CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR BUYING, HAVING, AND BEING, SEVENTH CANADIAN ED by MICHAEL G – Test Bank

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Consumer Behaviour, 7e (Solomon)

Chapter 5   The Self

 

1) The concept of self is:

  1. A) uniform in almost all cultures.
  2. B) a relatively new concept.
  3. C) a perception of other people.
  4. D) an idea that is untestable.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 120

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

2) ________ refers to the anxiety individuals feel when they fear they might behave in a way that confirms a group stereotype.

  1. A) Uncertainty avoidance
  2. B) Stereotype threat
  3. C) Confirmation anxiety
  4. D) Self-concept threat

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

3) When Jennifer goes to the mechanic to get her car fixed she feels anxious and apprehensive that she will confirm the stereotype that women don’t understand car engines. This demonstrates:

  1. A) uncertainty avoidance.
  2. B) stereotype threat.
  3. C) confirmation anxiety.
  4. D) self-concept threat.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

4) When Allan signs up for a sewing class he feels anxious and apprehensive that he will confirm the stereotype that men are not good at sewing. This demonstrates:

  1. A) self-construal.
  2. B) confirmation anxiety.
  3. C) self-concept threat.
  4. D) stereotype threat.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

5) James has a positive attitude toward himself.  It could be said that he has a high:

  1. A) behavioural anchor referent.
  2. B) self-esteem.
  3. C) ideal self.
  4. D) self-monitoring system.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

6) Attributes of self-concept can be described along several dimensions. If Rudi Gonzalez sees himself as someone with a handsome face rather than a person who is intellectual, which of the following self-concept dimensions is being exhibited here?

  1. A) content
  2. B) positivity
  3. C) stability over time
  4. D) negativity

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

7) Western culture tends to subscribe to an ________ interpretation of the self, whereas non-Western cultures tend to focus on an ________ interpretation of the self.

  1. A) independent; interdependent
  2. B) interdependent; independent
  3. C) external; internal
  4. D) internal; external

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 120

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

8) One of the dimensions of self-concept looks at such elements of factional attractiveness versus mental aptitude.  This is reflective of the ________ dimension.

  1. A) stability over time
  2. B) intensity
  3. C) positivity or negativity
  4. D) content

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

 

9) The self-concept refers to all of the products that make up the individual’s sense of self.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

10) When Emily goes to the mechanic to get her car fixed, she feels anxious and apprehensive that she will confirm the stereotype that women don’t know alot about cars. Describe and explain the concept that this is an example of.

Answer:  This is an example of stereotype threat. Stereotype threat refers to the anxiety the consumers feel when they fear they might act in a way that confirms the group stereotype; for example, the stereotype that women are not as good as men at math. Stereotype threat actually leads women to perform worse on math-related tests and makes them less inclined to pursue careers that have a strong math component.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 121

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

11) What is the self-concept? How do Eastern and Western cultures differ in the ways in which they view the self?

Answer:  The self-concept refers to the attitude a person holds toward him or herself.

Both Eastern and Western cultures see the self as divided into an inner, private self and an outer, public self. But where these conceptions of self differ is in terms of which part is seen as the “real you”: Western culture tends to subscribe to an independent interpretation of the self, which emphasizes the inherent separateness of each individual; non-Western cultures, in contrast, tend to focus on an interdependent self, where a person’s identity is largely defined by the relationships he or she has with others.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 120-121

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-01 Understand that the self-concept strongly influences consumer behaviour.

 

12) Travel commercials depict happy, attractive families enjoying a carefree vacation. Marketers hope that this will trigger a process of:

  1. A) impression management.
  2. B) social comparison.
  3. C) role identification.
  4. D) symbolic interactionism.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

13) Louise, a part-time waitress, asks her mother what she should wear for her job interviews upon graduating from university.  Her mother suggested she dress for the job she wants, not the job she has.  This is an example of:

  1. A) real self.
  2. B) ideal self.
  3. C) imbibing idiot bias.
  4. D) impression management.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

14) What people feel they would like to be, is called their:

  1. A) ideal self.
  2. B) denied self.
  3. C) actual self.
  4. D) reflected self.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

15) If a female consumer sees an ad about a woman who can no longer fit in her old bathing suit, the consumer might think about her own situation and make a personal pledge to lose some weight before summer arrives. This would be an example of marketing communications that attempt to influence a consumer’s level of:

  1. A) doubt and regret.
  2. B) dedication and control.
  3. C) strength and conviction.
  4. D) self-esteem.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

16) Amber likes to think of herself as being a smart shopper, but she admits that she cannot compare to her mother whom she calls a “champion shopper.” Amber has separated her ________ self from her ________ self.

  1. A) ideal; actual
  2. B) social; actual
  3. C) actual; looking-glass
  4. D) inner; outer

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

17) One study of young male beer drinkers found a segment that was characterized as “losers.” These were men who worked hard but had little chance of promotion, and although they enjoyed life, thought that they were never going to get ahead. Beer ads made to this segment had a very high fantasy appeal. What relationship between the concepts of self in this segment was being assumed by the marketers?

  1. A) This segment had a strong looking-glass self.
  2. B) This segment had a large gap between their actual and ideal selves.
  3. C) This segment had low self-esteem.
  4. D) This segment had a culturally defined inner self that was much different from their public self.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

18) Mary Jane is a very conservative businesswoman by day. However, when she decides to “go out on the town” she likes to party and “kick up her heels.” This would be an example of the fact that many consumers:

  1. A) are not confident with their real selves.
  2. B) prefer their ideal self.
  3. C) have secret identities.
  4. D) have multiple selves.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

19) Placing coolers of Powerade drinks and energy bars in high-traffic areas of fitness centres indicates that marketers are most likely trying to ensure that appropriate ________ are active.

  1. A) competitive products
  2. B) role identities
  3. C) paired stimuli
  4. D) profit centres

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

20) Grace Norris is a 50-year-old housewife who recently selected Chrysler’s PT Cruiser as her new car. To some extent, she selected the car because it is practical and has ample storage space for groceries and other items she gets on her many shopping trips. On the other hand, she also confesses that she selected the car because of its “bad boy” image. “It looks like a gangster car from the 1930s,” said Grace. “It says ‘don’t mess with me,'” she tells her friends. Grace is exhibiting ________ in her selection of a car.

  1. A) gestaltism
  2. B) symbolic consumerism
  3. C) symbolic interactionism
  4. D) compensation of weaknesses

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

21) By acting the way we assume others expect us to act, we often wind up making these perceptions really happen, in a form of:

  1. A) the social coercion syndrome.
  2. B) auto-suggestion.
  3. C) social concession.
  4. D) self-fulfilling prophecy.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

22) The “looking-glass self” is but one of many “selves” defining who we are. It is the:

  1. A) ideal self we wish we were as we look at ourselves in the mirror.
  2. B) self we imagine others see when reacting to us.
  3. C) self we visualize we will be in our older years.
  4. D) self we see reflecting what our parents were.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

23) Consumers who score high on a scale of public self-consciousness:

  1. A) are interested in clothing and are heavy users of cosmetics.
  2. B) are usually older than average, mostly 50 and over.
  3. C) are unconcerned about what others say about them in private, behind their backs.
  4. D) go to great lengths to avoid appearing in public.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

24) A statement such as “I would probably make a good actor” would most likely come from a person who is:

  1. A) high in self-monitoring abilities.
  2. B) dishonest and untruthful.
  3. C) never to be trusted.
  4. D) low in self-esteem.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

25) When shopping, Denise chooses clothing and other products that will allow her to present herself in a positive light to others. Denise is a person that engages in the practice of:

  1. A) grandstanding.
  2. B) impression management.
  3. C) reactance avoidance.
  4. D) instrumental conditioning.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

26) When Matthew assumes the virtual identity of Vlad the Conqueror and is able to see himself in a video game as an armoured attack robot, his visual character appears as a(n):

  1. A) avatar.
  2. B) subliminal fantasy.
  3. C) symbolic fantasy.
  4. D) virtual representative.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

27) Research shows that those who have a low sense of collective self-esteem about their gender identity:

  1. A) berate members of the opposite gender.
  2. B) are less susceptible to stereotype threat.
  3. C) are more likely to choose gender-related products when they learn negative information about their gender identity.
  4. D) are less likely to choose gender-related products.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

28) While one may evaluate one’s self positively overall, certain parts or “sides” of the self may be evaluated more positively than others.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

29) To target consumers with high self-esteem, a food manufacturer should consider releasing portion-controlled snack items since people with high self-esteem feel they are in control over what they eat.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

30) People with low self-esteem take more risks than others. Since they don’t expect to succeed, they feel they don’t have much to lose.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

31) A person’s conception of an “ideal self” is molded in part by seeing people in ads who seem successful or attractive.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

32) Dave has a large discrepancy between his ideal self and actual self. It would be unwise for marketers to target people like Dave using fantasy appeals, since what is shown in such ads is way out of reach of what they believe they can do.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

33) Symbolic interactionism stresses that people are influenced by the interpretations of meaning shared by others in a symbolic environment.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

34) Self-consciousness with consumers may vary from situation to situation.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

35) Al was considered a low self-monitor, so when he purchased running shoes he was not concerned with the impressions they made on others.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

36) How can marketing play a role in determining self-esteem?

Answer:  Exposure to ads can trigger social comparison where the person will evaluate his or her self to the media image. This can affect their self-esteem level and may persuade them to buy the product if they believe it will satisfy their self-esteem needs.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

37) What is self-esteem? How do persons low or high in self-esteem differ?

Answer:  Self-esteem refers to the positivity of your attitude toward yourself. People with low self-esteem do not expect that they will perform very well, and they will try to avoid embarrassment, failure, or rejection. In contrast, people with high self-esteem expect to be successful, will take more risks, and are more willing to be the centre of attention. Self-esteem is often related to acceptance by others. As you probably remember from your own experience, high school students who hang out in high-status “crowds” seem to have higher self-esteem than their classmates.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

38) By day Jason is a busy executive, at home he is a caring father, and on the weekends he is a competitive race-car driver. Using concepts from the textbook, how would you explain these very different manifestations of the self?

Answer:  This is an example of “multiple selves.” In a way, each consumer is really a number of different people. We have as many selves as we have different social roles. Depending on the situation, we act differently, use different products and services, and even vary in terms of how much we like ourselves. A person may require a different set of products to play a number of desired roles. One may choose to consume beer with close friends but opt for a sophisticated Chardonnay when in the company of business associates. Each of us plays many roles, and each role has its own script, props, and costumes.

 

The self can be thought of as having different components or role identities, and only some of these are active at any given time. Some identities (husband, boss, or student) are more central to the self than others, but other identities (stamp collector, dancer, or advocate for the homeless) may be dominant in specific situations.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 122-123

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

39) A professor came to class dressed in a formal shirt and tie. He stated that he would like to explain the concept of self. He took off his tie and shirt. Underneath he had on a t-shirt with a picture of a handsome tennis player on the front. Then the professor turned around to show a picture of a cartoon clown on the back. “All of these are who I am,” he said. What point was the professor trying to make, and what did the different dress and icons most likely represent?

Answer:  The professor was likely trying to convey the notion of “multiple selves.”

 

In a way, each consumer is really a number of different people. We have as many selves as we have different social roles. Depending on the situation, we act differently, use different products and services, and even vary in terms of how much we like ourselves. A person may require a different set of products to play a number of desired roles. One may choose to consume beer with close friends but opt for a sophisticated Chardonnay when in the company of business associates. Each of us plays many roles, and each role has its own script, props, and costumes.

 

The self can be thought of as having different components or role identities, and only some of these are active at any given time. Some identities (husband, boss, or student) are more central to the self than others, but other identities (stamp collector, dancer, or advocate for the homeless) may be dominant in specific situations.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 122-123

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

40) Explain the concepts of the ideal and actual selves. How do they differ? How can marketers bridge the gaps between these two selves?

Answer:  The ideal self is a person’s conception of how he or she would like to be, while the actual self is our more realistic appraisal of the qualities we do and don’t have. We choose some products because we think they are consistent with our actual self, while we buy others to help us reach an ideal standard.

 

Products may be purchased because they are believed to be instrumental in helping the consumer achieve the goal of approaching the ideal self.

 

Students can point out that marketers can highlight discrepancies between the actual and ideal selves, and offer consumers products that help to close the gap between the selves. For example, if the consumer’s ideal self includes being more beautiful, the marketer can offer a product to help fill this desire.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 122

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

41) Ben is a little nervous about how he will be perceived when he arrives for a job interview. He got his hair cut and wore his most expensive business suit so he would appear more like the person the firm would hire at an executive level. He knows that he “cleans up well” and hopes that will compensate for a weak resume. Explain in terms of symbolic interactionism what Ben is doing.

Answer:  The sociological tradition of symbolic interactionism stresses that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self. This perspective maintains that people exist in a symbolic environment and that the meaning attached to any situation or object is determined by the interpretation of the symbols. As members of society we learn to agree on shared meanings. Thus, we “know” that a red light means stop and that the “golden arches” means fast food.

 

Like other social objects, the meanings of consumers themselves are defined by social consensus. The consumer interprets his or her own identity, and this assessment is continuously evolving as he or she encounters new situations and people. In symbolic interactionist terms, we negotiate these meanings over time. Essentially, the consumer poses the question, “Who am I in this situation?” The answer to this question is greatly influenced by those around us and is really an answer to the question, “Who do other people think I am?”

 

In this example, Ben is attempting to create an image of himself that encourages others to view him in this situation as being competent and qualified for the job.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 123-124

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

42) Discuss what is meant by the looking-glass self. How is this concept relevant in marketing contexts?

Answer:  This process of imagining the reactions of others toward us is known as the looking-glass self. According to this view, a process of reflexive evaluation occurs when an individual attempts to define the self, and it operates as a sort of psychological sonar: We take readings of our own identity by “bouncing” signals off others and trying to project the impression they have of us.

 

This concept is relevant to marketers because consumers, when contemplating the purchase of a product, often imagine the reactions of others. Students could give examples of how marketers could highlight the social value of their product offerings.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 123

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-02 Understand how marketing communications can influence consumer self-esteem.

 

 

43) The phrase “You are what you consume” recognizes that products do more than influence the perceptions of others about who we are. They also:

  1. A) act as protection to enable us to keep others from learning too much about our true self.
  2. B) help us determine our own sense of self as well.
  3. C) hide us from ever really knowing who we are.
  4. D) serve as a substitute for a well-developed self-concept.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 124

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

44) The first-year university student who brings personal items from home, such as his sound system, and puts his favourite posters on his dorm walls, is:

  1. A) making a bid for attention from others.
  2. B) making sure that he becomes “a new person.”
  3. C) trying to break away from his parents’ domination.
  4. D) protecting his identity in a strange environment.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

45) Rachael decorated her college dorm with her stuffed animals, posters of pop stars, and photos of friends and family. The ________ the objects helped her maintain her self-concept.

  1. A) self-completion of
  2. B) constellations of
  3. C) symbolic interaction of
  4. D) attachment to

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

46) Franz is very meticulous in appearance, and prepares his attire carefully before going anywhere as he wants to feel confident. This is an illustration of ________ theory.

  1. A) symbolic self-completion
  2. B) low self-esteem
  3. C) ego representation
  4. D) power exertion

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

 

47) Moving from “you are what you wear” to “you are what you post” shows the emergence of another self; the ________ self.

  1. A) virtual
  2. B) computer
  3. C) fabricated
  4. D) digital

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 128

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

48) Matching product attributes with some aspect a consumer holds to be true of his or her self is consistent with:

  1. A) situation-actualization theory.
  2. B) self-image congruence models.
  3. C) symbolic self-completion theory.
  4. D) self-as-other models.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

49) Brian is a product manager for a product sold to mature customers. His research has consistently told him that his customers do not want to think of themselves as old. According to self-image congruence models, which of the following would be the best slogan for his product?

  1. A) “Isn’t it Time to Act Your Age?”
  2. B) “This is Not Your Children’s Product”
  3. C) “Enjoy Life to its Fullest”
  4. D) “Better for What Ails You”

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

50) Simply put, the ________ includes those objects that we consider to be a part of who we are.

  1. A) external self
  2. B) extended self
  3. C) actual self
  4. D) material self

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

 

51) A Haligonian, whose name is Duke, sees the famous Town Clock as part of his extended self. This is his ________ level of extended self.

  1. A) individual
  2. B) community
  3. C) group
  4. D) national

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

52) The four levels of the extended self are:

  1. A) individual, tribal, family, public.
  2. B) community, family, individual, group.
  3. C) family, private, public, individual.
  4. D) material, ideal, reflected, aspirational.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

53) In terms of the extended self, the level where cars may be included would be:

  1. A) individual.
  2. B) prestige.
  3. C) power.
  4. D) physiological.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

54) In terms of the extended self, the level where homes may be included would be:

  1. A) aspirational.
  2. B) family.
  3. C) occupational.
  4. D) group.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

55) Anna is uncomfortable with her muscular physique she developed as a competitive swimmer. She is constantly buying ribbons for her hair, flower print dresses, and delicate shoes.  Anna is experiencing:

  1. A) an extended self.
  2. B) cognitive matching.
  3. C) a self-esteem crisis.
  4. D) compensatory consumption.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

56) Alex is constantly seen in his leather jacket. It is how his friends find him in a crowd. He worked extra hours cutting grass one entire summer as a teen to earn enough for that jacket. Even though it is beat up and out of style, he invested far too much ________ in it to let it go.

  1. A) self-completion
  2. B) money
  3. C) compensatory consumption
  4. D) psychic energy

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

57) Using products as a “social crutch” is explained by the symbolic self-completion theory.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

58) The tendency for us to behave in a way that coincides with our perception of what others expect of us is called self-image congruency.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 124-125

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

59) There is evidence to indicate that our pets become a part of our extended selves.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

 

60) Jerome is a true fan of the Calgary Stampeders. This attachment helps to define his extended self.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

61) Valerie has a locket from her grandmother that she views as being a part of her self. Identify and explain the concept that this best demonstrates.

Answer:  This is an example of the extended self. Many people use props and settings to define their social roles as a part of them. These external objects that are a part of what defines us is known as the extended self.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 126

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

62) What are the four levels of the extended self?

Answer:

  1. Individual level: Consumers include many of their personal possessions in their definition of self.

These products can include jewellery, cars, clothing, and so on. The saying

“you are what you wear” reflects the belief that one’s things are a part of who one is.

 

  1. Family level: This part of the extended self includes a consumer’s residence and the

furnishings in it. The house can be thought of as a symbolic body for the family and

is often a central aspect of identity.

 

  1. Community level: It is common for consumers to describe themselves in terms of the

neighbourhood or town from which they come. For farm families or residents with

close ties to a community, this sense of belonging is particularly important.

 

  1. Group level: Our attachments to certain social groups can also be considered a part of self. A consumer may feel that landmarks, monuments, or sports teams are a part of the extended self.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

63) List all four levels of the extended self. Provide an example for each.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

A person’s first car can be an example of the individual level. The house you grew up in could be an example of a person’s family level. The friends you grew up with is an example of the community level. Being a Canuck fan could be an example of group level.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

64) Explain what is meant by “self-image congruence.”

Answer:  Because many consumption activities are related to self-definition, it is not surprising to learn that consumers demonstrate consistency between their values and attitudes and the things they buy. Self-image congruence models predict that products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self. These models assume a process of cognitive matching between these attributes and the consumer’s self-image.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 125-126

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

65) Elliot chooses an Ironhead t-shirt because he sees the brand image as being consistent with his sense of self. What concept is this an example of and why?

Answer:  This is an example of self-image congruence. Because many consumption activities are related to self-definition, it is not surprising to learn that consumers demonstrate consistency between their values and attitudes and the things they buy. Self-image congruence models predict that products will be chosen when their attributes match some aspect of the self. These models assume a process of cognitive matching between these attributes and the consumer’s self-image.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 125

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

 

 

66) How can each level of the extended self be related to marketing?

Answer:  Many of the props and settings we use to define our social roles in a sense become a part of our selves. Those external objects that we consider a part of us comprise the extended self, helping form one’s identity. Just about everyone can name a valued possession that has a lot of self “wrapped up” in it, whether this is a treasured photograph, a trophy, an old shirt, a car, or a cat.

 

Four levels of the extended self are used by consumers to define themselves. These range from very personal objects to places and things that allow people to feel like they are rooted in their environments:

 

The individual level—Consumers include personal possessions as part of their self-definition, such as cars, jewellery, and favourite clothing.

 

The family level—This includes the place of residence and furnishings that comprise “our home.”

 

The community level—There is a sense of neighbourhood or locale used in public self-description and a private sense of belonging.

 

The group level—Attachments to larger social groups characterize the fourth level; affiliation may be through identification with sports teams, landmarks, monuments.

 

Marketing connections will vary.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 127

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-03 Understand that products often play a pivotal role in defining the self-concept.

67) Jane told her friend Javier that she was frustrated because her manager at work did not seem to appreciate the extra effort that she was putting in. Javier suggested that Jane speak with her manager and show her the work she was doing. Later, Jane wondered why men just “don’t get it.” All she really wanted from Javier was some sympathy. One of the problems that Jane and Javier are experiencing is that women have a tendency to value ________ goals, while men tend to value ________ goals.

  1. A) extended self; looking-glass
  2. B) communal; agentic
  3. C) social class; self congruence
  4. D) androgyny; hierarchical

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

 

68) In some cultures, women and men have languages that are spoken only in the presence of the same gender. Some business analysts maintain that this applies partially within the American workplace. If gender-specific languages did exist, what would be the major difference between them?

  1. A) Men would speak more and women would speak less.
  2. B) Men would be allowed to use more inflection and emotion in their speech, while women would be more conservative and controlled.
  3. C) The goals of the language would differ. Women’s language would use more passive methods of attaining power, while men would use more threats.
  4. D) Women’s language would be more attuned to forming community with other women, while men’s language would be more attuned to power and hierarchies.

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

69) Jenine is a copywriter at a medium-sized ad agency, and she is eager to show off her superior skills and up-to-date knowledge of the best ways to reach her target market. She is working with Mark on a new account with a line of skin-care products. The line will carry the same brand name for both men’s and women’s products. The project team members do not agree on how to position the product.

 

Mark argues that using the same brand name on both men’s and women’s products is a mistake. Men will think that products for moisturizing their skin will be thought of as “sissy” products, or too feminine; “real men” won’t use them.  Mark is saying that skin-care products are:

  1. A) gender-oriented.
  2. B) ego-dominated.
  3. C) sex-typed.
  4. D) gender-bending.

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 130

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

70) ________ refers to possessing both masculine and feminine traits.

  1. A) Communal
  2. B) Sex-typed
  3. C) Gender-bending
  4. D) Androgyny

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 131

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

71) In a study of a beer advertisement, two executions were prepared, one in masculine terms and the other in feminine terms. What kind of people preferred this execution of the ad: “Brewed with tender care, X Beer is a full-bodied beer that goes down smooth and gentle.”

  1. A) those whose self-ratings were highly masculine
  2. B) men
  3. C) those whose self-ratings were highly feminine
  4. D) women

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 132

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

72) A catalogue features products that appeal to men who are strongly sextyped. Which of the following styles of promotion would be most effective for the products in this catalogue?

  1. A) ads that utilize stylish, sophisticated, and up-to-date examples
  2. B) ads that show sensitive, spiritual, and introspective models
  3. C) ads that show strength
  4. D) ads that require elaborate processing of message content

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 130

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

73) David in his youth had a slight build with delicate features.  As a ________ he decided to make a time and financial investment so that today he has the physique of a body builder, has adorned himself with tattoos reflecting masculinity, and always has facial stubble.

  1. A) metrosexual
  2. B) trendsetter
  3. C) man’s man
  4. D) retrosexual

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 133

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

74) One study of readers of gay publications found that, compared to heterosexuals, these readers are:

  1. A) twice as likely to own a vacation home.
  2. B) less likely to experience stress in their daily lives.
  3. C) less likely to be self-employed.
  4. D) more likely to hold blue collar jobs.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 134

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

75) Society teaches expectations about the appropriate behaviour for men and women. For example, communal goals such as affiliation are typically taught to men to facilitate their success in team sports.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

76) In terms of eating meat and fruit, gender preferences are basically the same.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

77) Masculinity and femininity are biologically determined characteristics.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 130

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

78) Androgyny is a person’s feelings about aspects of his/her body.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 131

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

 

79) Why is gender identity an important component of self-concept?

Answer:  People usually conform to their culture’s expectations of what their gender should look like. It is important because how people conform to these expectations can influence the consumption decisions of everybody!

Type: ES     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

80) Provide an example of how a society can influence gender roles.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

In almost all societies, it is always a woman who takes on the nurturing role, while men are cast as the provider. This expectation can change the way a man or woman will react in scenarios. For example, a man is more likely to become a risk taker while a woman is more likely to be cautious.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

81) What is the difference between maleness and masculinity? Provide an example of both.

Answer:  Masculinity is not a biological characteristic while maleness is. An example of masculinity could be that males should be “strong” and repress feelings. An example of maleness could be that the average man is taller and weighs more than the average woman.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 130

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

82) Give an example of how food preferences can differ as a function of gender.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

Women eat more fruit. Men are more likely to eat meat; as one food writer put it, “Boy food doesn’t grow. It is hunted or killed.” Men are more likely to eat Frosted Flakes or Corn Pops, while women prefer multigrain cereals. Men are big rootbeer drinkers; women account for the bulk of bottled-water sales. And the genders differ sharply in the quantities of food they eat. When researchers at Hershey’s discovered that women eat smaller amounts of candy, the company created a white chocolate confection called Hugs, one of the most successful food introductions of all time. On the other hand, men are more likely to take their food and drink in larger servings.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 129

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

 

83) How can a product be sex-typed? Provide an example of this.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

A product is sex-typed if it takes on masculine or feminine attributes and consumers can identify which gender the product is for. An example of this is a pink princess phone. Most people can tell that it will be for a female child.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 131

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

84) Define androgyny and provide an example of it.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

Androgyny describes a person who possesses both masculine and feminine traits. An example could be when a man has a feminine hairstyle.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 131

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

85) What is gender-bending and why is it important to marketing?

Answer:  Gender-bending is demonstrated when a company markets a product that is specifically for one gender to the other. It is important because this can create a new market for androgynous people and can help bend the social norms so that products appeal to new market segments.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 132

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

86) Summarize how the female role has changed from the 1950s to the 2010s.

Answer:  Back in the 1950s, a female role was very “traditional.” They were the ones who nurtured the children and cooked. Now, you see a much stronger female role in society. They can be independent and work by themselves or have their own careers.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 132-133

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

87) Do societies still force a traditional female role stereotype to women? Explain.

Answer:  Yes, an example is in Islamic countries where women are required to be completely covered from the public. They are not allowed to work and must take care of the male and his children.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 133

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

88) Do the terms “maleness-femaleness” and “masculinity-femininity” mean the same thing? Discuss and include gender-typed products in your answer.

Answer:  The issue is gender versus sexuality. Gender differences are biologically determined, whereas the subjective feelings of sexuality are socially learned. Culturally, males are often controlled by agentic goals that stress self-assertion and mastery. Females are taught to value communal goals such as affiliation and cooperative relationships.

 

A person’s biological gender (i.e., male or female) does not totally determine if he or she will exhibit gender-typed traits—characteristics usually associated with one gender or the other. A consumer’s subjective feelings about his or her sexuality are crucial as well. Unlike maleness and femaleness, masculinity and femininity are not biological characteristics. A behaviour that would be considered as masculine in one culture may not necessarily be regarded as such in another culture. Also, products are often gender-typed. That is, they take on masculine or feminine attributes and they may be stereotypically associated by consumers with one gender. The car, for example, has long been thought of as a masculine product.

 

Androgyny refers to the possession of both masculine and feminine traits, although androgyny can also refer to traits that are neutral. Products that are not gender-typed are considered to be marketable to androgynous people whose mixture of characteristics allows them to function well in a variety of social situations.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 130-131

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

89) Greg, a Canadian advertising executive, is responsible for creating an television advertisement for a laundry detergent and definitely wants to feature a woman using the product, mainly because his research indicates that the primary purchasers of this laundry detergent are women.  He also notes that these women have a strong masculine component to their personalities.  What should be shown in this television advertisement?

Answer:  A good answer will highlight the role of androgyny. Androgyny refers to the possession of both masculine and feminine traits. Researchers make a distinction between gender-typed people, who are stereotypically masculine or feminine, and androgynous people, whose mixture of characteristics allows them to function well in a variety of social situations.

 

Research shows that women with a relatively strong masculine component in their gender-role identity prefer ad portrayals that include non-traditional women. A recommendation could be to show non-traditional women, non-traditional male gender roles, or to highlight a mixture of traits in the advertisement.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 130-133

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

90) Discuss the importance of the LGBT market to marketers.

Answer:  The proportion of the population that belongs to the category of LGBT consumers is difficult to determine, and efforts to measure this group have been controversial. According to Statistics Canada, the number of reported same-sex couples in Canada rose 42.4 percent from 2006 to 2011. The total number of same-sex couples in 2011 was 64575, and it is likely that the true number in Canada is actually much higher.

 

One study of readers of gay publications found that, compared to heterosexuals, these readers are almost 12 times more likely to hold professional jobs, twice as likely to own a vacation home, and eight times more likely to own a notebook computer. Additional findings underscore the potential desirability of this segment for marketers: Individuals who identify as being gay are twice as likely as heterosexuals to have attended graduate school, are more concerned about physical fitness and self-improvement, experience more stress in their daily lives, and are much more likely to be self-employed. The trend of appealing to same-sex couples has been increasing, with brands such as Gap, JCrew, and even Tiffany portraying same-sex couples in their marketing communications.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 133-134

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-04 Understand that society’s expectations of masculinity and femininity help to determine the products we buy to meet these expectations.

 

91) Men around the world seem to prefer women who have reproductive potential, and women seem to prefer males who have power and influence. In some cultures, both men and women seem to prefer lighter skin tones, while in others both men and women prefer darker skin tones. What do these findings imply about how an ideal of beauty is established?

  1. A) People have a tendency to be attracted to people who are like their own parents, implying that the beauty ideal is learned.
  2. B) All living organisms must have an instinctual ability to successfully reproduce. The examples show that the human ideal of beauty is instinctually derived.
  3. C) Part of the ideal of beauty seems to be genetic or instinctual, and part of it appears to be cultural or learned.
  4. D) Both examples show the importance of economics and class in the ideal of beauty. People who are rich and successful are considered attractive.

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

 

92) Unilever conducted a survey asking 3200 women from around the world to describe their looks.  While only 2% called themselves “beautiful,” most saw themselves as:

  1. A) unattractive
  2. B) average
  3. C) above average
  4. D) below average

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 139

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

93) A consumer’s subjective evaluation of his or her physical self is called:

  1. A) objective self-awareness.
  2. B) body image.
  3. C) personal beauty.
  4. D) Adonis syndrome.

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

94) Claire’s hair and eyes are more central to her self-concept than her hands and feet.  This is an example of which concept?

  1. A) body image
  2. B) dimorphic markers
  3. C) body referent
  4. D) body cathexis

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

95) Doug has large eyes, high cheekbones, and a narrow jaw.  People around the world will perceive him as being:

  1. A) arrogant
  2. B) shifty
  3. C) pleasant
  4. D) healthy

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

96) Katie worked for an advertising agency. Her job was to use the computer to enhance photos for magazine ads. She knew that she would always make the face of the model more attractive if she:

  1. A) gave them blue eyes.
  2. B) created at least one flaw on the face so the model wouldn’t be perfect.
  3. C) made the face more symmetrical.
  4. D) added shadows.

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

97) In terms of the ideal female body type, the ________ look has reappeared.

  1. A) waif
  2. B) athletic
  3. C) hourglass
  4. D) hippy

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

98) Research suggests that people with asymmetrical facial features are less desirable.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 136

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

99) In the past seventy years, important sexual dimorphic markers for winners of the Miss America pageant have fallen below the normal values.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 137-138

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

 

100) What is body cathexis?

Answer:  Body cathexis is the emotional significance of some object or idea to a person and the sense that some parts of the body are more central to self-concept of others. It is important to marketing because companies can create products that appeal to consumers’ desire to enhance areas of the body that tend to be more central to consumers’ self-concepts.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 135

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

101) How have ideals of beauty in Western culture changed over time?

Answer:  Periods of history tend to be characterized by a specific “look” or ideal of beauty. For example, in sharp contrast to today’s emphasis on health and vigour, in the early nineteenth century it was fashionable to appear delicate to the point of looking ill. The poet Keats described the ideal woman of that time as “a milk white lamb that bleats for man’s protection.”

 

In much of the nineteenth century, the desirable waistline for American women was 18 inches (45 centimetres), a circumference that required the use of corsets pulled so tight that they routinely caused headaches, fainting spells, and possibly even the uterine and spinal disorders common among women of the time. Although modern women are not quite as “straightlaced,” many still endure such indignities as high heels, body waxing, eye lifts, and liposuction. In addition to the millions spent on cosmetics, clothing, health clubs, and fashion magazines, these practices remind us that the desire to conform to current standards of beauty—whether right or wrong—is alive and well.

 

The ideal body type of Western women has changed radically over time, and these changes have resulted in a realignment of sexual dimorphic markers—those aspects of the body that distinguish between the sexes. For example, using heights and weights from winners of the Miss America pageant, nutrition experts concluded that many beauty queens are in the undernourished range. In the 1920s, contestants had a body mass index (BMI) in the range now considered normal—20 to 25. Since then an increasing number of winners have had BMIs under 18.5, which is the World Health Organization’s standard for undernutrition.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 137-139

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

 

 

102) Michelle has a poor overall body image.  Describe the concept of body cathexis, how it relates to negative perceptions of body image, and how it can alter consumption.

Answer:  A person’s feelings about his or her body can be described in terms of body cathexis. Cathexis refers to the emotional significance of some object or idea to a person, and some parts of the body are more central to self-concept than others.

 

Consumers who have negative feelings about their body often have negative perceptions of body image. One study found that young adults were the most satisfied with their hair and eyes and had the least positive feelings about their waists. These feelings were also related to usage of grooming products. Consumers who were more satisfied with their bodies were more frequent users of such “preening” products as hair conditioner, blow-dryers, cologne, facial bronzer, tooth polish, and pumice soap.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 135-136

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem.

103) A person who is anorexic is suffering from a negative body cathexis.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 135 and 141

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-05 Understand that the way we think about our bodies (and the way our culture tells us what we should think) is a key component of self-esteem and L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

104) Katie is constantly preoccupied with her weight. She weighs herself twice a day. She is exhibiting behaviour that is reflective of:

  1. A) fattism.
  2. B) ultra-slim-fast mania.
  3. C) Carpenter’s compulsion.
  4. D) Sands’ syndrome.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 140

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

 

105) After a long and complex relationship ended, Beth wanted to signal to people that she was simplifying her life.  She changed her hairstyle by:

  1. A) colouring it.
  2. B) shaving her head.
  3. C) cutting it short.
  4. D) adding extensions.

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 140

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

106) A distorted body image has been linked to eating disorders. People with ________ see themselves as being too fat and they virtually starve themselves in the quest for thinness.

  1. A) hypochondria
  2. B) fattism
  3. C) anorexia
  4. D) an ideal self

Answer:  C

Type: MC     Page Ref: 141

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

107) Men account for as much as twenty percent of cosmetic surgery. One of the more popular operations is:

  1. A) pectoral muscle enhancements.
  2. B) lip enhancements.
  3. C) nose reductions.
  4. D) liposuctions.

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

108) Past female body ratios of Barbie translated into 38-18-34. Today the Barbie doll is more realistic and represents the “average” female.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 140

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

 

109) What is fattism? Provide a specific example of this in society.

Answer:  Examples will vary.

 

Fattism is discrimination based on weight. In society this happens commonly. An example is how North Americans are consistently being reminded about their weight and that if they are not under a certain weight, they are considered obese and won’t be happy.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 140

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful.

 

 

110) Describe how ideals of beauty within a culture motivate consumers to go to great lengths to change aspects of their physical selves. Use examples of how people alter themselves to conform to current ideals of beauty.

Answer:  A person’s satisfaction with the physical image s/he presents to others is affected by how closely that image corresponds to the image valued by his or her culture. Ideals of beauty, however, vary radically across cultures and even over time within the same society. Women in particular have worked very hard to conform to the current “look” and attain ideal beauty. Among Western women, today’s “natural look” emphasizes health and vigour. During the 1960s and 1970s, Playboy centrefolds became leaner and more muscular. Protests by feminist groups that there was too much emphasis upon “thinness” and the “waif” look of the early 1990s, leading to eating disorders, seem to be moving Western women toward fuller figures again.

 

Manifestations of the desire to alter one’s physical self to conform to current ideals of beauty include:

Hair styling—Hair forms the basis for the presentation of self-image, and is a tool to transform or change one’s image.

 

Fattism—Our society has an obsession with weight and thinness, reinforced by advertising and peers.

 

Dieting and unrealistic standards—Some believe in outdated height/weight charts instead of being guided by the reality of today’s larger body frames, muscularity, age, and activity level.

 

Eating disorders—Anorexia and bulimia eating disorders, noted often in white, upper middle-class girls, are evidence of exaggerated concern about desirable body images.

 

Exercise addiction—Men also show eating disorders, but more often express insecurity about their bodies by becoming addicted to exercise.

 

Cosmetic surgery—Increasingly, cosmetic surgery is performed (and accepted) by men as well as women. Women use surgery to reduce weight or to increase sexual desirability. Men have used implants for chests and legs.

 

Body decoration and mutilation—Performed in every culture, body adornment serves purposes other than contributing to ideal beauty. Tattoos and body piercing are one popular form of adornment.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 136-143

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-06 Understand that our desire to live up to cultural expectations of appearance can be harmful and L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

 

111) New members of a fraternity were required to get a piercing as part of the initiation. The act served the following purpose:

  1. A) to enhance gender-role identification
  2. B) to separate group members from nonmembers
  3. C) to indicate desired social conduct
  4. D) to indicate high status or rank

Answer:  B

Type: MC     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

112) Andrew, a gay man who lives in New York, wears an earring in his left ear to show his preferred role in a relationship. This is an example of self-decorating serving the following purpose:

  1. A) to place the person in a gender category
  2. B) to enhance gender-role identification
  3. C) to provide a sense of security
  4. D) to indicate desired social conduct

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

113) Which of the following purposes of decorating the self best explains why tattoos can be very popular for a period of time and unacceptable in a different period of time within the same culture?

  1. A) to place the individual in a social organization
  2. B) to separate group members from nonmembers
  3. C) to place the person in a gender category
  4. D) to enhance gender-role identification

Answer:  A

Type: MC     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

 

114) Although Gillian, a young high school teacher, has perfect eyesight, she feels that if she wears glasses her students will respect her more. This is an example of self-decorating serving the following purpose:

  1. A) to enhance gender-role identification
  2. B) to provide a sense of security
  3. C) to indicate desired social conduct
  4. D) to indicate high status or rank

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Application

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

115) One recent trend in our culture is for middle-aged women to get a tattoo. Which of the following best explains the reason for middle-aged women to act in this way?

  1. A) to declare their outcast status
  2. B) to express their desire to breakaway from their baby boomer parents
  3. C) to express their desire to bond with their younger counterparts that are half their age
  4. D) to celebrate a milestone such as a big birthday, a divorce, or becoming an “empty-nester”

Answer:  D

Type: MC     Page Ref: 143

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

116) Body decoration or alteration is often used to distinguish group members from nonmembers.

Answer:  TRUE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

117) The reason that a person would be willing to be tattooed now, who would not have considered it 20 years ago, shows the power of gender-role categorization.

Answer:  FALSE

Type: TF     Page Ref: 143

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

118) Provide two reasons why people self-decorate or self-mutilate and provide an example of each.

Answer:  Examples will vary

 

Wearing high heels is an example of people self-decorating to enhance gender-role identification. Wearing a lucky charm is an example of self-decorating to provide an example of security. A girl putting headphones on and having her hair tied to let people know not to bother her is an example of a person indicating desired social conduct. Women wearing expensive jewellery is an example of indicating high status or rank.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

 

 

119) The body is adorned or altered in some way in every culture. Decorating the self serves a number of purposes. According to information provided in the text, what are these purposes?

Answer:

∙  To separate group members from non-members: The Chinook Indians of North America pressed the head of a newborn between two boards for a year, permanently altering its shape. In our society, teens go out of their way to adopt distinctive hair and clothing styles that will separate them from adults.

 

To place the individual in the social organization: Many cultures engage in puberty rites wherein a boy symbolically becomes a man. Young men in Ghana paint their bodies with white stripes to resemble skeletons, symbolizing the death of their child status. In Western culture, this rite may involve some form of mild self-mutilation or engagement in dangerous activities.

 

To place the person in a gender category: The Tchikrin Indians of South America insert a string of beads in a boy’s lip to enlarge it. Western women wear lipstick to enhance femininity. At the turn of the twentieth century, small lips were fashionable because they represented women’s submissive role at that time. Today, big red lips are provocative and indicate an aggressive sexuality. Some women, including a number of famous actresses and models, receive collagen injections or lip inserts to create large, pouting lips (known in the modelling industry as “liver lips”).

 

To enhance gender-role identification: The modern use of high heels, which podiatrists agree are a prime cause of knee and hip problems, backaches, and fatigue, can be compared with the traditional Asian practice of foot binding to enhance femininity. As one doctor observed, “When [women] get home, they can’t get their high-heeled shoes off fast enough. But every doctor in the world could yell from now until Doomsday, and women would still wear them.”

 

To provide a sense of security: Consumers often wear lucky charms, amulets, rabbits’ feet, and so on to protect them from the “evil eye.”

 

To indicate desired social conduct: The Suya of South America wear ear ornaments to emphasize the importance placed in their culture on listening and obedience.

In Western society, some gay men wear an earring in the left or right ear to signal what role (submissive or dominant) they prefer in a relationship.

 

To indicate high status or rank: The Hidatsa Indians of North America wear feather ornaments that indicate how many people they have killed. In our society, some people wear glasses with clear lenses, even though they do not have eye problems, to enhance their perceived status.

Type: ES     Page Ref: 142

Skill:  Concept

Objective:  L5-07 Understand that every culture dictates certain types of body decoration and/or mutilation.

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