance and continue to complain about the impossibility of success, so as to avoid developing low self-esteem.

 

 

205. The basic strategy for overcoming learned helplessness is to:
  A) use punishment by application to suppress undesirable behaviors.
  B) displace the frustration onto another object.
  C) acquire a sense of control and mastery over challenging circumstances.
  D) withdraw from the situation.

 

 

206. In using operant conditioning principles to train animals to perform tricks, Keller and Marian Breland found that:
  A) reinforcement is the sole determinant of an animal’s behavior.
  B) it is impossible to train cats to perform tricks.
  C) punishment is more effective than reinforcement in shaping animal behavior.
  D) an animal’s inborn or instinctive behavior patterns could interfere with the operant conditioning of new behaviors.

 

 

207. The idea that an animal’s natural behavior patterns did not matter and had little or no effect on the effectiveness of operant conditioning principles was challenged by research conducted by:
  A) Robert and Roselle Rescorla.
  B) Albert and Ellen Bandura.
  C) B. F. Skinner.
  D) Marian and Keller Breland.

 

 

208. _____ was one of the first psychologists to use positive reinforcement to teach basic self-help skills to people with developmental disabilities and also helped train marine mammals for the U.S. Navy.
  A) Robert Rescorla
  B) Albert Bandura
  C) B. F. Skinner
  D) Marian Breland

 

 

209. Animal trainers Keller and Marian Breland tried to train a raccoon to pick up two coins and deposit them in a metal box. However, instead of dropping the coins in the box, the raccoon would rub the coins together, much as raccoons do with their food in the wild. This tendency of the raccoon to revert to its natural behavior patterns is termed:
  A) extinction.
  B) latent learning.
  C) instinctive drift.
  D) learned helplessness.

 

 

210. Which of the following statements best describes the phenomenon of instinctive drift?
  A) As operant behaviors are learned, they override instinctive or reflexive behaviors.
  B) Over time, reflexive behaviors change as a function of repeated exposure to classical conditioning.
  C) The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors.
  D) Misbehavior can be prevented by operantly conditioning instinctive behaviors that are incompatible with the misbehavior.

 

 

211. Classical conditioning is to operant conditioning as _____ are to _____.
  A) reflexive, involuntary responses; nonreflexive, voluntary responses
  B) reflexive, involuntary responses; automatic responses
  C) nonreflexive, voluntary responses; reflexive, involuntary responses
  D) reflexive, voluntary responses; nonreflexive, involuntary responses

 

 

212. Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves _____.
  A) active, voluntary behaviors; physiological and emotional responses
  B) behavior elicited by a stimulus; behavior emitted by an organism
  C) associating a response and a consequence; associating two stimuli
  D) voluntary behavior emitted by an organism; behavior elicited by a stimulus

 

 

213. Classical conditioning involves _____ while operant conditioning involves _____.
  A) superstitious pigeons; drooling dogs
  B) behavior emitted by an organism; behavior elicited by a stimulus
  C) associating two stimuli; associating a response and a consequence
  D) associating a response and a consequence; associating two stimuli

 

 

214. The expectation that the CS reliably predicts the UCS is a cognitive aspect of _____, whereas the expectation of consequences following the behavior is a cognitive aspect of _____ .
  A) operant conditioning; classical conditioning
  B) learned helplessness; taste aversion learning
  C) classical conditioning; operant conditioning
  D) Skinnerian conditioning; Pavlovian conditioning

 

 

215. Which of the following psychologists has conducted extensive research on observational learning?
  A) Albert Bandura
  B) Edward L. Thorndike
  C) Edward C. Tolman
  D) Martin Seligman

 

 

216. The famous Bobo doll studies demonstrated that:
  A) performance of a behavior was affected by the cognitive expectation of reinforcement or punishment.
  B) negative reinforcement is less effective than positive reinforcement in changing behavior.
  C) learned helplessness can be overcome through guided mastery experiences.
  D) even emotional responses can be classically conditioned.

 

 

217. The famous Bobo doll research was conducted by _____ and showed the power of _____.
  A) Edward Tolman; cognitive maps
  B) Edward Thorndike; the law of effect
  C) B. F. Skinner; reinforcement and punishment
  D) Albert Bandura; observational learning

 

 

218. The famous Bobo doll study demonstrated that:
  A) children can be classically conditioned to fear even a favorite toy.
  B) children are less likely to imitate the actions of someone who has been punished for his or her actions than the actions of someone who has been rewarded.
  C) girls are more likely to imitate aggressive behaviors than boys.
  D) children quickly form cognitive maps of playrooms and playgrounds.

 

 

219. A number of factors increase the probability that a behavior will be imitated. Which of the following is NOT one of the factors?
  A) if you lack confidence in your own abilities in a particular situation
  B) if the situation is unfamiliar or ambiguous
  C) if you have been rewarded for imitating the same behavior in the past
  D) if the people to be imitated are indifferent or uncaring and seldom get rewarded

 

 

220. According to psychologist Albert Bandura, four processes are involved in observational learning. Which of the following is NOT one of those processes?
  A) attention to the behavior that is to be imitated
  B) forming and storing a mental representation of the behavior to be imitated
  C) immediate reinforcement for the imitated action
  D) transforming the mental representation into actions that can be performed

 

 

221. According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of behavior that has been only observed?
  A) attention, reinforcement, motivation, cognitive maps
  B) attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, motivation
  C) reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, motivation, ability to perform the behavior
  D) reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, cognitive maps, and consequences for the behavior

 

 

222. Researchers discovered that the neuronal activity in the brain of a monkey who simply watched another monkey pick up and eat a peanut was the same as the brain activity of the monkey actually performing these actions. These researchers are investigating:
  A) cognitive maps and latent learning.
  B) biological preparedness.
  C) mirror neurons and the mirror neuron system.
  D) higher order conditioning.

 

 

223. Experimenters have identified the specific motor neurons involved in simple behavior. In one experiment, they discovered that the neuronal activity in the brain of a monkey who simply watched another monkey pick up and eat a peanut was the same as the brain activity of the monkey actually performing these actions. This research is concerned with:
  A) the partial reinforcement effect.
  B) learned helplessness.
  C) mirror neurons and the mirror neuron system.
  D) biological preparedness.

 

 

224. According to Focus on Neuroscience, neurons that fire both when action is performed and when action is simply perceived are called:
  A) glial cells.
  B) mirror neurons.
  C) interneurons.
  D) reflective cells.

 

 

225. According to Focus on Neuroscience, brain-imaging studies have provided evidence of mirror neurons in:
  A) the brains of monkeys but not in human brains.
  B) human brains as well as in the brains of monkeys.
  C) the brains of rats but not in monkey or human brains.
  D) the retinas of monkeys and humans.

 

 

226. In humans, the mirror neuron system may play a role in:
  A) empathy.
  B) information processing.
  C) giftedness.
  D) sleep and dreams.

 

 

227. In one study, orangutans imitated the behavior of both humans and other orangutans, but they were more likely to imitate high-status or dominant models than low-status models. The orangutans were also more likely to imitate models with whom they had close relationships, such as biological parents, siblings, or their human caregivers. Human strangers were virtually never imitated. This study illustrates that _____ factors seem to play a role in observational learning in primates, just as with humans.
  A) operant
  B) classical
  C) motivational
  D) sexual

 

 

228. After an individual chimp learned a new food-gathering technique, the rest of its group acquired the new skill within a few days. In turn, the newly acquired skill spread to other chimpanzee groups who could see the new behavior. According to the textbook, this is evidence for:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) observational learning.
  C) latent learning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

229. Macaque monkeys are capable of learning a cognitive rule for ordering lists of photographs simply from watching another macaque successfully complete the task. This is an example of:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) observational learning.
  C) latent learning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

230. Mindy is in nursing school and is learning how to measure a patient’s blood pressure. Her instructor first shows the class a video that demonstrates the proper procedures for measuring blood pressure and then demonstrates these same procedures using Mindy as a ”patient.” Mindy and her class are learning how to measure blood pressure in patients through the use of:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) observational learning.
  C) latent learning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

231. The nonprofit group, Population Communications International, uses the principles of _____ in its attempts to promote social change.
  A) classical conditioning
  B) operant conditioning
  C) observational learning
  D) discrimination and generalization

 

 

232. Television and radio serial dramas that are used to promote social change and healthy behaviors around the world have been developed based upon research by:
  A) B. F. Skinner.
  B) Albert Bandura.
  C) John Garcia.
  D) Edward L. Thorndike.

 

 

233. One year after a dramatic series that promoted literacy among adults was broadcast on television in Mexico, enrollment in literacy instruction groups:
  A) remained virtually unchanged.
  B) decreased by about 25 percent.
  C) jumped from 90,000 to more than 800,000 people.
  D) increased dramatically for women, but decreased for men.

 

 

234. Which of the following factors was NOT identified as a factor that contributes to the effectiveness of entertainment-education programs?
  A) an interesting, engaging story
  B) support programs that are already in place when the series is broadcast
  C) identifying a specific villain who is to blame for unhealthy behaviors
  D) depicting the benefits of the changed behaviors

 

 

235. Over the past four decades, more than 1,000 studies have investigated the relationship between media depictions of violence and increases in aggressive behavior in the real world. One key finding is that violent behavior is portrayed in _____ of all television programs.
  A) a small minority
  B) one half
  C) nearly two-thirds
  D) 95 percent

 

 

236. According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, which of the following characteristics of television depictions of violent behavior makes the violent behavior more likely to be imitated?
  A) Violent behavior is performed by a high-status individual or model.
  B) The aggressive person is punished for his or her violent behavior.
  C) The violent programs show the long-term negative consequences of violence, such as the months of painful rehabilitation following a gunshot wound.
  D) The victim of the aggressive behavior is the main character of the program.

 

 

237. Based on a review of decades of research, the American Psychological Association and other public health organizations stated that viewing media violence:
  A) has little or no effect on children’s or adults’ behavior.
  B) can contribute to an increase in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.
  C) was associated with lower cognitive performance and negative social behavior in African American males but not in white males.
  D) can lead to a decrease in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.

 

 

238. The vast majority of studies on media violence and aggressive behavior:
  A) are focused on adolescents.
  B) are correlational.
  C) conclusively demonstrate that media violence causes aggressive behavior.
  D) do not distinguish between passive media such as television and active media such as video games.

 

 

239. According to studies on media violence and aggressive behavior, many researchers have concluded that
  A) violent behavior is a complex phenomenon that is unlikely to have a single cause.
  B) there is a causal relationship between observing media violence and engaging in aggressive behavior.
  C) media violence has a more detrimental impact on adolescents than on children.
  D) aggressive children and adolescents are generally unaffected by media violence.

 

 

240. What is the most valid conclusion to be drawn about the different models of conditioning and learning?
  A) Operant conditioning has shown that the principles of classical conditioning are invalid.
  B) Only operant conditioning can explain human behavior.
  C) The cognitive theorists showed that the general principles of classical and operant conditioning are invalid.
  D) The principles of operant and classical conditioning cannot account for all aspects of behavior.

 

 

241. An organism enhances its odds of survival by being able to learn that a neutral stimulus can signal an important upcoming event, as in:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) classical conditioning.
  C) observational learning.
  D) learned helplessness.

 

 

242. An organism enhances its odds of survival by being responsive to the consequences of its actions, as in:
  A) observational learning.
  B) learned helplessness.
  C) operant conditioning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

243. In an ever-changing environment, which of the following is critical to an organism’s adaptation and survival?
  A) self-awareness
  B) a fixed-interval schedule
  C) genetic regulation
  D) the capacity to learn

 

 

244. What general conclusions can be drawn about the nature of learning?
  A) Fundamentally, all behaviors are natural extensions of physiological reflexes.
  B) Only simple reflexive behaviors can be modified through conditioning.
  C) The capacity to learn is essential to the survival of all humans and nonhuman animals.
  D) All aspects of human and animal behavior, including complex behaviors, can be explained without reference to cognitive processes.

 

 

245. Blake is determined to graduate from college with honors. But as he was studying for his final exam the next day, a friend called and invited him to a party. Blake really wanted to go to the party and decided that he would get up early and study for his final exam the next morning before class. Based on what you read in the Psych for Your Life section, why did Blake decide to go to the party?
  A) Social interaction was more important to Blake than getting good grades.
  B) The value of the short-term reinforcer (going to the party) momentarily outweighed the value of the long-term reinforcer (graduating with honors).
  C) Blake understands that self-reinforcement is more effective when applied before the operant.
  D) Blake knows that he can rely on latent learning to ace the final exam.

 

 

246. Anthony is studying for his final exam the next day, but a friend calls and invites him to a party. Anthony really wants to go to the party, but he also needs a good grade on his final in order to maintain his standing on the Dean’s Honor Roll and increase his chances of getting into medical school. Instead of thinking about how much fun the party will be, Anthony instead visualizes himself as a doctor, treating patients and performing surgery. What self-control strategy is Anthony using?
  A) self-reinforcement
  B) precommitment
  C) focusing on the delayed reinforcer
  D) stimulus control

 

 

247. According to Psych for Your Life: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control, as the availability of a reinforcer draws closer, its subjective value:
  A) increases.
  B) decreases.
  C) remains constant.
  D) cannot be predicted.

 

 

248. According to Psych for Your Life: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control, why should you try to study in the same location?
  A) Studying will become a classically conditioned response to the particular location.
  B) The particular location can become a discriminative stimulus that sets the occasion for studying.
  C) You’re more likely to make friends with other students who think that studying is important.
  D) You can avoid distractions such as television or phone calls.

 

 

249. Dylan loves to play tennis. But because he is serious about doing well in college, he only goes to the tennis courts after he accomplishes his studying goals for the day. What strategy is Dylan using to improve his self-control?
  A) precommitment
  B) stimulus control
  C) negative reinforcement
  D) self-reinforcement

 

 

250. Jake is a recovering alcoholic. He has not had a drink of alcohol in over 6 months. One of the strategies that Jake has used to remain abstinent has been to stay away from bars, avoid parties in which alcohol is served, and even find new friends who do not drink alcohol. Jake is overcoming the short-term reinforcement he associated with alcohol use by using which strategy?
  A) reinforcement delay
  B) negative reinforcement
  C) motivational commitment
  D) stimulus control

 

 

251. You want to make sure that you will get to work on time. You call a co-worker who is always punctual and ask her to meet you for coffee before work the next morning, because you know you’ll be more likely to be on time if someone is waiting to meet you. You are using a strategy called:
  A) self-reinforcement.
  B) stimulus control.
  C) precommitment.
  D) focus on the delayed reinforcer.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. C
2. C
3. D
4. D
5. B
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
10. D
11. D
12. A
13. A
14. C
15. C
16. C
17. B
18. C
19. B
20. D
21. A
22. B
23. C
24. C
25. B
26. B
27. A
28. A
29. C
30. B
31. D
32. B
33. B
34. A
35. B
36. C
37. B
38. C
39. A
40. B
41. B
42. C
43. A
44. D
45. D
46. C
47. D
48. B
49. A
50. C
51. D
52. A
53. C
54. B
55. B
56. B
57. B
58. C
59. C
60. B
61. A
62. D
63. D
64. D
65. A
66. B
67. C
68. D
69. A
70. D
71. C
72. A
73. B
74. D
75. B
76. B
77. D
78. D
79. B
80. B
81. B
82. A
83. A
84. C
85. A
86. A
87. A
88. C
89. D
90. A
91. D
92. A
93. D
94. C
95. D
96. D
97. D
98. C
99. B
100. A
101. C
102. B
103. C
104. C
105. A
106. D
107. A
108. A
109. C
110. C
111. A
112. B
113. C
114. B
115. B
116. D
117. C
118. C
119. C
120. A
121. C
122. D
123. D
124. C
125. B
126. A
127. C
128. C
129. C
130. C
131. C
132. B
133. D
134. D
135. D
136. C
137. A
138. C
139. C
140. D
141. A
142. D
143. A
144. B
145. C
146. C
147. D
148. D
149. C
150. A
151. A
152. A
153. B
154. C
155. C
156. B
157. D
158. A
159. C
160. C
161. C
162. D
163. D
164. A
165. B
166. A
167. C
168. D
169. A
170. B
171. C
172. D
173. B
174. C
175. A
176. B
177. C
178. D
179. A
180. D
181. A
182. D
183. A
184. B
185. A
186. B
187. C
188. A
189. D
190. C
191. D
192. C
193. C
194. C
195. C
196. C
197. A
198. C
199. A
200. D
201. A
202. B
203. C
204. B
205. C
206. D
207. D
208. D
209. C
210. C
211. A
212. B
213. C
214. C
215. A
216. A
217. D
218. B
219. D
220. C
221. B
222. C
223. C
224. B
225. B
226. A
227. C
228. B
229. B
230. B
231. C
232. B
233. C
234. C
235. C
236. A
237. B
238. B
239. A
240. D
241. B
242. C
243. D
244. C
245. B
246. C
247. A
248. B
249. D
250. D
251. C

 

 

 

1. Psychologists formally define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior as a result of experience.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

2. The process of classical conditioning was accidentally discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who was studying the role of saliva in digestion.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

3. Pavlov was the first psychologist to receive the Nobel Prize for his groundbreaking research on classical conditioning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

4. Pavlov found that to produce a strong classically conditioned response the interval between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) should be no more than a few seconds.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

5. Classical conditioning is essentially the process of learning an association between two stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

6. When a dog has been classically conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell, the sound of the bell has gone from being a neutral stimulus to a conditioned stimulus.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

7. The unconditioned response and the conditioned response are the same behavioral response, but they are elicited by different stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

8. If a classically conditioned dog salivates not just to the original tone, but also to a higher pitched and a lower pitched tone, the process of stimulus discrimination has occurred.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

9. A conditioned stimulus from one learning trial is used in place of an unconditioned stimulus in a new conditioning trial, where it is paired with a second conditioned stimulus. The second conditioned stimulus then comes to elicit the conditioned response, even though it has never been directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. This is a description of a procedure called higher order conditioning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

10. If you own a dog that tends to salivate and get excited when you shake a box of dog biscuits, you may have noticed that your dog also drools when you shake a bag of cat food. If so, this would be an example of stimulus generalization.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

11. Your dog tends to salivate and get excited when you shake a box of dog biscuits. However, your dog does not drool when you shake a bag of cat food. This is an example of stimulus generalization.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

12. Pavlov classically conditioned a dog to salivate at the sound of a tone. He then repeatedly paired the tone with another stimulus, a bell. Later, when he rang the bell the dog salivated, even though the bell had never been paired with food. This example illustrates higher order conditioning (second-order conditioning).
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

13. After a dog has gone through the process of extinction and no longer salivates to the sound of a bell, the conditioned response will spontaneously reappear if the dog is given a period of rest and the sound of the bell is again presented.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

14. In his experiments with dogs, Pavlov found that after a classically conditioned response had been extinguished, the dog returned to its original unconditioned state and was unable to relearn the response.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

15. John B. Watson rejected the definition of psychology as the scientific study of the mind in favor of a definition that emphasized the prediction and control of behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

16. Psychologist John Watson strongly advocated the study of mental processes in order to understand how learning occurs in humans and other animals.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

17. Classical conditioning was discovered by behaviorist John B. Watson during the experimental research with “Little Albert.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

18. The startle reflex will occur in response to a sudden or unexpected noise. Using Pavlov’s terms, the sudden noise would be termed the conditioned stimulus, and the startle reflex would be termed the conditioned response.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

19. The conditioned response (CR) in the “Little Albert” study was the fear response to the loud clang.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

20. Little Albert developed a strong conditioned fear to the white rat but not to other animals or furry objects.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

21. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner’s famous study of Little Albert is considered to be a model experiment because it was a carefully controlled study with very precise and objective measures of the variables, including Albert’s fear response.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

22. In John Watson and Rosalie Rayner’s Little Albert study the unconditioned stimulus was a loud clang, and the conditioned stimulus was a tame white rat.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

23. John Watson and Rosalie Rayner made no effort to eliminate the fear they conditioned in the infant called Little Albert.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

24. Although John Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) were able to classically condition an emotional reaction in an infant by using extreme measures, such conditioned emotional reactions rarely occur in daily life.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

25. John Watson designed advertisements for Johnson & Johnson Baby Powder that intentionally tried to create anxiety in young mothers about their ability to care for their infants.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

26. John B. Watson was opposed to the application of classical conditioning principles in advertising because he believed that such manipulative marketing was unethical.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

27. John Watson was a pioneer in the use of classical conditioning techniques in advertising.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

28. Sexual arousal can be classically conditioned.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

29. Regular-coffee drinkers can develop a classically conditioned response of alertness to the smell and taste of coffee, even if the coffee is decaffeinated.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

30. For a regular-coffee drinker, the sight, smell, and taste of coffee are the original neutral stimulus, which, after being paired with caffeine (the UCS), eventually become conditioned stimuli and produce the conditioned response (CR) of increased arousal and alertness.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

31. According to psychologist Robert Rescorla, classical conditioning involves cognitive processes in which the organism learns that the conditioned stimulus reliably predicts the unconditioned stimulus.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

32. In Rescorla’s experiment described in the text, the strongest fear response was shown by the rats that received 20 tone-shock pairings plus an additional 20 shocks with no tone.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

33. Robert Rescorla views classical conditioning as a process that involves the active processing of information about stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

34. It was Robert Rescorla who made the famous statement, “The animal behaves like a scientist, detecting causal relations among events and using a range of information about those events to make the relevant inferences.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

35. John Garcia’s research demonstrated that taste aversions could be conditioned, but only after a minimum of five pairings of the CS (taste) and UCS (illness).
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

36. Research on taste aversions clearly shows that in order for classical conditioning to occur, the interval between the CS and the UCS can be no more than a few seconds.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

37. Research on taste aversions demonstrated that classical conditioning can occur with a single pairing of the CS and the UCS.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

38. John Garcia is the psychologist who is credited with demonstrating the importance of an evolutionary approach to classical conditioning by his research showing that particular associations are more readily conditioned than others.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

39. Contrary to what Pavlov believed, John Garcia’s research on taste aversions showed that animals are able to form associations between some stimuli much more easily than other stimuli.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

40. Psychologist Martin Seligman proposed that humans are biologically predisposed to learn to fear certain objects or situations that may have once posed a threat to humans’ evolutionary ancestors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

41. Phobias and other irrational fears are always the result of a prior conditioning experience with the specific feared object or situation.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

42. The In Focus box discussing biological preparedness notes that researchers Arne Öhman and Susan Mineka have accumulated experimental evidence supporting the evolutionary explanation for the most common phobias, especially fear of snakes.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

43. The law of effect helps to explain how classically conditioned responses develop from pairing a biologically significant UCS with a neutral stimulus.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

44. Based on his studies of cats that tried to escape a puzzle box, Edward L. Thorndike became convinced that animals use reasoning abilities and problem-solving thought processes that are very similar to those of humans.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

45. B. F. Skinner shared the view of John Watson that psychology should restrict itself to studying objectively observable behaviors, not mental processes.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

46. Using Skinner’s words, an operant is any “active behavior that operates on the environment to generate consequences.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

47. To avoid being stung by mosquitoes, you spray yourself with insect repellant before you start hiking through the woods. This would be an example of negative reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

48. You take two aspirin to remove a headache. Thirty minutes later, the headache is gone. You are now more likely to take aspirin to deal with bodily aches and pain in the future. In other words, negative reinforcement by escape has occurred.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

49. Whenever Margaret has personal problems, she confides in two co-workers who listen very attentively and offer her emotional support. The amount of time that Margaret spends discussing her personal problems with co-workers has steadily increased. Positive reinforcement is occurring in this example.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

50. Marlene intentionally parks her new sports car away from other cars in parking lots in order to keep her new car from getting dinged and chipped. Negative reinforcement is occurring in this example.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

51. While at the airport, seven-year-old Connor discovers a quarter in the coin return of a pay telephone. Ever since, Connor checks the coin return of any pay telephone he sees. Using operant conditioning terms, positive reinforcement has occurred in this situation.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

52. Julie always pays her electric bill on time each month to avoid incurring a late charge. Using operant conditioning terms, Julie’s behavior is being maintained by positive reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

53. Olivia decided to try a new recipe. For dinner that night, she served up the new “Chef’s Surprise,” which she spent most of the day preparing. After one taste, the rest of the family voted to go out for pizza. Because she has experienced negative reinforcement, Olivia no longer tries new recipes.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

54. Positive reinforcement strengthens the occurrence of a behavior by the removal of an aversive stimulus.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

55. While positive reinforcement increases or strengthens a response, negative reinforcement decreases or weakens a response.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

56. Awards, frequent flyer points, and college degrees are examples of primary reinforcers.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

57. Trophies, ribbons, certificates of achievement, and money are often used to reinforce behavior. Using operant conditioning terms, these would all be examples of primary reinforcers.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

58. The respect of your peers, the approval of your instructors or managers, a smile, a touch, or a nod of recognition can all be possible examples of conditioned reinforcers.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

59. Conditioned reinforcers acquire their reinforcing value by being associated with primary reinforcers.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

60. Whether an aversive stimulus is delivered or a reinforcing stimulus is removed, punishment means that the likelihood of a behavior decreases.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

61. Punishment is one of the most effective operant conditioning techniques used to teach or promote new behaviors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

62. Once a behavior has been suppressed by punishment, the behavior is unlikely to reappear.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

63. An employee wears jeans to work and is reprimanded by his supervisor for dressing inappropriately. From then on, the employee wears a formal suit to work. This is an example of negative punishment.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

64. Your dog jumps up on a visitor, and you smack him with a rolled up newspaper. The next time you have a visitor, your dog doesn’t jump on them. This is an example of positive punishment.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

65. You make a comment in your workgroup meetings, and a coworker responds with a sarcastic remark. You no longer speak during your workgroup meetings. This is an example of negative reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

66. After Fernanda buys stock in a “hot” new start-up company, the company fails and she loses all of her money. Fernanda no longer invests in start-up companies. This is an example of negative punishment.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

67. Because he was flirting with another woman, a guy gets dumped by his girlfriend. The guy no longer flirts with other women in front of his girlfriends. This is an example of negative reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

68. B. F. Skinner strongly advocated the use of punishment to modify behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

69. A good method to reduce a problem behavior is to reinforce an alternative behavior that is both constructive and incompatible with the problem behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

70. To enhance the effectiveness of positive reinforcers, you should make sure the reinforcer is reinforcing to the individual whose behavior you want to modify.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

71. It is frequently effective to over-reinforce a problem behavior until the reinforcer loses its reinforcing value and the behavior decreases.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

72. While at the airport, 7-year-old Ethan discovers a quarter in the coin return of a pay telephone. Ever since, Ethan checks the coin return of any pay telephone he sees. Using operant conditioning terms, the sight of a pay telephone is a discriminative stimulus.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

73. Although people often blame their environment for their problems, B. F. Skinner argued that the real problem is that people fail to take responsibility for their actions.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

74. B. F. Skinner stressed the fact that behavior ultimately arises from causes that are within the individual.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

75. B. F. Skinner advocated that totalitarian governments should shape all human behavior through the use of punishment, believing that this approach would solve human problems in a humane and rational way.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

76. According to B. F. Skinner, “A person does not act upon the world, the world acts upon him.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

77. A movement called gamification advocates turning daily life into a kind of virtual reality game, in which “points” or other conditioned reinforcers are awarded to reward healthy or productive behaviors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

78. A Skinner box, or operant chamber, is a complex maze that a rat must successfully negotiate to get to a food reward in the goal box at the end.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

79. Two Skinner boxes are side by side. The rat in the first Skinner box gets a food pellet every time it presses the bar. The rat in the second Skinner box gets a food pellet every ten times it presses the bar. If the food-dispensing mechanism is shut off, the rat in the first Skinner box will quit pressing the bar sooner than the rat in the second Skinner box does.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

80. Partial reinforcement is one of the most effective ways to maintain a high level of responding.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

81. Behaviors conditioned using a continuous reinforcement schedule tend to be more resistant to extinction than behaviors conditioned using a partial reinforcement schedule.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

82. Gambling is a classic example of a fixed-ratio schedule.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

83. A major contribution of B. F. Skinner to the psychology of learning was his demonstration of the effects on behavior of different schedules of reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

84. John has a part-time job with a local department store that pays him $10 for each bicycle that he assembles. In operant conditioning terms, this is an example of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

85. A fixed-interval schedule typically produces a pattern of responding in which the number of responses tends to increase as the time for the next reinforcer draws near.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

86. Paige is paid every other Friday at her job. In operant conditioning terms, Paige is on a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

87. Though sometimes it’s a little early or a little late, your mail almost always arrives around 10:30 every morning. As it gets closer to 10:30, you tend to check the mailbox more often. This is an everyday example of a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

88. Behavior modification refers to the application of learning principles to help people develop more effective or adaptive behaviors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

89. The use of operant conditioning techniques to increase the use of seat belts, train Seeing Eye dogs, and improve social skills in schoolchildren are examples of behavior modification.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

90. Tolman’s research confirmed the traditional behaviorist view that rats learn nothing more than a sequence of left/right responses in learning to run a maze.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

91. Only humans are able to form cognitive maps.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

92. Edward Tolman’s research on rats running mazes led him to conclude that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

93. Tolman referred to learning that is not immediately demonstrated in observable behavior as latent learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

94. Tolman demonstrated that learning may take place in the absence of reinforcement or other consequences—a phenomenon he called latent learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

95. Cognitive learning theorists today agree that mental processes, such as expectations and cognitive representations, play a role in operant conditioning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

96. The shuttlebox is used in an operant conditioning procedure to investigate learned helplessness in dogs.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

97. The phenomenon of learned helplessness, discovered by Martin Seligman and Steven Maier, demonstrates that expectations can play a significant role in classical and operant conditioning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

98. Elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1996, Martin Seligman launched a new movement called positive psychology, which would emphasize research on human strengths, rather than human problems.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

99. Acquiring a sense of control over environmental challenges is one way to begin to overcome learned helplessness.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

100. Exposure to uncontrollable aversive events from which you cannot escape can produce passive behavior, called learned helplessness.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

101. Researchers have used a miniature shuttlebox to produce learned helplessness in cockroaches.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

102. Edward C. Tolman is credited with discovering the phenomenon called learned helplessness, which led him to claim that all learning involves cognitive expectations of success or failure.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

103. Martin Seligman and Steven Maier found that learned helplessness could be overcome in dogs by forcibly dragging them over the shuttlebox barrier to escape the electric shocks.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

104. The phenomenon called learned helplessness was discovered by two young graduate students, Steven Maier and Martin Seligman.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

105. B. F. Skinner was able to produce learned helplessness in birds, monkeys, dogs, and rats by alternating fixed-interval and variable-ratio schedules of reinforcement.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

106. When students repeatedly experience failure in academic settings and feel that they are unable to exert control over their schoolwork, they may develop learned helplessness.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

107. Martin Seligman began his research career by studying learned helplessness in dogs, and later, in humans. He applied his findings to psychological problems in humans, including major depressive disorder, and he investigated why some people succumb to learned helplessness while others persist in the face of obstacles.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

108. Once acquired, learned helplessness cannot be overcome.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

109. Only humans have the mental ability to develop the cognitive expectation that their behavior will have no effect on the environment. Thus, only humans can develop learned helplessness.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

110. B. F. Skinner asserted that the general laws of operant conditioning applied to all animal species. However, psychologists studying operant conditioning, like those studying classical conditioning, found that an animal’s natural behavior patterns could influence the learning of new behaviors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

111. In training various animals to perform tricks, Marian and Keller Breland discovered that certain natural behavior patterns interfered with the operant behaviors they were attempting to condition in some animals, a phenomenon called instinctive drift.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

112. Marian Breland was one of the first psychologists to use positive reinforcement to teach basic self-help skills to people with developmental disabilities and also helped train marine mammals for the U.S. Navy.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

113. After a series of setbacks, Evan gave up and dropped out of college. This pattern of behavior is called instinctive drift.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

114. Instinctive drift is the phenomenon in which an animal’s natural behaviors interfere with the performance of previously conditioned behaviors.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

115. Albert Bandura proposed that instinctive drift occurs because of principles related to observational learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

116. Albert Bandura’s studies of observational learning demonstrated that immediate reinforcement is NOT essential for learning to take place.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

117. Motivation is not a factor in Albert Bandura’s model of observational learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

118. In a classic experiment, Albert Bandura used shaping and negative reinforcement to condition children to hit and kick a “Bobo” doll.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

119. Both Albert Bandura and Edward Tolman demonstrated that reinforcement was not necessary for learning to take place.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

120. According to Albert Bandura, motivation to imitate a behavior is crucial to the actual performance of the learned behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

121. Researchers in an experiment concerned with mirror neurons discovered that the neuronal activity in the brain of a monkey who simply watched another monkey pick up and eat a peanut was the same as the brain activity of the monkey actually performing these actions.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

122. According to Focus on Neuroscience, neurons that fire both when action is performed and when action is simply perceived are called mirror neurons.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

123. After an individual chimp learned a new food-gathering technique, the rest of its group acquired the new skill within a few days. In turn, the newly acquired skill spread to other chimpanzee groups who could see the new behavior. According to the textbook, this is evidence for latent learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

124. In one study, orangutans imitated the behavior of both humans and other orangutans, but they were more likely to imitate high-status or dominant models than low-status models. The orangutans were also more likely to imitate models with whom they had close relationships, such as biological parents, siblings, or their human caregivers. Human strangers were virtually never imitated. This study illustrates that positive punishment factors seem to play a role in observational learning in primates, just as with humans.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

125. One research study found that adolescents who watched a great deal of television with sexual content were more likely to become sexually active than adolescents who watched the least amount of sexually oriented programs.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

126. Albert Bandura’s principles of observational learning have been applied in television dramas that have been designed to foster healthy behaviors in societies in many different countries.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

127. Population Communications International is a nonprofit group that develops television and radio drama series that are based on the principles of observational learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

128. Education-entertainment programs are designed to fulfill the four conditions required for observational learning to take place: reinforcement, punishment, conditioning, and memory.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

129. To motivate people to change, education-entertainment programs depict the benefits of the behaviors that are being modeled in the program.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

130. The television program “Makutano Junction” was developed to educate viewers about physical and mental health. These entertainment-education programs use the principles of observational learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

131. The radio program “Entrelazado,” which is Spanish for “Entwined,” was developed in Birmingham, Alabama, to encourage healthy behaviors, including prevention of obesity and tobacco use, among the local Hispanic population. These entertainment-education programs use the principles of discrimination and generalization.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

132. Bandura’s research on observational learning in children provided a powerful paradigm to study the effects of “entertainment” violence.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

133. Bandura found that observed actions were most likely to be imitated when the model was punished for his or her actions, and when the model was an unattractive, low status member of the viewer’s social group.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

134. On average, American youth witness 1,000 rapes, murders, and assaults on television annually.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

135. After reviewing decades of research investigating the effects of exposure to media violence, the American Psychological Association and other organizations issued a statement indicating that media violence is unlikely to contribute to aggressive behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

136. Most television violence is performed by unattractive villains who are punished for their misdeeds, clearly sending the message that “it does not pay to use violence.”
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

137. Research has shown that media violence can contribute to increases in aggressive attitudes, values, and behavior.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

138. The vast majority of studies on media violence and aggressive behavior are correlational.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

139. Faced with an ever-changing environment, an organism’s capacity to learn is critical to adaptation and survival.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

140. An organism enhances its odds of survival by being responsive to the consequences of its actions, as in observational learning.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

141. Although there are exceptions to the general laws of learning, the principles of classical and operant conditioning remain valid.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

142. Self-control involves choosing between long-term reinforcers and short-term reinforcers, both of which have relative values that can shift over time.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

143. To use the strategy of self-reinforcement, you should give yourself some type of reward before performing the task that you need to accomplish.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

144. Precommitment is the strategy of rewarding yourself before you perform a behavior that is likely to lead to a long-term goal.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

145. The self-control strategy of stimulus control is based upon classical conditioning principles.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

146. Observing good role models and focusing on the delayed reinforcer are two ways to improve self-control.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

147. The cognitive aspects of learning play a key role in choosing behaviors associated with long-term reinforcers.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

148. Because the relative value of a reinforcer can shift over time, people sometimes choose short-term reinforcers even when their choice might sabotage attaining a reinforcer that will be more rewarding in the long run.
  A) True
  B) False

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. A
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. A
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. A
10. A
11. B
12. A
13. A
14. B
15. A
16. B
17. B
18. B
19. B
20. B
21. B
22. A
23. A
24. B
25. A
26. B
27. A
28. A
29. A
30. A
31. A
32. B
33. A
34. A
35. B
36. B
37. A
38. A
39. A
40. A
41. B
42. A
43. B
44. B
45. A
46. A
47. A
48. A
49. A
50. A
51. A
52. B
53. B
54. B
55. B
56. B
57. B
58. A
59. A
60. A
61. B
62. B
63. B
64. A
65. B
66. A
67. B
68. B
69. A
70. A
71. B
72. A
73. B
74. B
75. B
76. A
77. A
78. B
79. A
80. A
81. B
82. B
83. A
84. A
85. A
86. A
87. A
88. A
89. A
90. B
91. B
92. A
93. A
94. A
95. A
96. A
97. A
98. A
99. A
100. A
101. A
102. B
103. A
104. A
105. B
106. A
107. A
108. B
109. B
110. A
111. A
112. A
113. B
114. A
115. B
116. A
117. B
118. B
119. A
120. A
121. A
122. A
123. B
124. B
125. A
126. A
127. A
128. B
129. A
130. A
131. B
132. A
133. B
134. A
135. B
136. B
137. A
138. A
139. A
140. B
141. A
142. A
143. B
144. B
145. B
146. A
147. A
148. A

 

 

 

1. In psychology, the formal definition of “learning” is:
  A) knowledge that can be measured by an intelligence or achievement test.
  B) any knowledge or skill that has been acquired in a school or in a formal training program.
  C) behavior that is the result of genetic programming.
  D) a process which produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.

 

 

2. _____ was the theorist who discovered the basic process of classical conditioning.
  A) Albert Bandura
  B) B. F. Skinner
  C) John B. Watson
  D) Ivan Pavlov

 

 

3. Pavlov taught a dog to salivate at the sound of a musical tone by repeatedly pairing the tone with food. In this example, the musical tone is the _____ before conditioning and the _____ after conditioning.
  A) conditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus
  B) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus
  C) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
  D) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response

 

 

4. Pavlov taught a dog to salivate at the sound of a musical tone by repeatedly pairing food with a musical tone. In this example, the food is the _____ and the dog salivating to the food is the _____.
  A) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned response
  B) unconditioned stimulus; unconditioned response
  C) conditioned response; unconditioned response
  D) conditioned stimulus; conditioned response

 

 

5. When Anna was three years old, her aunt’s pet parakeet landed on her head and pecked at her scalp, hurting her. Following this incident, Anna was afraid of the parakeet. But over time, Anna has become afraid of anything that flies, including butterflies, large flying insects, and wild birds. This example illustrates the phenomenon of _____ in _____ conditioning.
  A) instinctive drift; operant
  B) stimulus discrimination; classical
  C) biological preparedness; operant
  D) stimulus generalization; classical

 

 

6. Which theorist stated, “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select”?
  A) John B. Watson
  B) B. F. Skinner
  C) Edward L. Thorndike
  D) Ivan Pavlov

 

 

7. In Watson and Rayner’s “Little Albert” study, _____ was the unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
  A) the loud clanging sound
  B) the sight of the white rat
  C) fear in response to the loud clanging sound
  D) fear in response to the sight of the rat

 

 

8. A television commercial for a new camera features a handsome man taking photographs of beautiful women in bikinis on a California beach. This commercial uses _____ conditioning techniques, following an approach to advertising that was pioneered by _____.
  A) operant; B. F. Skinner
  B) classical; John B. Watson
  C) operant; Edward L. Thorndike
  D) classical; Ivan Pavlov

 

 

9. Violet is participating in a new drug trial. For the past month, she has been taking an anti-anxiety medication and reporting on her moods, stress, and levels of anxiety. According to Violet, she feels better than she has for years. Most of her anxiety is gone, and she is able to handle stress better. What Violet doesn’t know is that she is actually taking a sugar pill. That is, she is not actually taking a medication for anxiety. Violet’s response to this medication is called:
  A) placebo tolerance.
  B) an unconditioned response (UCR).
  C) an operant response.
  D) a placebo response or placebo effect.

 

 

10. According to psychologist _____ and the _____ perspective, classical conditioning involves learning the relationship between events rather than simply associating two events.
  A) Edward C. Tolman; cognitive
  B) Martin Seligman; cognitive
  C) Robert Rescorla; cognitive
  D) John Garcia; evolutionary

 

 

11. _____ is the notion that an organism is innately predisposed to form associations between certain stimuli and responses.
  A) Biological preparedness
  B) Latent learning
  C) Instinctive
  D) Survival of the fittest

 

 

12. _____ formulated the “law of effect.”
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) John B. Watson
  C) Albert Bandura
  D) Ivan Pavlov

 

 

13. If B.F. Skinner were presented with the following terms, which one would he MOST likely reject?
  A) operant
  B) objective
  C) voluntary
  D) involuntary

 

 

14. A voluntary action is also called a(n):
  A) observation.
  B) operant.
  C) reflexive behavior.
  D) mental image.

 

 

15. The manager of a large shopping mall was upset about the groups of rowdy teenagers who were hanging out by the mall entrance and scaring off his adult customers. He discovered that, if he played classical music over the loudspeakers by the door, the teenagers no longer gathered at the entrance. The mall manager’s use of classical music to modify the teenagers’ behavior is an example of:
  A) the operant conditioning extinction procedure.
  B) punishment by application.
  C) punishment by removal.
  D) negative reinforcement.

 

 

16. Daniel’s young twins often get into arguments about toys and what to watch on television. To reduce the number of arguments, Daniel started setting time limits during play and TV viewing. If the boys refrained from arguing during the set time, they were immediately rewarded with verbal encouragement and stars for their sticker charts. According to the box In Focus: Changing the Behavior of Others, Daniel is using the strategy of:
  A) punishment by removal.
  B) time-out from positive reinforcement.
  C) reinforcing the non-occurrence of the problem behavior.
  D) punishment by application.

 

 

17. After two weeks of being screamed at by his drill sergeant at boot camp and shuddering with fear in response, a Marine recruit named Joe now shudders every time he hears the footsteps of his drill sergeant coming down the hall. When the drill sergeant enters the room, Joe snaps to attention and salutes. In this example, shuddering to the sound of the footsteps is a(n) _____ and saluting is a(n) _____.
  A) operant response in the presence of a discriminative stimulus; conditioned response
  B) unconditioned response; example of latent learning
  C) conditioned response; operant response in the presence of a discriminative stimulus
  D) unconditioned response; example of learned helplessness

 

 

18. B. F. Skinner:
  A) believed that human behavior is determined by environmental consequences, not by individual choice or free will.
  B) believed that “the scientific analysis of behavior” would lead to a totalitarian society based on punishment.
  C) advocated greater use of punishment to control behavior.
  D) strongly advocated the study of mental processes to understand behavior.

 

 

19. According to the _____ model developed by _____, behavior is shaped and maintained by its environmental consequences.
  A) classical conditioning; John B. Watson
  B) cognitive; Edward Tolman
  C) evolutionary; John Garcia.
  D) operant conditioning; B. F. Skinner

 

 

20. A rat has been trained in an operant-conditioning chamber to press a lever to get a food pellet. Following the acquisition trials, the researcher then withheld reinforcement for lever pressing and eventually the rat stopped responding. This example illustrates:
  A) the effect of negative reinforcement.
  B) the effect of punishment by application.
  C) learned helplessness.
  D) extinction.

 

 

21. A pigeon in operant chamber #1 regularly receives a pellet of food after every 10 pecks at a red disk, no matter how long it takes. A rat in operant chamber #2 regularly receives a pellet of food for the first bar press it makes after 10 minutes have passed, no matter how many bar presses it makes. The pigeon is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement, and the rat is on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) fixed-ratio; fixed-interval
  B) fixed-interval; fixed-ratio
  C) fixed-ratio; variable-interval
  D) fixed-ratio; variable-ratio

 

 

22. _____ is the application of learning principles to help people learn more effective or adaptive behaviors.
  A) Behavior modification
  B) Operant training
  C) Classical conditioning
  D) Discrimination training

 

 

23. A group of rats was run through a maze for 12 days. On days 1 through 10, there was no food reward at the end of the maze, and the rats made many errors as they slowly moved through the maze. On day 11, a food reward was placed at the end of the maze. After the food reward was introduced, the rats ran the maze very quickly and with few errors. According to psychologist _____, this experiment demonstrated a phenomenon called _____.
  A) B. F. Skinner; stimulus discrimination
  B) Edward L. Thorndike; the law of effect
  C) Albert Bandura; observational learning
  D) Edward C. Tolman; latent learning

 

 

24. A shuttlebox was used by used by Martin Seligman and Steven Maier to demonstrate the phenomenon of:
  A) learned helplessness.
  B) shaping.
  C) taste aversions.
  D) stimulus generalization.

 

 

25. The biological predisposition to perform natural behaviors can interfere with learning operant behaviors. This phenomenon is called:
  A) classical conditioning.
  B) the instinctive drift.
  C) behaviorism.
  D) shaping and chaining.

 

 

26. According to Albert Bandura, the four factors that are necessary for observational learning to occur are:
  A) attention, memory, motor skills, and motivation.
  B) attention, conditioning, cognition, and reinforcement.
  C) reinforcement, operant, stimulus discrimination, and imitation.
  D) stimulus, response, conditioning, and consequence.

 

 

27. According to Focus on Neuroscience, neurons that fire both when action is performed and when action is simply perceived are called:
  A) glial cells.
  B) mirror neurons.
  C) interneurons.
  D) reflective cells.

 

 

28. _____’s research contributed to television and radio serial dramas that are used to promote social change and healthy behaviors around the world.
  A) B. F. Skinner
  B) Albert Bandura
  C) John Garcia
  D) Edward L. Thorndike

 

 

29. The majority of studies on media violence and aggressive behavior are:
  A) focused on adolescents.
  B) causal.
  C) correlational.
  D) retroactive.

 

 

30. Which of the following suggestions would probably help you overcome the temptation to choose a short-term reinforcer over a long-term reinforcer?
  A) Rewarding yourself with the short-term reinforcer before you perform the behaviors that will lead to reinforcement in the long term.
  B) Focusing your attention on the delayed, long-term reinforcer.
  C) Strengthening your resolve by surrounding yourself with stimuli that remind you of the short-term reinforcer.
  D) Avoiding making an advance commitment to the long-term goal, and adopt a flexible approach to maximizing available reinforcement.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. D
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. D
6. A
7. A
8. B
9. D
10. C
11. A
12. C
13. C
14. B
15. B
16. C
17. C
18. A
19. D
20. D
21. A
22. A
23. D
24. A
25. B
26. A
27. B
28. B
29. C
30. B

 

 

 

1. Learning is defined as:
  A) a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of past experience.
  B) a process that produces a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to natural or instinctive processes.
  C) the ability to solve problems and apply previous experiences to current situations.
  D) one’s ability to replace old habits with new habits.

 

 

2. The _____ served as the foundation for what Pavlov eventually referred to as classical conditioning.
  A) development of learned helplessness in dogs that were given inescapable shock
  B) use of food rewards in training dogs
  C) training of rats to navigate a maze
  D) role of saliva in digestion

 

 

3. In his original studies of digestion, Pavlov placed food on a dog’s tongue to make the dog salivate. In this situation, the food is a(n) _____ stimulus and the dog salivating is a(n) _____ response.
  A) conditioned; unconditioned
  B) unconditioned; unconditioned
  C) conditioned; conditioned
  D) unconditioned; conditioned

 

 

4. Madison met her first serious boyfriend when she was working a summer job at a café on the beach at an oceanfront resort. Years later, when Madison smells the distinctive smell of saltwater and sand, she still feels a twinge of sadness, remembering the ending of their romance at the end of the summer when they both returned to their separate colleges. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is _____ and the conditioned response is _____.
  A) the smell of the ocean; sadness
  B) sadness; the smell of the ocean
  C) the smell of the ocean; sexual arousal
  D) the smell of the ocean; memories of being a waitress at the café

 

 

5. Ivan conditioned his pet bloodhound, Watson, to drool every time the doorbell rang. After a few weeks, he got tired of mopping up the puddle of drool by his front door, so he repeatedly rang the doorbell without pairing the sound with food. Eventually, the process of _____ occurred, and Watson stopped drooling every time the doorbell rang.
  A) learned helplessness
  B) stimulus discrimination
  C) instinctive drift
  D) extinction

 

 

6. Which psychologists strongly insisted that psychology should only study observable behaviors, not mental processes or consciousness?
  A) Martin Seligman and John Garcia
  B) Robert Rescorla and Edward L. Thorndike
  C) Edward C. Tolman and Albert Bandura
  D) John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

 

 

7. In the famous “Little Albert” study, what was the conditioned stimulus?
  A) the white rat
  B) fear of the loud clang
  C) fear at the sight of the rat
  D) the loud clang

 

 

8. Which of the following advertising techniques is based on classical conditioning principles?
  A) a $5.00 coupon toward your next purchase of Brand A
  B) the maker of Brand A explaining why the product works so well
  C) an attractive model using Brand A
  D) people shopping for Brand A

 

 

9. Tyrone always starts his day with a cup of black coffee. Last night, Tyrone stayed at his mother’s home, and she made him a cup of coffee when he got up. Later, Tyrone was surprised to learn that the coffee was decaffeinated because he had actually felt more alert after drinking it. In this example, what are the conditioned stimulus and conditioned response?
  A) The CS is the caffeine, and the CR is alertness.
  B) The CS is the smell and taste of coffee, and the CR is the caffeine.
  C) The CS is alertness, and the CR is the smell and taste of coffee.
  D) The CS is the smell and taste of coffee, and the CR is alertness.

 

 

10. _____ was the researcher who proclaimed, “The animal behaves like a scientist, detecting causal relations among events and using a range of information about those events to make relevant inferences.”
  A) Abraham Maslow
  B) B. F. Skinner
  C) Robert Rescorla
  D) Albert Bandura

 

 

11. Research with rats has revealed that taste aversions can be produced when the interval between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is:
  A) about five seconds.
  B) between five and 10 seconds.
  C) no longer than one hour.
  D) as long as 24 hours.

 

 

12. During a severe thunderstorm, Christopher was talking on the phone with his girlfriend when lightning struck the house and the electrical shock traveled through the telephone wire. Christopher received a strong shock and the fright of his life. Although he wasn’t severely injured, he developed an intense fear of lightning and thunderstorms. However, Christopher did NOT develop a fear of telephones or his girlfriend. Which concept helps explain this fact?
  A) latent learning
  B) the law of effect
  C) biological preparedness
  D) stimulus discrimination

 

 

13. “Responses followed by a satisfying effect are strengthened and likely to occur again in a particular situation, but responses followed by a dissatisfying effect are weakened and less likely to occur again in a particular situation.” What principle does this statement describe?
  A) biological preparedness
  B) learned helplessness
  C) the law of effect
  D) the Premack principle

 

 

14. According to B. F. Skinner, psychology should restrict itself to the study of:
  A) mental processes and unconscious motivations.
  B) behaviors that were most adaptive to primitive humans.
  C) phenomena that can be objectively measured and verified.
  D) behaviors that are considered atypical within a culture.

 

 

15. Six-year-old Warren watches as his grandmother puts freshly baked cookies into a jar. The jar sits on the first shelf in grandma’s cabinet, a height that Warren cannot yet reach. After his grandmother leaves the kitchen, Warren takes a chair, sets it in front of the counter, and climbs up to the cabinet to get a cookie. What is the operant in this example?
  A) the cookie
  B) grandma’s presence
  C) carrying the chair to the kitchen
  D) Warren’s age

 

 

16. If an action is negatively reinforced, it is _____ likely to be repeated. If an action is positively reinforced, it is _____ likely to be repeated.
  A) less; more
  B) more; less
  C) less; less
  D) more; more

 

 

17. Gabe got stuck in an elevator in a high-rise office building one morning. Now he refuses to enter an elevator. If “entering an elevator” is the operant, what type of consequence has altered Gabe’s behavior?
  A) punishment by application
  B) punishment by removal
  C) positive reinforcement
  D) negative reinforcement

 

 

18. Whenever her cell phone vibrates, Akiko immediately retrieves her phone to see who is texting her. The majority of the time, Akiko also answers the text right away. In this scenario, the vibrating cell phone is a(n) _____ for Akiko’s response.
  A) discriminative stimulus
  B) operant
  C) conditioned reinforcer
  D) primary reinforcer

 

 

19. _____ is a movement that advocates turning daily life into a kind of virtual reality game, in which “points” or other conditioned reinforcers are awarded to reward healthy or productive behaviors.
  A) Gamification
  B) Operant conditioning
  C) Fantasy league
  D) Token economy

 

 

20. Sarah gets a weekly allowance, but only if all of her chores are completed by 5 P.M. on Friday night. Although Sarah does some work around the house during the week, most of her chores are done in a burst of activity after she comes home from school on Friday afternoon. Sarah’s behavior is being maintained on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.
  A) variable-ratio (VR)
  B) fixed-ratio (FR)
  C) variable-interval (VI)
  D) fixed-interval (FI)

 

 

21. According to _____, a rat learning to navigate a maze will eventually acquire _____.
  A) Edward C. Tolman; a cognitive map of the maze
  B) Martin Seligman; learned helplessness
  C) John Garcia; a taste aversion to any food eaten in the maze
  D) Ivan Pavlov; a conditioned emotional response to the maze

 

 

22. In dogs, learned helplessness could be overcome by:
  A) repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus.
  B) dragging the dogs over the barrier to the side of the cage that was not electrified.
  C) removing the food from the end of the maze.
  D) disconnecting the food dispenser from the operant chamber in the dogs’ cages.

 

 

23. Classical conditioning involves _____, while operant conditioning involves _____.
  A) pigeons; dogs
  B) behavior emitted by an organism; behavior elicited by a stimulus
  C) associating two stimuli; associating a response and a consequence
  D) associating a response and a consequence; associating two stimuli

 

 

24. According to Bandura, what four cognitive processes are necessary for imitation of observed behavior?
  A) attention, reinforcement, motivation, and cognitive maps
  B) attention, memory, ability to perform the behavior, and motivation
  C) reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, motivation, and ability to perform the behavior
  D) reinforcement, discriminative stimuli, cognitive maps, and consequences for the behavior

 

 

25. While his exhausted mother was taking a nap, four-year-old Dennis decided to help her out by doing the laundry. He dragged a stool over to the washing machine, stuffed clothes into it, turned it on, and dumped a box of detergent on top of the clothes. Which psychologist and which learning theory could BEST explain Dennis’s behavior?
  A) Ivan Pavlov; classical conditioning
  B) Edward Thorndike; the law of effect
  C) Albert Bandura; observational learning
  D) John Garcia; biological preparedness

 

 

26. Macaque monkeys are capable of learning a cognitive rule for ordering lists of photographs simply from watching another macaque successfully complete the task. This example illustrates the concept of:
  A) operant conditioning.
  B) observational learning.
  C) modeling.
  D) motivational learning.

 

 

27. Based on a review of more than 30 years of research, the American Psychological Association and other public health organizations stated that viewing entertainment violence:
  A) was associated with lower cognitive performance and negative social behavior in African American males but not in white males.
  B) can lead to a decrease in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.
  C) was associated with lower cognitive performance and negative social behavior in white males and females but not in African American males and females.
  D) can lead to an increase in aggressive attitudes, values, and behaviors.

 

 

28. An organism enhances its odds of survival by being responsive to the consequences of its actions. This reflects the concept of:
  A) observational learning.
  B) motivational learning.
  C) operant conditioning.
  D) classical conditioning.

 

 

29. According to Psych for Your Life: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control, as the availability of a reinforcer draws closer, its subjective value:
  A) increases.
  B) decreases.
  C) remains constant.
  D) cannot be predicted.

 

 

 

Answer Key

 

1. A
2. D
3. B
4. A
5. D
6. D
7. A
8. C
9. D
10. C
11. D
12. C
13. C
14. C
15. C
16. D
17. A
18. A
19. A
20. D
21. A
22. B
23. C
24. B
25. C
26. B
27. D
28. C
29. A

 

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