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Chapter 05 Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. Genes that are not required for survival, but are likely to be beneficial to the organism, are called _________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

2. Temperature-sensitive alleles are examples of _________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

3. Huntington disease in humans is an example of ____________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

4. A heterozygote possesses a phenotype that is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive phenotypes. This is most likely an example of ________.

A. lethal alleles

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. gene dosage

 

D. sex-influenced inheritance

 

5. In four-o’clock plants, red flower color is dominant to white flower color. However, heterozygous plants have a pink color. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, what will be the phenotypic ratios of their offspring?

A. ¼ red, ½ pink, ¼ white

 

B. All pink

 

C. All white

 

D. ½ pink, ½ white

 

E. ½ red, ½ pink

 

6. The coat characteristics of Siamese cats and Himalayan rabbits, where proteins in the extremities function differently than in other parts of the body is an example of _________.

A. incomplete dominance

 

B. multiple allele systems

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. temperature-sensitive allele

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

7. In rabbits, full coat color (c) is the dominant trait. A second allele, chinchilla (cch) is recessive to full coat color. Himalayan coat color (ch) is recessive to chinchilla and full coat colors and albino (c) is recessive to all coat colors. If two chinchilla rabbits mate, what coat color is not possible in their offspring?

A. Full coat color

 

B. Chinchilla coat color

 

C. Himalayan coat color

 

D. Albino coat color

 

E. All coat colors are possible

 

8. In human blood groups, the fact that an individual can have an AB blood type is an example of ___________.

A. incomplete dominance

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. sex-influenced trait

 

D. temperature-sensitive conditional allele

 

E. codominance

 

9. An individual with type A blood and an individual with type B blood mate and have offspring. What blood type is not possible in their offspring?

A. Type O blood

 

B. Type A blood

 

C. Type B blood

 

D. Type AB blood

 

E. All blood types are possible

 

10. At the molecular level, type A and type B blood differ in which of the following characteristics?

A. The antigens present on the surface of the red blood cells

 

B. The type of sugar found in each type

 

C. The antibodies that are generated against the other type of blood

 

D. All of these choices are correct

 

11. For a certain trait, a heterozygous individual has a selective advantage than a homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive individual. This is called ________.

A. codiminance

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. over dominance

 

D. incomplete penetrance

 

E. multiple allele systems

 

12. Sickle-cell anemia in humans is an example of ________________.

A. codominance

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. heterozygous advantage

 

D. multiple allele systems

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

13. At the molecular level, which of the following best explain heterozygous advantage and over dominance?

A. A heterozygous individual can produce more varieties of homodimer proteins

 

B. The alleles produce two different proteins with slightly different functions

 

C. The proteins produced by the alleles may provide a broader range of environmental tolerance, such as temperature ranges

 

D. Infectious organisms may recognize only a specific functional protein

 

E. All of the answers are possibilities

 

14. Polydactyly in humans is an example of __________.

A. simple Mendelian inheritance

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. incomplete penetrance

 

D. codominance

 

E. gene dosage

 

15. If a geneticist describes a trait as being 70% penetrant, what would they mean?

A. The expression of the trait varies by individual

 

B. It is lethal in 30% of the individuals who have the trait

 

C. Only 70% of the individuals who carry the trait express the trait

 

D. The trait is present in 70% of the population

 

16. Phenylketonuria in humans is an example of __________.

A. incomplete penetrance

 

B. codominance

 

C. an environmental-influenced trait

 

D. incomplete dominance

 

E. All of these choices are correct

 

17. If an allele is dominant in one sex and recessive in another, it is an example of ___________.

A. sex-limited inheritance

 

B. sex-influenced inheritance

 

C. incomplete dominance

 

D. simple Mendelian inheritance

 

E. incomplete dominance

 

18. Male-pattern baldness is a sex-linked trait in humans.

True    False

 

19. A woman who is heterozygous for pattern baldness marries a man who is nonbald. Which of the following would be true of their offspring?

A. All would be bald

 

B. All of the females would be nonbald, all males would be bald

 

C. All of the females would be nonbald, ½ of the males would be bald

 

D. ½ of females would be bald, and ½ of the females would be bald

 

E. All would be nonbald

 

20. A paralog ____________.

A. is found for every gene in mammals

 

B. is only found on the X but not the Y chromosome

 

C. can explain the lack of phenotype for a gene knockout

 

D. cannot be mutated

 

E. has the same DNA sequence as the original duplicated gene

 

21. The interaction of two genes to produce a phenotype was first described by __________.

A. Morgan and Bridges

 

B. Mendel

 

C. Darwin

 

D. Bateson and Punnett

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

22. Epistasis is _______________.

A. another term for over dominance

 

B. when one gene can mask the expression of a second gene

 

C. a trait that is only expressed in one sex of the species

 

D. when two dominant alleles can be expressed in the same individual

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

23. In a dihybrid cross of two heterozygous individuals, you expect a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the offspring, but observe a ratio of 9:7. What is the most likely explantation?

A. Codominace

 

B. It is a sex-limited trait

 

C. Simple Mendelian inheritance

 

D. Incomplete penetrance

 

E. Epistatic interactions of the two genes

 

24. Which of the following is not correct concerning epistatic interactions?

A. They are often associated with enzymatic pathways

 

B. They produce variations in the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross

 

C. They can result when a gene at one locus masks the expression of a gene at a different locus

 

D. They always result in a 9:7 ratio of a dihybrid cross

 

E. They are due to gene interactions

 

25. When wild-type offspring are produced from a cross between parents that both display the same recessive phenotype illustrates the genetic phenomenon of _______.

A. simple recessive alleles

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. complementation

 

D. gene dosage

 

E. a spontaneous mutation

 

26. The multiple effects of a single gene on the phenotype of an organism is called _______.

A. epistasis

 

B. penetrance

 

C. expressivity

 

D. overdominance

 

E. pleiotropy

 

27. A _______ allele encodes a protein that is made in the proper amount and functions normally.

A. loss-of-function

 

B. mutant

 

C. wild-type

 

D. gain-of-function

 

E. lethal

 

28. In overdominance, the _______ genotype is beneficial over the _______ genotypes.

A. heterozygous, homozygous

 

B. homozygous, heterozygous

 

C. homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive

 

D. homozygous recessive, homozygous dominant

 

E. incomplete dominant, codominant

 

29. In humans, pattern baldness follows a sex-influenced pattern of inheritance. A heterozygous male has the _______ phenotype and a heterozygous female has a _______ phenotype.

A. Y-linked, X-linked

 

B. nonbald, bald

 

C. X-linked, Y-linked

 

D. bald, nonbald

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

30. If a combination of two or more genes is required to produce a specific trait, it is called a _______.

A. overdominance

 

B. simple mendelian trait

 

C. sex-influenced trait

 

D. sex-linked trait

 

E. gene interaction

 

31. In an epistatic interaction, the genes must be located on the same chromosome.

True    False

 

32. Typically, a recessive allele increases the expression of a functional protein.

True    False

 

33. Incomplete dominance is an example of blending of phenotypes, not genotypes.

True    False

 

34. Human blood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of red blood cells.

True    False

 

35. Incomplete penetrance indicates that individuals who possess a dominant trait always express the trait.

True    False

 

36. Variable expressivity means that the phenotype of a trait can vary between individuals.

True    False

 

37. Paralogs are often functionally redundant and can compensate for the loss of either of the paralogs in a set.

True    False

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance Key

1. Genes that are not required for survival, but are likely to be beneficial to the organism, are called _________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05: Understand how lethal alleles may result in inheritance patterns with unexpected results.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

2. Temperature-sensitive alleles are examples of _________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.05: Understand how lethal alleles may result in inheritance patterns with unexpected results.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

3. Huntington disease in humans is an example of ____________.

A. essential genes

 

B. lethal alleles

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. nonessential genes

 

E. conditional lethal alleles

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.05: Understand how lethal alleles may result in inheritance patterns with unexpected results.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

4. A heterozygote possesses a phenotype that is intermediate between the homozygous dominant and homozygous recessive phenotypes. This is most likely an example of ________.

A. lethal alleles

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. gene dosage

 

D. sex-influenced inheritance

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

5. In four-o’clock plants, red flower color is dominant to white flower color. However, heterozygous plants have a pink color. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, what will be the phenotypic ratios of their offspring?

A. ¼ red, ½ pink, ¼ white

 

B. All pink

 

C. All white

 

D. ½ pink, ½ white

 

E. ½ red, ½ pink

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

6. The coat characteristics of Siamese cats and Himalayan rabbits, where proteins in the extremities function differently than in other parts of the body is an example of _________.

A. incomplete dominance

 

B. multiple allele systems

 

C. semilethal alleles

 

D. temperature-sensitive allele

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.05: Understand how lethal alleles may result in inheritance patterns with unexpected results.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

7. In rabbits, full coat color (c) is the dominant trait. A second allele, chinchilla (cch) is recessive to full coat color. Himalayan coat color (ch) is recessive to chinchilla and full coat colors and albino (c) is recessive to all coat colors. If two chinchilla rabbits mate, what coat color is not possible in their offspring?

A. Full coat color

 

B. Chinchilla coat color

 

C. Himalayan coat color

 

D. Albino coat color

 

E. All coat colors are possible

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

8. In human blood groups, the fact that an individual can have an AB blood type is an example of ___________.

A. incomplete dominance

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. sex-influenced trait

 

D. temperature-sensitive conditional allele

 

E. codominance

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

9. An individual with type A blood and an individual with type B blood mate and have offspring. What blood type is not possible in their offspring?

A. Type O blood

 

B. Type A blood

 

C. Type B blood

 

D. Type AB blood

 

E. All blood types are possible

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

10. At the molecular level, type A and type B blood differ in which of the following characteristics?

A. The antigens present on the surface of the red blood cells

 

B. The type of sugar found in each type

 

C. The antibodies that are generated against the other type of blood

 

D. All of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

11. For a certain trait, a heterozygous individual has a selective advantage than a homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive individual. This is called ________.

A. codiminance

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. over dominance

 

D. incomplete penetrance

 

E. multiple allele systems

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

12. Sickle-cell anemia in humans is an example of ________________.

A. codominance

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. heterozygous advantage

 

D. multiple allele systems

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

13. At the molecular level, which of the following best explain heterozygous advantage and over dominance?

A. A heterozygous individual can produce more varieties of homodimer proteins

 

B. The alleles produce two different proteins with slightly different functions

 

C. The proteins produced by the alleles may provide a broader range of environmental tolerance, such as temperature ranges

 

D. Infectious organisms may recognize only a specific functional protein

 

E. All of the answers are possibilities

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

14. Polydactyly in humans is an example of __________.

A. simple Mendelian inheritance

 

B. incomplete dominance

 

C. incomplete penetrance

 

D. codominance

 

E. gene dosage

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

15. If a geneticist describes a trait as being 70% penetrant, what would they mean?

A. The expression of the trait varies by individual

 

B. It is lethal in 30% of the individuals who have the trait

 

C. Only 70% of the individuals who carry the trait express the trait

 

D. The trait is present in 70% of the population

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

16. Phenylketonuria in humans is an example of __________.

A. incomplete penetrance

 

B. codominance

 

C. an environmental-influenced trait

 

D. incomplete dominance

 

E. All of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03: Recognize how traits can be influenced by the environment.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

17. If an allele is dominant in one sex and recessive in another, it is an example of ___________.

A. sex-limited inheritance

 

B. sex-influenced inheritance

 

C. incomplete dominance

 

D. simple Mendelian inheritance

 

E. incomplete dominance

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04: Differentiate between sex-linked, sex-limited, and sex-influenced patterns of inheritance.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

18. Male-pattern baldness is a sex-linked trait in humans.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04: Differentiate between sex-linked, sex-limited, and sex-influenced patterns of inheritance.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

19. A woman who is heterozygous for pattern baldness marries a man who is nonbald. Which of the following would be true of their offspring?

A. All would be bald

 

B. All of the females would be nonbald, all males would be bald

 

C. All of the females would be nonbald, ½ of the males would be bald

 

D. ½ of females would be bald, and ½ of the females would be bald

 

E. All would be nonbald

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.04: Differentiate between sex-linked, sex-limited, and sex-influenced patterns of inheritance.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

20. A paralog ____________.

A. is found for every gene in mammals

 

B. is only found on the X but not the Y chromosome

 

C. can explain the lack of phenotype for a gene knockout

 

D. cannot be mutated

 

E. has the same DNA sequence as the original duplicated gene

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

21. The interaction of two genes to produce a phenotype was first described by __________.

A. Morgan and Bridges

 

B. Mendel

 

C. Darwin

 

D. Bateson and Punnett

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

22. Epistasis is _______________.

A. another term for over dominance

 

B. when one gene can mask the expression of a second gene

 

C. a trait that is only expressed in one sex of the species

 

D. when two dominant alleles can be expressed in the same individual

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

23. In a dihybrid cross of two heterozygous individuals, you expect a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio in the offspring, but observe a ratio of 9:7. What is the most likely explantation?

A. Codominace

 

B. It is a sex-limited trait

 

C. Simple Mendelian inheritance

 

D. Incomplete penetrance

 

E. Epistatic interactions of the two genes

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

24. Which of the following is not correct concerning epistatic interactions?

A. They are often associated with enzymatic pathways

 

B. They produce variations in the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross

 

C. They can result when a gene at one locus masks the expression of a gene at a different locus

 

D. They always result in a 9:7 ratio of a dihybrid cross

 

E. They are due to gene interactions

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

25. When wild-type offspring are produced from a cross between parents that both display the same recessive phenotype illustrates the genetic phenomenon of _______.

A. simple recessive alleles

 

B. incomplete penetrance

 

C. complementation

 

D. gene dosage

 

E. a spontaneous mutation

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

26. The multiple effects of a single gene on the phenotype of an organism is called _______.

A. epistasis

 

B. penetrance

 

C. expressivity

 

D. overdominance

 

E. pleiotropy

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.07
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

27. A _______ allele encodes a protein that is made in the proper amount and functions normally.

A. loss-of-function

 

B. mutant

 

C. wild-type

 

D. gain-of-function

 

E. lethal

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

28. In overdominance, the _______ genotype is beneficial over the _______ genotypes.

A. heterozygous, homozygous

 

B. homozygous, heterozygous

 

C. homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive

 

D. homozygous recessive, homozygous dominant

 

E. incomplete dominant, codominant

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

29. In humans, pattern baldness follows a sex-influenced pattern of inheritance. A heterozygous male has the _______ phenotype and a heterozygous female has a _______ phenotype.

A. Y-linked, X-linked

 

B. nonbald, bald

 

C. X-linked, Y-linked

 

D. bald, nonbald

 

E. None of these choices are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.04: Differentiate between sex-linked, sex-limited, and sex-influenced patterns of inheritance.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

30. If a combination of two or more genes is required to produce a specific trait, it is called a _______.

A. overdominance

 

B. simple mendelian trait

 

C. sex-influenced trait

 

D. sex-linked trait

 

E. gene interaction

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

31. In an epistatic interaction, the genes must be located on the same chromosome.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

32. Typically, a recessive allele increases the expression of a functional protein.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

33. Incomplete dominance is an example of blending of phenotypes, not genotypes.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

34. Human blood groups are determined by antigens on the surface of red blood cells.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

35. Incomplete penetrance indicates that individuals who possess a dominant trait always express the trait.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

36. Variable expressivity means that the phenotype of a trait can vary between individuals.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

37. Paralogs are often functionally redundant and can compensate for the loss of either of the paralogs in a set.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross.
Section: 05.08
Topic: Inheritance
 

 

 

Chapter 05 Extensions of Mendelian Inheritance Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember 1
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand 10
Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply 5
Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze 9
Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate 8
Bloom’s Level: 6. Create 4
Learning Outcome: 05.02: Understand the different patterns of Mendelian inheritance involving single genes and how to solve relevant problems. 19
Learning Outcome: 05.03: Recognize how traits can be influenced by the environment. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.04: Differentiate between sex-linked, sex-limited, and sex-influenced patterns of inheritance. 4
Learning Outcome: 05.05: Understand how lethal alleles may result in inheritance patterns with unexpected results. 4
Learning Outcome: 05.06: Recognize how gene interactions, such as epistasis, can alter the predicted 9:3:3:1 ratio of a dihybrid cross. 9
Section: 05.02 7
Section: 05.03 1
Section: 05.04 11
Section: 05.05 4
Section: 05.06 4
Section: 05.07 1
Section: 05.08 9
Topic: Inheritance 37

 

 

 

 

Chapter 16 Gene Regulation in Bacteria

Student: ___________________________________________________________________________

1. A gene with a strong promoter would be under what type of control?

A. Positive

 

B. Negative

 

C. The gene would be expressed constitutively

 

D. It depends on what the gene encodes

 

2. A gene is inducible and under negative control. Which of the following pairs will allow expression of this gene?

A. Activator + repressor

 

B. Activator + inhibitor

 

C. Repressor + inducer

 

D. Repressor + co-repressor

 

3. Which of the following is not associated with positive transcriptional regulation?

A. Activators

 

B. Inducers

 

C. Corepressors

 

D. All of the answers are involved in positive regulation

 

4. Regulation of gene expression may occur at which of the following levels?

A. Transcription

 

B. Translation

 

C. Post translation

 

D. All of the answers are correct

 

5. How many promoters are in an operon?

A. 1

 

B. 2

 

C. 3

 

D. Depends on how many genes there are in the operon

 

6. Which of the following is found in an operon?

A. Promoter

 

B. Terminator

 

C. Two or more genes

 

D. Operator

 

E. All of the answers are correct

 

7. Allosteric regulation is accomplished by:

A. A small molecule that fits into an enzyme’s active site

 

B. A large protein that blocks an enzyme’s active site

 

C. A small molecule that fits into a site on the enzyme that is not the active site

 

D. A small molecule that covalently modifies a site on the enzyme that is not the active site

 

8. What is the gene responsible for attenuation in the trp operon?

A. trpL

 

B. trpR

 

C. trpD

 

D. trpC

 

9. What stem-loop conformations favor attenuation?

A. 1-2

 

B. 1-2 and 2-3

 

C. 2-3

 

D. 1-2 and 3-4

 

10. Which of the following encode polycistronic mRNA?

A. Lac operon

 

B. Ara operon

 

C. Trp operon

 

D. All of the answers are correct

 

11. If CAP could not bind to its CAP site, then what would be the result? Assume lactose is present in each scenario.

A. Transcription would be difficult to repress in the presence of glucose

 

B. Transcription would be difficult to activate in the presence of glucose

 

C. Transcription would be difficult to activate in the absence of glucose

 

D. Transcription would be difficult to repress in the presence of glucose

 

12. In Jacob, Monod, and Pardee’s experiment, how many functional copies of lacI were there in the merozygote?

A. 0

 

B. 1

 

C. 2

 

D. 3

 

13. In the same experiment, what would have been the conclusion if all four tubes produced a yellow color when b-ONPG was added?

A. Expression of the lac operon is constitutive whether lacI is functional or not

 

B. LacI provides the binding site for the repressor

 

C. LacI encodes a diffusible repressor

 

D. The researcher added too much b-ONPG

 

14. CAP affects which operon(s)?

A. Lac

 

B. Trp

 

C. All of the answers are correct

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

15. What would be the result if the U-rich sequence after the fourth stem loop in the trp operon was replaced by a UG-rich sequence?

A. Attenuation would occur if tryptophan was high

 

B. Attenuation would occur if tryptophan is low

 

C. Attenuation would not occur if tryptophan was high

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

16. Which of the following is not an example of translational regulation in prokaryotes?

A. Sterically blocking the ribosome

 

B. Phosphorylation of an enzyme

 

C. Incorporation of antisense RNA

 

D. Altering the structure of the mRNA

 

17. Enzymes involved in metabolism are most likely regulated via _____?

A. Feedback inhibition

 

B. Acetylation

 

C. Methylation

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

18. For these questions, match the following to its appropriate letter. Use each letter only once.

1. Co-repressor      Trp operon   ____
2. Cis-mutation      Allolactose   ____
3. Inducible      Operator   ____
4. Inducer      Lac operon   ____
5. Trans-mutation      LacI   ____
6. Repressible      Tryptophan   ____

 

19. In the lac operon, the operator is an example of a trans-effect genetic regulation.

True    False

 

20. If a bacteria is placed in an environment that contains both glucose and lactose, the regulation of the lac operon will allow which nutrient to be processed first?

A. Glucose

 

B. Lactose

 

C. Both will be processed equally

 

D. Neither will be processed in this environment

 

21. The regulation of protein function, not gene expression is called ______ regulation.

A. Posttranslational

 

B. Transcriptional

 

C. Translational

 

D. Post-transcriptional

 

22. Translational regulatory proteins recognize specific areas of what molecule?

A. tRNA

 

B. Ribosome

 

C. rRNA

 

D. mRNA

 

E. None of the answers are correct

 

23. Antisense RNA does which of the following?

A. Inhibits the formation of the open complex in transcription

 

B. Occupies the A and P sites of the ribosome

 

C. Binds to the mRNA and prevents translation

 

D. Prevents the correct folding of a newly formed peptide

 

24. A bacterium is transformed with two plasmids, both containing the same gene. In one, the gene is placed next to a strong promoter and in the other a weak promoter. How would you expect the two transformed bacteria to grow?

A. The bacteria with the strong promoter would grow slower.

 

B. The bacteria with the weak promoter would grow slower.

 

C. Neither bacteria would grow.

 

D. Both bacteria would grow at the same rate.

 

25. Constitutive genes are those that have constant levels of expression.

True    False

 

26. Negative transcriptional regulation is conducted by activator proteins.

True    False

 

27. Repressor proteins are responsible for negative transcriptional regulation.

True    False

 

28. The term enzyme adaptation is used to describe an enzyme that appears in a living cell following exposure to a specific substrate.

True    False

 

29. DNA that contains instructions for two or more structural genes produces monocistronic mRNA.

True    False

 

30. In the lac operon, the operator site is recognized by a activator protein.

True    False

 

31. The regulation of the CAP complex using cAMP is an example of inducible genetic regulation.

True    False

 

32. Operons that code for catabolic enzyme systems are typically regulated by repressors.

True    False

 

33. Operons that code for anabolic enzyme systems are typically regulated by inducers.

True    False

 

34. The form of regulation that involves a physical change in the shape of an enzyme is called allosteric regulation.

True    False

 

 

 

Chapter 16 Gene Regulation in Bacteria Key

1. A gene with a strong promoter would be under what type of control?

A. Positive

 

B. Negative

 

C. The gene would be expressed constitutively

 

D. It depends on what the gene encodes

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

2. A gene is inducible and under negative control. Which of the following pairs will allow expression of this gene?

A. Activator + repressor

 

B. Activator + inhibitor

 

C. Repressor + inducer

 

D. Repressor + co-repressor

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

3. Which of the following is not associated with positive transcriptional regulation?

A. Activators

 

B. Inducers

 

C. Corepressors

 

D. All of the answers are involved in positive regulation

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

4. Regulation of gene expression may occur at which of the following levels?

A. Transcription

 

B. Translation

 

C. Post translation

 

D. All of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

5. How many promoters are in an operon?

A. 1

 

B. 2

 

C. 3

 

D. Depends on how many genes there are in the operon

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

6. Which of the following is found in an operon?

A. Promoter

 

B. Terminator

 

C. Two or more genes

 

D. Operator

 

E. All of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

7. Allosteric regulation is accomplished by:

A. A small molecule that fits into an enzyme’s active site

 

B. A large protein that blocks an enzyme’s active site

 

C. A small molecule that fits into a site on the enzyme that is not the active site

 

D. A small molecule that covalently modifies a site on the enzyme that is not the active site

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

8. What is the gene responsible for attenuation in the trp operon?

A. trpL

 

B. trpR

 

C. trpD

 

D. trpC

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.03: Understand the regulation of the trp operon, including the molecular details of attenuation.
Section: 16.03
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

9. What stem-loop conformations favor attenuation?

A. 1-2

 

B. 1-2 and 2-3

 

C. 2-3

 

D. 1-2 and 3-4

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.03: Understand the regulation of the trp operon, including the molecular details of attenuation.
Section: 16.03
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

10. Which of the following encode polycistronic mRNA?

A. Lac operon

 

B. Ara operon

 

C. Trp operon

 

D. All of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

11. If CAP could not bind to its CAP site, then what would be the result? Assume lactose is present in each scenario.

A. Transcription would be difficult to repress in the presence of glucose

 

B. Transcription would be difficult to activate in the presence of glucose

 

C. Transcription would be difficult to activate in the absence of glucose

 

D. Transcription would be difficult to repress in the presence of glucose

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

12. In Jacob, Monod, and Pardee’s experiment, how many functional copies of lacI were there in the merozygote?

A. 0

 

B. 1

 

C. 2

 

D. 3

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

13. In the same experiment, what would have been the conclusion if all four tubes produced a yellow color when b-ONPG was added?

A. Expression of the lac operon is constitutive whether lacI is functional or not

 

B. LacI provides the binding site for the repressor

 

C. LacI encodes a diffusible repressor

 

D. The researcher added too much b-ONPG

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

14. CAP affects which operon(s)?

A. Lac

 

B. Trp

 

C. All of the answers are correct

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

15. What would be the result if the U-rich sequence after the fourth stem loop in the trp operon was replaced by a UG-rich sequence?

A. Attenuation would occur if tryptophan was high

 

B. Attenuation would occur if tryptophan is low

 

C. Attenuation would not occur if tryptophan was high

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 16.03: Understand the regulation of the trp operon, including the molecular details of attenuation.
Section: 16.03
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

16. Which of the following is not an example of translational regulation in prokaryotes?

A. Sterically blocking the ribosome

 

B. Phosphorylation of an enzyme

 

C. Incorporation of antisense RNA

 

D. Altering the structure of the mRNA

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

17. Enzymes involved in metabolism are most likely regulated via _____?

A. Feedback inhibition

 

B. Acetylation

 

C. Methylation

 

D. None of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.05: Recognize how feedback inhibition is used in posttranslational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

18. For these questions, match the following to its appropriate letter. Use each letter only once.

1. Co-repressor      Trp operon   6
2. Cis-mutation      Allolactose   4
3. Inducible      Operator   2
4. Inducer      Lac operon   3
5. Trans-mutation      LacI   5
6. Repressible      Tryptophan   1

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

19. In the lac operon, the operator is an example of a trans-effect genetic regulation.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

20. If a bacteria is placed in an environment that contains both glucose and lactose, the regulation of the lac operon will allow which nutrient to be processed first?

A. Glucose

 

B. Lactose

 

C. Both will be processed equally

 

D. Neither will be processed in this environment

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

21. The regulation of protein function, not gene expression is called ______ regulation.

A. Posttranslational

 

B. Transcriptional

 

C. Translational

 

D. Post-transcriptional

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

22. Translational regulatory proteins recognize specific areas of what molecule?

A. tRNA

 

B. Ribosome

 

C. rRNA

 

D. mRNA

 

E. None of the answers are correct

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

23. Antisense RNA does which of the following?

A. Inhibits the formation of the open complex in transcription

 

B. Occupies the A and P sites of the ribosome

 

C. Binds to the mRNA and prevents translation

 

D. Prevents the correct folding of a newly formed peptide

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

24. A bacterium is transformed with two plasmids, both containing the same gene. In one, the gene is placed next to a strong promoter and in the other a weak promoter. How would you expect the two transformed bacteria to grow?

A. The bacteria with the strong promoter would grow slower.

 

B. The bacteria with the weak promoter would grow slower.

 

C. Neither bacteria would grow.

 

D. Both bacteria would grow at the same rate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

25. Constitutive genes are those that have constant levels of expression.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

26. Negative transcriptional regulation is conducted by activator proteins.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

27. Repressor proteins are responsible for negative transcriptional regulation.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

28. The term enzyme adaptation is used to describe an enzyme that appears in a living cell following exposure to a specific substrate.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

29. DNA that contains instructions for two or more structural genes produces monocistronic mRNA.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

30. In the lac operon, the operator site is recognized by a activator protein.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

31. The regulation of the CAP complex using cAMP is an example of inducible genetic regulation.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins.
Section: 16.02
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

32. Operons that code for catabolic enzyme systems are typically regulated by repressors.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

33. Operons that code for anabolic enzyme systems are typically regulated by inducers.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation.
Section: 16.01
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

34. The form of regulation that involves a physical change in the shape of an enzyme is called allosteric regulation.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation.
Section: 16.04
Topic: Gene Regulation
 

 

 

Chapter 16 Gene Regulation in Bacteria Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember 2
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand 11
Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply 11
Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze 6
Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate 4
Learning Outcome: 16.01: Distinguish between the various mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. 9
Learning Outcome: 16.02: Understand the regulation of the lac operon, including the roles of the lac repressor and activator proteins. 16
Learning Outcome: 16.03: Understand the regulation of the trp operon, including the molecular details of attenuation. 3
Learning Outcome: 16.04: Recognize how repressors and antisense RNAs are used in translational regulation. 5
Learning Outcome: 16.05: Recognize how feedback inhibition is used in posttranslational regulation. 1
Section: 16.01 9
Section: 16.02 16
Section: 16.03 3
Section: 16.04 6
Topic: Gene Regulation 34

 

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