Criminal Courts A Contemporary Perspective 3rd Edition By Hemmens – Test Bank


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Chapter 5

Exam Questions


Multiple Choice Questions:


  1. Which of the following is not a significant aspect of problem-solving courts?
  2. A focus on addressing offenders’ underlying problems
  3. Judicial supervision of offenders

*c. A focus on punishing offenders

  1. Sanctions for noncompliance


  1. In what decade did problem-solving courts really begin to become popular?
  2. 1930s
  3. 1950s
  4. 1970s

*d. 1990s


  1. Traditional courts focus on case processing. What do problem-solving courts focus on?
  2. Case management

*b. Case outcomes

  1. Case closure
  2. Case processing


  1. All of the following are true of specialized courts except…
  2. They focus on certain crime problems
  3. They are similar in some ways to traffic courts

*c. They have no effect on prison populations

  1. They were, in part, a result of a shift in public perceptions and priorities.


  1. Which of the following pieces of legislation provided a major boost, both in publicity and financially, to problem-solving courts nationwide?
  2. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988
  3. The Crime Control Act of 1990

*c. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994

  1. The Juvenile Crime Control Act of 1997


  1. Which of the following is not one of the six principles for problem-solving courts identified by the Center for Court Innovation?
  2. Community engagement

*b. Judicial leadership

  1. Need for enhanced information
  2. Importance of case outcomes


  1. Which of the following is not one of the six principles for problem-solving courts identified by the Center for Court Innovation?

*a. Parental involvement

  1. Focus on individualized justice
  2. Emphasis on accountability
  3. Collaboration between professionals


  1. Restorative justice focuses on which of the following pair of concepts?
  2. Victim and harm

*b. Harm and repair

  1. Offender and punishment
  2. Offender and restitution


  1. Which of the following is not an example of restorative justice in practice?
  2. Victim–offender mediation
  3. Sentencing circles
  4. Family conferencing

*d. Judicial supervision of probation


  1. Research has shown that restorative justice works best in which kind of communities?

*a. Tight-knit rural communities

  1. Tight-knit suburban communities
  2. Tight-knit inner-city communities
  3. Small, exclusive upper-class communities


  1. Which of the following principles is embraced by many problem-solving courts?

*a. restorative justice

  1. deterrence
  2. incapacitation
  3. crime prevention


  1. Which of the following did not lead to the increase in the popularity of drug courts?
  2. The increasing number of drug offenders
  3. Mounting evidence linking drugs and crime
  4. The growing efficacy of drug treatment programs

*d. The appearance of a link between drugs and child abuse


  1. Which of the following is not a typical component of drug treatment courts?
  2. Mandatory drug treatment

*b. Mandatory community service

  1. Broad rehabilitation programs
  2. Judicial supervision of offenders


  1. Which of the following is true of drug treatment courts?
  2. They are less formal than traditional courts
  3. They are nonadversarial
  4. They generally exclude violent offenders

*d. All of these are true of drug treatment courts


  1. Which problem-solving court focuses on enhancing victim safety?

*a. Domestic violence courts

  1. Drug treatment courts
  2. Reentry courts
  3. Mental health courts


  1. Which of the following is the most popular type of problem-solving court in the United States?

*a. Drug courts

  1. Domestic violence courts
  2. Mental health courts
  3. Community courts


  1. Which of the following did not lead to the increase in popularity of domestic violence courts?
  2. Policy changes leading to higher arrest rates for domestic violence

*b. Proliferation of feminism in the 1990s

  1. Changes in attitudes toward domestic violence
  2. Increasing dissatisfaction with the responses to domestic violence


  1. Which of the following pieces of legislation provided a major boost, both in publicity and financially, to domestic violence courts?
  2. The Protection Against Domestic Violence Act of 1990
  3. The International Violence Against Women Act of 1992

*c. The Violence Against Women Act of 1994

  1. The Federal Violence Control Act of 1999


  1. Domestic violence courts focus almost entirely on _____.
  2. Rehabilitation of offenders
  3. Mediation between offenders and victims
  4. Restitution for victims

*d. The safety of the victims


  1. As domestic violence courts grew in popularity, the number of arrests for domestic violence _____.

*a. Increased

  1. Decreased slightly
  2. Decreased greatly
  3. Remained the same


  1. Community courts are typically located _____.
  2. In business districts

*b. In residential areas

  1. Inside local courthouses
  2. Adjacent to local police stations


  1. Which specialized court focuses not on adjudication of new offenses but on helping offenders integrate back into the community upon release?
  2. Drug courts
  3. Community courts

*c. Reentry courts

  1. Juvenile courts


  1. What is the primary goal of juvenile courts?
  2. Reducing overall crime rates
  3. Keeping juvenile delinquents off drugs

*c. Transforming juvenile delinquents into productive citizens

  1. Processing serious juvenile offenders as adults


  1. According to the Supreme Court (Kent v. United States), what criteria are to be considered by the courts when making a waiver decision?
  2. The seriousness of the alleged offense
  3. The record and previous history of the juvenile
  4. Whether the alleged offense involved violence

*d. All of these criteria are considered



  1. Problem-solving courts are designed to address the core problems of offenders.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. The movement to establish problem-solving courts also was affected by passage of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Even though the process of restorative justice is different from more traditional punishment, the outcomes are often quite similar.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Restorative justice has been found to be both effective and surprisingly easy to implement and use.
  2. True

*b. False


  1. Unlike other problem-solving courts, drug courts tend to take a more adversarial approach.
  2. True

*b. False


  1. Drug courts are explicitly nonadversarial.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Mounting evidence suggests that drug courts reduce offender recidivism and prevent drug relapse.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. There is relatively little research evaluating domestic violence courts.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Domestic violence courts became so popular that they spread to other nations including Canada, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Australia.
  2. True

*b. False


  1. The focus of domestic violence courts differs significantly from that of other problem-solving courts.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Domestic violence victims whose cases were handled through specialized courts are generally satisfied with their experiences.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. Community courts tend to deal mainly with relatively minor criminal offenses.

*a. True

  1. False


  1. A common sentence of those convicted in homeless courts is a small fine.
  2. True

*b. False


  1. Every state allows juveniles to be tried as adults under certain circumstances.
  2. True

*b. False


  1. Juvenile court proceedings are not open to the public.

*a. True

  1. False


Type: E

  1. Drug courts, domestic violence courts, and mental health courts are all known collectively as _____.
  2. Problem-solving courts OR specialized courts


  1. Restorative justice focuses on two things: harm and _____.
  2. Repair


  1. The most popular type of problem-solving court in the United States is _____.
  2. Drug courts


  1. The typical sentence for offenders convicted in a community court is _____.
  2. Community service


  1. Transfer of a juvenile to criminal court is known as a .
  2. Waiver


  1. What is the term under which the juvenile court operates which gives the court authority of juveniles?
  2. Parens patriae


  1. The first juvenile court was established in which state?
  2. Illinois


  1. Which movement of the late 19th century advocated state intervention to save at-risk children who were not being adequately controlled or supervised by their parents?
  2. Child-saving movement or child savers


  1. What are the six principles of problem-solving justice?
  2. Enhanced information, community engagement, collaboration, individualized justice, accountability, and a focus on outcomes rather than case processing


  1. The Act prompted a number of jurisdictions to establish domestic violence courts.
  2. Violence Against Women


  1. Specialized courts are -jurisdiction courts that focus on certain crime problems.
  2. limited


  1. Which two types of problem-solving courts have spread most rapidly and have generated the most research?
  2. Drug treatment courts and domestic violence courts


Type: E

  1. What is a juvenile waiver? What are the criteria used in making a waiver decision?
  2. A juvenile waiver is a transfer of a juvenile accused of a crime from juvenile court to criminal court. The criteria considered by the court in deciding whether or not to transfer a juvenile to adult court include: the seriousness of the alleged offense and whether protection of the community requires waiver; whether the alleged offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner; whether the alleged offense was against persons or against property; whether there is evidence upon which a grand jury may be expected to return an indictment; the desirability of trial and disposition of the entire offense in one court when the juvenile’s associates are adults who will be charged with a crime in criminal court; the sophistication and maturity of the juvenile as determined by consideration of his or her home, environmental situation, emotional attitude, and pattern of living; the record and previous history of the juvenile; and the prospects for adequate protection of the public and the likelihood of reasonable rehabilitation of the juvenile by the use of procedures, services, and facilities currently available to the juvenile court.


  1. What are problem-solving courts? What led to their creation? How are they different from traditional courts?
  2. Problem-solving courts are limited-jurisdiction courts that focus on certain crime problems such as drugs, domestic violence, and offenders with mental health problems. Problem-solving courts originated with the changes in policing sparked by problem-oriented policing. Other developments that encouraged the development of problem-solving courts included: breakdowns among families and churches; large increases in the nation’s prison population and the resulting prison overcrowding; trends emphasizing the accountability of public institutions; advances in the availability and reliability of therapeutic interventions; and a shift in public policies and priorities. Six “principles of problem-solving justice make these court different from traditional courts. These principles include: enhanced information; community engagement; collaboration; individualized justice; accountability; and outcomes.


  1. Explain the primary differences between juvenile and adult courts and the reasons for these differences.
  2. There are important differences between the adult court system and the juvenile court system. These differences reflect the doctrines of parens patriae and in loco parentis; together, these doctrines ensure that the juvenile court, like other problem-solving courts, will emphasize rehabilitation, rather than punishment, of the youth. Similar to drug treatment courts, the focus of the juvenile court is on solving the underlying problems responsible for the youth’s criminal behavior.

Perhaps the most important difference between the two types of court systems is that juvenile court hearings are considered quasi-civil, rather than criminal, proceedings. Whereas adults found guilty are convicted of a crime, juveniles are adjudicated delinquent. Juvenile court proceedings also are less formal than those found in criminal courts: The judge may or may not wear judicial robes and may or may not be seated on a raised bench, and there is more direct interaction between the judge and the juvenile. Another important difference is that juvenile court proceedings, unlike criminal court hearings, are not open to the public, and law enforcement and court personnel are prohibited from releasing the names of juveniles to the media. Finally, with very few exceptions, there is no right to a jury trial in juvenile court. The primary reason for these differences is the difference in the purpose of both courts. Juvenile court’s purpose is focused on rehabilitation of juvenile offenders, not punishment as demonstrated in the adult court system. Additionally, juvenile court hearings are quasi-civil which result in much more informal proceedings than adult criminal cases.

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