Cyberspace Cybersecurity and Cybercrime 1st Edition By Kremling – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Threats to Cybersecurity by Hacktivists and Nation States

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Threats to cybersecurity originate from all of the following sources except ______.
  2. individual
  3. local
  4. national
  5. international

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Threats to Cybersecurity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. A ______ refers to persons who attempt unauthorized access to a control system device and/or network using a data communications pathway.
  2. cyberthreat
  3. cyberwarfare
  4. cybersecurity
  5. cyberattack

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Threats to Cybersecurity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to the text, cyberthreats originate mainly from all of the following entities except ______.
  2. hackers
  3. military units
  4. local governments
  5. terrorists

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Threats to Cybersecurity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Threats that originate from inside the company or organization are referred to as ______.
  2. individual threats
  3. local threats
  4. national threats
  5. foreign threats

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Human behavior that departs from compliance with established policies, regardless of whether it results from malice or a disregard for security policies, is the manifestation of a/an ______ threat.
  2. insider
  3. outsider
  4. national government
  5. foreign government

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. According to national surveys, ______ are the second greatest threat to a company’s cybersecurity, only trumped by hackers.
  2. foreign governments
  3. spies
  4. insiders
  5. hacktivists

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The most serious insider cybercrimes include all of the following except ______.
  2. extortion
  3. terrorism
  4. embezzlement
  5. harassment

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT considered a main type of insider threat?
  2. malicious
  3. exploited
  4. careless
  5. feared

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Types of Insider Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The least common but most costly is ______ insider threat.
  2. malicious
  3. careless
  4. exploited
  5. feared

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Types of Insider Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. People who are “tricked” by others into giving up access information or information about themselves to an external party are known as ______ insiders.
  2. feared
  3. exploited
  4. malicious
  5. careless

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Types of Insider Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Groups with displeasure of government are often motivated by all of the following except ______.
  2. freedom
  3. individuality
  4. aristocracy
  5. privacy

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Displeasure With the Government

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Edward Snowden, an American computer professional, provided all of the following tips for keeping data private except ______.
  2. decrypt your phone calls and text messages
  3. encrypt your hard drive
  4. use a password manager
  5. use two-factor identification

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Specific Causes

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following was NOT identified as one of the main forms of international threats?
  2. nation-states hacking or spying on trade and other secret information
  3. advanced hackers aiming at large corporations
  4. hacking or spying on city and local governments
  5. terrorists looking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in our infrastructures

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Explain the threats that nation-states pose to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. One of the most persistent threats for the United States in terms of cyberattacks originates in ______.
  2. North Korea
  3. Israel
  4. Russia
  5. China

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-2: Explain the threats that nation-states pose to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The use of computer networks and technologies as a means for conducting attacks that target critical national infrastructures or governmental assets has a psychological, social, political, or religious motive, causes harm to individuals or groups, or physically damages infrastructures is referred to as ______.
  2. cyberwarfare
  3. cyberbullying
  4. cyberterrorism
  5. cyberespionage

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-3: Discuss threats to cybersecurity by terrorist groups.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Cyber terrorism attacks often take the form of ______.
  2. denial-of-service attacks
  3. worms
  4. phishing
  5. spamming

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-3: Discuss threats to cybersecurity by terrorist groups.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following were identified as vulnerable infrastructures except ______.
  2. telecommunications
  3. energy
  4. education
  5. transportation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Explain the threats that nation-states pose to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Which of the following characteristics of hackers is not true?
  2. The members meet each other quite often.
  3. It is male-dominated.
  4. They work anonymously.
  5. They have several public identities.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Hacker Community

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Hackers who are motivated by personal gain or a certain cause are often referred to as ______.
  2. red hats
  3. black hats
  4. white hats
  5. green hats

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Black Hats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The “bad guy” hackers are known as ______.
  2. red hats
  3. white hats
  4. black hats
  5. green hats

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Hackers with their abilities to research vulnerabilities in software products and disclose them to companies that developed the software are known as ______.
  2. bad hackers
  3. careless hackers
  4. ethical hackers
  5. friendly hackers

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. All of the following are examples of social engineering except ______.
  2. vishing
  3. phishing
  4. spam
  5. impersonation

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Hackers who are motivated by financial gains and who conduct both bad and ethical hacking are referred to as ______.
  2. black hats
  3. gray hats
  4. white hats
  5. green hats

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Which of the following laws does not apply to hackers?
  2. Hackers are evil people.
  3. Security is not about security.
  4. The greatest damages are caused by simple failures.
  5. Most hackers use weak points to get access.

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-5: Discuss what motivates hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: What Motivates Hackers?

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. ______ typically work independently to expose security vulnerabilities or practices that endanger individuals’ private data.
  2. Gray hats
  3. Black hats
  4. White hats
  5. Green hats

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

True/False

 

  1. Low probability that the criminals will get caught and convicted and public exposure are some of the reasons as to why so few victims report the crimes.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Threats to Cybersecurity

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. International threats are those that originate from inside the company or organization.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Insiders are people who are current or former employees of a company, contractors, or friends of employees.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Some of the most common insider cybersecurity crimes are cyberbullying and cyberharassment.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Local Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Malicious insiders may delete or expose sensitive information by incident—either by pressing a wrong key or by other errors.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Types of Insider Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. National threats originate from individuals inside the United States, aiming to attack local or national governments and infrastructures.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: National Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Using two-factor identification is recommended for protecting private information, such as using a password and a fingerprint or other physical device.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Specific Causes

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Advanced hackers are typically motivated by financial or political goals.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The negative connotation of the word hacker could be defined as “a malicious meddler who tries to discover sensitive information by poking around. Hence password hacker, network hacker. The correct term for this sense is cracker.”

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Evolution of the Term Hacker

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Social engineering is any act that influences a person to take an action that may or may not be in his or her best interest.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: “Black Hats,” “White Hats,” and “Gray Hats”

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

Essay

 

  1. Identify and discuss the three main types of insider threats.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following:

  • Malicious insiders
    • Malicious insiders are the least common, but the most costly because they strategically cause data breaches, often with the goal to cause great damages.
  • Exploited
    • Exploited insiders are people who are “tricked” by others into giving up access information or into accessing information themselves and giving the information to an external party.
  • Careless insiders
    • Careless insiders may delete or expose sensitive information by incident either by pressing a wrong key or other mistakes

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Types of Insider Threats

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Explain displeasure with the government and why groups such as Anonymous launch cyberattacks. Why do they launch cyberattacks? Do you agree with the work of such hacktivist groups? Why or why not?

Ans: The answers will vary depending on the student’s analysis. However, a strong answer will note that such groups launch cyberattacks in opposition of certain initiatives, bills, or laws and are often motivated by the defense of freedom, free speech, privacy, individuality, and meritocracy.

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Displeasure With the Government

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Identify and discuss the four tips for protecting private information that were provided by Edward Snowden. Can you think of any others? If so, which ones?

Ans: A strong answer will include the following, with an explanation of each:

  • Encrypt your phone calls and text messages.
  • Encrypt your computer hard drive.
  • Use a password manager to create and store unique password.
  • Use two-factor identification, such as using a password and a fingerprint or other physical device.

Learning Objective: 5-1: Be able to explain local, national, and international threats to cybersecurity.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Specific Causes

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Identify and explain international threats and the three main forms associated with those threats. Are there any recent examples of international threats that fall within the three forms?

Ans: A strong answer will include the following, along with an explanation of the form of threat.

  • nation-states hacking or spying on trade and other secret information—a significant threat to the United States, for example, would be China
  • advanced hackers aiming at large corporations—typically motivated by financial and political goals
  • terrorists looking to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in our infrastructures and to infiltrate military and government systems—cyberterrorism

Learning Objective: 5-3: Discuss threats to cybersecurity by terrorist groups.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: International Threats

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

  1. Explain hackernomics and identify five laws that apply to hackers.

Ans: A strong answer will include the following:

  • Hackernomics is defined as a “social science concerned chiefly with the description and analysis of hacker motivations, economics, and business risk.”
  • The five laws consist of:
    • Hackers are not evil, but rather they attack because they want something.
    • Security is not about security; it is about mitigating the risk of an attack.
    • The greatest damages are not caused by genius hackers but by simple failures.
    • Without proper education and training, people naturally make bad decisions with regard to cybersecurity.
    • Most attackers use weak points to get access.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Distinguish between the different types of hackers.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: The Hacker Community

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

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