Cultural Anthropology A Toolkit for a Global Age 2nd Edition by Kenneth J. Guest – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Human Origins

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the term for the natural history of Earth and the universe, including the span of human existence?
a. evolution c. natural selection
b. multiregional replacement thesis d. deep time

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   5.1 Where do humans fit in the story of life on Earth?        MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What do we call the chemical process that preserves an organism by turning it partially or wholly into rock?
a. sedimentation c. decomposition
b. fossilization d. stratigraphy

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. In order for an organism to become a fossil, it:
a. must be buried in limestone caves.
b. needs to be totally skeletonized by scavengers.
c. has to be buried in oxygen-free sediment.
d. needs to be exposed to erosion.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. While a great many of the fossils of our earliest human ancestors have been found in Africa, why is it problematic to use these fossils to make concrete conclusions about our earliest origins?
a. There is unequal representation of time periods and species in the fossil record.
b. Dating techniques are still too primitive to establish completely accurate results.
c. Rival researchers often draw conflicting conclusions based on their discoveries.
d. Many parts of Africa cannot be easily accessed by paleoanthropologists.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is the term used to describe scientists who study fossil remains of our early human ancestors?
a. paleogeneticists c. paleoanthropologists
b. archaeologists d. historians

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Stratigraphy is a technique of relative dating, and it depends on ________.
a. assumptions that what is deeper is older
b. the extent of site disturbance
c. geographic location of specimens
d. specimen condition

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The chance discovery of the Kennewick man in 1996 opened a window to early human life in North America. This success might not have been possible, however, without researchers making comparisons of the remains to nearby plants, animals, and other parts of the remains to understand the context. This approach to dating is called ________.
a. absolute c. relative
b. stratigraphic d. radiometric

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What kind of dating technique gives a specific date for a fossil?
a. absolute c. relative
b. stratigraphic d. radiometric

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following can be dated using radiocarbon dating methods?
a. stone tools from Olduvai Gorge
b. stone of volcanic origin
c. hair preserved in peat bogs
d. Australopithecus afarensis mitochondrial DNA

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What can the radiopotassium dating technique be applied to?
a. fossilized bone c. organic remains
b. stone of volcanic origin d. bones and teeth

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. Where in the body do we carry our genetic code?
a. cell bodies c. DNA
b. protein chains d. mutagens

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Genetic studies of mtDNA indicate that:
a. all living humans have a common matrilineal ancestor.
b. there is less genetic variation in African populations.
c. early hominids had a very high incidence of disease.
d. there is more genetic variation farther from Africa.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   5.3 How does the theory of evolution explain the diversity of life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. At about what date do DNA studies place the migration of humans out of Africa?
a. 780,000 yBP c. 250,000 yBP
b. 1.2 million yBP d. 100,000 yBP

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.3 How does the theory of evolution explain the diversity of life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Calculations of DNA mutation rates indicate that Native Americans migrated about ________ yBP.
a. 15,000 c. 100,000
b. 30,000 d. 150,000

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What is evolution?
a. Evolution is a change in physical appearance that develops when a species migrates to new climates.
b. Evolution describes how human populations physically change in response to environmental changes and technological advances.
c. Evolution is any type of genetic mutation that appears in a species and can be passed down to the next generation.
d. Evolution describes how biological adaptations in organisms occur as a response to environmental changes, developing over generations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What do we call the Protestant Christian belief that God created the Earth between 6,000 and 10,000 yBP?
a. natural selection c. evolutionary theory
b. creationism d. biblical evolutionary theory

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   5.3 How does the theory of evolution explain the diversity of life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. A recent attempt to undermine evolution tries to avoid religions and instead claims that hard evidence shows life is too complex to be random. What is this theory called?
a. natural selection c. intelligent design
b. founder effect d. the “blueprint of life”

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.3 How does the theory of evolution explain the diversity of life?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Scientists believe that genetic mutations are:
a. always harmful.
b. always more beneficial than previous forms of the standard DNA code.
c. the only source of new genetic material in a population.
d. produced only when there is an environmental toxin.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What environmental agents increase the frequency of mutations?
a. toxic chemicals c. mutagens
b. natural selection d. hereditary factors

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Until the mid-1800s, most peppered moths in Great Britain were white, while a few were dark. Why did these groups switch during the Industrial Revolution, when most of the peppered moth population evolved to have the darker coloration?
a. Pollutants covered the moths and made them appear darker.
b. Some moths were able to turn black and pass the color to their offspring.
c. The pollution created mutagens that caused a widespread mutation for darker coloration.
d. Dark moths were selected because their color was an advantage in the new environment.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The sickle cell gene is found in high frequency in certain African countries along the equator because:
a. the mutation increases the body’s ability to regulate heat.
b. the gene increases the body’s ability to carry oxygen.
c. the gene provides certain advantages in that environment.
d. it provides protection against the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Genetic drift is significant in evolution because it can:
a. provide a nonrandom change in the gene pool.
b. have a large effect in a large population.
c. make an isolated group genetically distinct.
d. act as an accumulation of mutations.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Gene flow is the:
a. production of new genes.
b. random loss of genes in a population.
c. process that signals differential reproduction success.
d. movement of genes between populations.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What significant fossil discoveries have emerged from the site at Middle Awash River valley in Ethiopia?
a. fossils of both archaic and modern human ancestors
b. Neandertals
c. a primitive species dubbed “the Hobbit”
d. the skeletal remains of the Turkana Boy

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. When a small part of a population with a unique phenotypical characteristic migrates to a new location and begins to reproduce separately as a new, distinct group, what is this process called?
a. gene flow c. gene migration
b. founder effect d. genetic mutation

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is a list of our human ancestors in chronological order (as we now understand them), from oldest to youngest?
a. Australopithecus afarensis, Ardipithecus ramidus, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens
b. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens
c. Homo sapiens, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus afarensis, Ardipithecus ramidus
d. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus afarensis, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo sapiens

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Evaluating

 

  1. What do the discoveries in the Awash River valley suggest about the environment where bipedalism appeared in early hominids?
a. Early hominids lived exclusively on the African savanna.
b. Early hominids lived exclusively in wooded regions.
c. Early hominids lived only in wooded regions along lakes.
d. Early hominids may have lived in wooded regions along lakes, as well as on the savanna.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. The term Oldowan refers to:
a. the earliest stone tools found in Africa.
b. archaic humans from Olduvai Gorge.
c. early stone tools developed by Neandertals.
d. early stone tools developed by modern Homo sapiens.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following was a contemporary hominid with Australopithecus, but had significantly increased cranial capacity?
a. Homo erectus c. Australopithecus anamensis
b. Homo habilis d. Ardipithecus ramidus

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What makes the Acheulian stone tools associated with Homo erectus different than those made by earlier hominids?
a. The stone used was stronger.
b. Acheulian tools all had decorative markings.
c. These tools were of a greater variety and accomplished a wider range of tasks.
d. These tools were used in the act of war.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Among which species of early hominids do we begin to note the increasing role of culture, complex social structures, increased brain size, and complex mental activities?
a. Australopithecus c. Homo erectus
b. Homo habilis d. Homo sapiens

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Why are we unlikely to find agriculture associated with Neandertal material culture?
a. Agricultural techniques were too sophisticated for Neandertals.
b. Agriculture developed well after the disappearance of Neandertals.
c. Neandertals did not possess the ability to make the needed tools.
d. Neandertals lived in a region that could not support agriculture.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. According to the “out of Africa” theory, what led to the disappearance of Neandertals?
a. Modern Homo sapiens evolved first in Africa and then migrated to other areas, eventually replacing and assimilating with Neandertals.
b. Neandertals were unable to interbreed with Homo erectus after migrating out of Africa.
c. Modern Homo sapiens directly evolved from Neandertals once the Neandertals left Africa.
d. Modern Homo sapiens displaced Homo erectus in Africa, who in turn displaced Neandertals in Europe.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is one of the unintended side effects of the Lascaux cave paintings discovery?
a. Media interest in the caves has overshadowed the earlier art found in Africa.
b. The caves reveal clear evidence of early hominid cannibalism.
c. The spectacular artwork has confirmed the innate mental superiority of Homo erectus.
d. The discovery that the art was actually created by Neandertals.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. When did modern Homo sapiens first enter Australia?
a. 400,000 yBP c. 24,000 yBP
b. 40,000 yBP d. 14,000 yBP

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. What is one possible explanation offered by some scholars to explain the “Hobbit” of Flores Island, Indonesia?
a. The island climate evolved a unique species of human in a very short period of time.
b. This is a case of mixed-species breeding.
c. The “Hobbit” is actually not a human fossil at all.
d. This is a case of microcephaly.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Around 15,000 yBP, where had modern Homo sapiens migrated to from Asia?
a. Europe c. Australia
b. North and South America d. Indonesia

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Genetic adaptation is distinct because it:
a. only occurs at the population level.
b. only occurs at the individual level.
c. is cumulative.
d. only applies to changes in skin color in populations as they moved away from the equator.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Although DNA provides a blueprint for an individual’s growth, other environmental factors such as nutrition and disease can impact the human life cycle. This describes what kind of adaptation?
a. genetic c. acclimatized
b. developmental d. cultural

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The individual most likely to demonstrate a developmental adaptation is someone who
a. has spent his or her adult life in a high-altitude environment.
b. has temporarily moved to a high-altitude environment as an adult, but returns to low altitude for a short time.
c. has grown up in a high-altitude environment.
d. was born in a low-altitude environment, but whose parents grew up in a high-altitude environment.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Applying

 

  1. The term acclimatization refers to:
a. the ability to make temporary physiological changes in response to the environment.
b. the sum of all genetic changes seen in a population.
c. any permanent changes seen in the human body in response to the immediate environment.
d. the inability to adapt to the environment.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The complex innovations that allow humans to more effectively respond to the surrounding environment are called ________ adaptations.
a. developmental c. genetic
b. physiological d. cultural

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. The role of ultraviolet light is significant in human evolution  because:
a. too little of this light can lead to overproduction of Vitamin D.
b. too much of this light can destroy folic acid, needed for healthy fetal development.
c. too much of this light can lead to cancer in old age.
d. too much of this light can impede the ability of the body to use vitamin C.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   5.7 Where did variations in human skin color come from?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following absorbs ultraviolet radiation as a natural sunscreen?
a. melanocyctes c. folic acid
b. melanin d. vitamin D

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   5.7 Where did variations in human skin color come from?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why are dark-skinned people found in equatorial regions?
a. Dark skin protects against heat.
b. Those populations are the oldest evolved groups.
c. Dark skin is a genetic adaptation to ultraviolet radiation.
d. Dark skin confers resistance to malaria.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.7 Where did variations in human skin color come from?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is one type of cultural adaptation to ultraviolet radiation?
a. vitamin D fortified milk c. sweating
b. tanning d. increased heart rate

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.7 Where did variations in human skin color come from?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Anthropologists have observed that chimpanzees can use stone tools to crack nuts, and that they teach this useful skill to their offspring. This is significant because chimpanzees:
a. are actively evolving.
b. are capable of social learning.
c. are not very intelligent primates.
d. may evolve to pose a threat to human life.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.8 Are we still evolving?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. If the replacement theory is correct, then what should we expect to find out about early hominids?
a. Both archaic and modern humans should overlap in time in most locations.
b. Individuals within a population would have certain characteristics that would enable them to survive.
c. There would be high genetic variation farther away from Africa.
d. Archaic and modern humans should not overlap in time in any locations.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. According to the text, because of changes in the environment due to global warming, human beings will:
a. undergo cultural adaptions, but not genetic ones.
b. encounter many mutagens created by global warming.
c. undergo many adaptions, including genetic ones.
d. become extinct.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.8 Are we still evolving?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What do we call a group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring?
a. founding population c. species
b. subspecies d. kinship group

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Why did modern Homo sapiens settle in the Pacific Islands approximately 40,000 yBP?
a. There was stress on food resources in Africa.
b. A sudden increase in social organization made this possible.
c. Uncontrolled population growth in Africa put pressure on early humans.
d. The climate cooled and sea levels lowered, providing more land.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following emphasizes the deep underlying connection among all humans today?
a. gene flow between populations
b. differing amounts of melanin between populations
c. acclimatization in various environments
d. differing cultural adaptations between populations

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What is significant about the fetal origins hypothesis?
a. Prenatal stress has a dramatic impact on health.
b. Prenatal health is determined by paternal health.
c. All early human evolution can be understood through the analysis of the fetus.
d. Prenatal gene structures evolved from very primitive hominids.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. People from the high-altitude highlands of South America develop larger lung capacity in order to process more oxygen. Why does this same lung capacity not reverse if these individuals move to a lower altitude?
a. Altitude acclimatization is permanent.
b. Advantageous phenotypic traits are genetically determined.
c. This trait is a variation that results from only genetic factors.
d. This is a permanent developmental adaptation.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Understanding

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Explain the process of fossilization. Include some of the critical factors necessary for fossilization of an organism to be successful. Why are fossils rare?

 

ANS:

Students should be able to detail how fossilization must occur in an oxygen-free environment, usually covered by sediment or volcanic ash with perfect environmental conditions for preservation. Fossils are rare because soft tissues such as skin or internal organs usually decay too rapidly to be fossilized, and bones must be protected from scavengers. Moreover, not all areas and periods experience the kind of geologic activity best suited for creating and preserving fossils.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Describe the influence of biblical teachings on theories about the origins of life. Using examples to make your points, explain how evolutionary theory and religion became a lightning rod for the battle over the teaching of evolution in the education system.

 

ANS:

Students should be able to explain the theories of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design. The importance of the Scopes trial and Kitzmiller case as it relates to teaching evolution in schools should reflect how the scientific theories and educational systems battled in court over this issue.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.3 How does the theory of evolution explain the diversity of life?

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Without gene mutations there would be no evolution. Explain why this is the case.

 

ANS:

Mutations do not make any difference in the evolution of human populations or their health unless they provide some kind of advantage for survival or reproduction that can be extended to the group through the reproduction process. Mutations are the only source of new genetic material in a population that we are aware of. Mutagens, which are the elements that increase the frequency and sometimes the extent of mutations, are increasingly thought to be the result of environmental toxins and are thus human-generated.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?         MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Explain how the principle of natural selection has been a contributor to the theory of evolution. Discuss examples where natural selection has occurred in a population.

 

ANS:

Certain individuals have characteristics that enable them to survive and reproduce at a higher rate. This reproductive success is a marker of evolutionary “fitness” in a particular environment. These individuals have a genetic advantage and this usually means that their genes will be increasingly prevalent in the population as a whole. Peppered moths are a possible example.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?         MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Discuss the case of the peppered moth in England. Why did this species change its outward appearance in a short period of time? What does this suggest about evolution?

 

ANS:

The moth changed its appearance due to the changes in its environment. In this case, the environmental changes were seemingly caused by human activity directly, in spite of the fact that moths and humans have little in common and do not pose a direct threat to one another as a result of survival needs or resources. This suggests that environmental factors can act on genetic variation in a short period of time, and that such factors are not simply the result of natural changes, but may be induced by human activity with significant consequences.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?         MSC:  Applying

 

  1. What are the differences between absolute dating techniques and relative dating techniques?

 

ANS:

Relative dating techniques are based on context, usually geological. This means that specimens and samples that are physically removed from their original setting may be more challenging to date with high accuracy. Absolute dating methods use radiocarbon or radiopotassium to measure the date. Radiocarbon is based on the decay of carbon, tracking the half life. This method can be used on organic materials and on bone and dental samples. Radiopotassium measures the amount of argon in volcanic rock. This method is useful in dating nonorganic remains such as stone tools.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.2 How do scientists learn about prehistoric life?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. What are the five categories in which paleoanthropologists have grouped our immediate ancestors? Briefly define each.

 

ANS:

Pre-Australopithecines lived between 7 million and 4 million years ago (mya); Australopithecines lived between 4 mya and 1 mya; Homo habilis lived between 2.5 mya and 1.8 mya; Homo erectus lived between 1.8 mya and 300,000 yBP; and Homo sapiens first appeared about 350,000 yBP. Differences among these groups include cranial size, height, geographical distribution, and diet.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Discuss the current thinking regarding the fate of the Neandertals.

 

ANS:

Neandertals have been a source of puzzlement and confusion in paleoanthropology. At present, it is theorized that archaic Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa, possibly as a result of a lost resource “war” to modern Homo sapiens. In this “out of Africa” scenario, these migratory H. sapiens would have encountered an already well-developed Neandertal population, one which buried its dead, made elaborate tools, hunted in an organized manner, and so forth. These populations were gradually assimilated into the more modern populations of H. sapiens, contributing a small part of their own existing gene pool.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Analyzing

 

  1. Describe the four types of adaptation that have contributed to human survivability.

 

ANS:

Genetic adaptation arises from mutation and natural selection. This is a core part of evolutionary processes, and occurs as a result of natural selection. Developmental adaptation occurs as the organism develops within the environment and is permanent. The fetal origin hypothesis is one example of the importance of developmental adaptation. Acclimatization occurs in a developed organism in response to the environment, and is not permanent. Altitude is one example of this particular adaptation. Cultural adaptation results from behavior and technology activities in the organism. Lighting a fire to keep warm and using an oxygen tank at higher altitudes are examples of this type of adaptation. Each of these is a contributor to human survival, and some of these are being impacted by human activity.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Remembering

 

  1. Describe the relationship between solar radiation, vitamin D, and skin color as examples of adaptation and natural selection.

 

ANS:

Skin color follows a geographic pattern. Natural selection has favored dark skin at the equator. This is due to the fact that excessive levels of ultraviolet light can destroy the body’s supply of folic acid, which is essential in order to promote a healthy fetus. At the same time, Vitamin D is produced in the skin by ultraviolet radiation and is needed to protect individuals from rickets. This is a complex example of the interplay of environment and evolution, and also figures into a significant part of social stress when this adaptation is configured as race.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.7 Where did variations in human skin color come from?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Discuss sickle cell anemia as an example of natural selection at work in the human population.

 

ANS:

The sickle cell gene is predominant in areas of Africa with high rates of malaria. Groups in regions of endemic malaria had higher survival rates for malaria infection if they carried the sickle cell. Otherwise, the gene has no reproductive advantage and under other conditions might well have been selected out of the gene pool. This is an example of selective advantage.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?         MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. How does marriage interact with human evolution and gene flow?

 

ANS:

Marriage means that two individuals producing offspring are pooling their genes, leading to changes in gene flow. Gene flow in a population affects genetic diversity. It can lead to increased genetic diversity in a particular population and decreased genetic diversity between groups of different populations. Today, globalization is having a significant impact on gene flow.

 

DIF:    Moderate        OBJ:   5.4 How does evolution work?         MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Discuss the reasons why the appearance of Homo erectus signaled a major change in the evolution of humans.

 

ANS:

Homo erectus was likely the first species of Homo to migrate out of Africa. A hallmark of this species is the increased use of cultural adaptations to facilitate migration and survival. More sophisticated tool development allowed better hunting, which helped expand the available resource base. This has led to the theory that H. erectus may have developed speech as a pattern of communication. Complex social structures are likely needed to make this kind of activity happen. The use of fire almost certainly helped expand the “reach” of this early human species.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Identify where Neandertals are located in the human evolutionary chain and how they are similar physically to modern Homo sapiens. What was the fate of Neandertals?

 

ANS:

Neandertals are classified as a later variety of archaic Homo sapiens dating from 350,000 to 28,000 yBP. The Neandertals had similar brain size, were physically active, and were able to survive in extreme environments. They buried their dead and made sophisticated tools. The extraction of DNA from a Neandertal fossil suggests that they would have been able to speak due to an identical version of the FOXP2 gene. Neandertals were ultimately assimilated into modern Homo species during periods of migration.

 

DIF:    Difficult         OBJ:   5.5 What do we know about our human ancestors?

MSC:  Understanding

 

  1. Discuss the impact of Jane Goodall’s work with chimpanzees on current evolutionary thinking. How do chimpanzees serve as a useful window into early hominid behavior?

 

ANS:

Goodall worked and lived among chimpanzees for more than 50 years. She observed them as social creatures, and capable of toolmaking. Tools included termite “fishing” sticks and stones in the crushing of nuts. Subsequent work has revealed that chimpanzees also use sharp sticks to kill other mammals for food. All of this provides us with a way to look at nonhuman behavior and theorize on the nature of early hominid activity. Genetically, humans and chimpanzees are very closely related.

 

DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   5.6 What has made modern humans so successful at survival?

MSC:  Analyzing

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