Cognition Theory and Applications 8th Edition by Reed – Test Bank

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Chapter 5-Long-Term Memory

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Memory for names and concepts in a cognitive psychology course stabilizes at above-chance levels after how many years of retention?
a. 1 year c. 5 years
b. 3 years d. 10 years

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. Studies of long-term memory for material learned in cognitive psychology classes indicate that
a. 10 years from now you will not remember anything that you now know.
b. 10 years from now you will remember almost everything you know now.
c. 10 years from now you will remember about 25 percent of what you know now.
d. 10 years from now you will remember about 50 percent of what you know now.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction

 

  1. The best predictor of retention of high school algebra is
a. the grade in the course.
b. math SAT scores.
c. continued study of advanced mathematics.
d. grades in other high school mathematics courses.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Introduction    MSC:  WWW

 

  1. In Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model of LTM, all of the following are control processes, except
a. coding. c. rehearsal.
b. sensory inhibition. d. retrieval strategies.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, which of the following is not a characteristic of LTM?
a. The rate of forgetting is slow.
b. The capacity of LTM is unlimited.
c. Control processes determine what information is acquired.
d. Information is acquired only through repetition.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Selection of a search strategy occurs during which stage of learning?
a. acquisition c. retrieval
b. retention d. rehearsal

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Which of the following is not an acquisition strategy suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin?
a. priming c. imaging
b. rehearsal d. coding

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

 

  1. The coding strategy in the Atkinson and Shiffrin model involves
a. verbal repetition of information. c. creating visual images.
b. semantic elaboration of information. d. selecting a search strategy.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Rote learning
a. means simply repeating information over and over.
b. can be useful for learning abstract information.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Which strategy is most likely to lead to rote learning?
a. rehearsal c. imaging
b. coding d. elaboration

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin, the probability of recalling an item depends on
a. the probability of including that item in the rehearsal set.
b. the number of rehearsal trials.
c. the number of intervening trials between the end of rehearsal and the test.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. A subject was told to study the following words: book, chair, calendar, alarm, phone, lamp, pencil, and desk. Later he recalled book, chair, pencil, and desk. This result is best explained as
a. the primacy effect. c. the serial position effect.
b. the recency effect. d. the proactive interference effect.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The primacy effect in a serial position curve can be eliminated if
a. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
b. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.
c. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
d. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the primacy effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The recency effect found in a serial position curve can be eliminated if
a. subjects rehearse all words equally often, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
b. subjects rehearse words equally often, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.
c. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from STM.
d. subjects perform another task for 30 seconds, suggesting that the recency effect is caused by retrieval from LTM.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Dunlosky and Nelson found that immediate judgments of learning were superior to delayed judgments of learning when judging
a. which of two learning strategies was most effective.
b. which individual items were learned.
c. Both a and b
d. Neither a nor b

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. When people have ample time to study, they focus on _____, while when they are under time constraints they focus on _____.
a. difficult concepts; easy concepts c. difficult concepts; difficult concepts
b. easy concepts; difficult concepts d. easy concepts; easy concepts

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A negative recency effect (decreased recall of words at the end of the list) occurs for
a. immediate recall of a word list.
b. delayed recall of a word list.
c. Both immediate recall of a word list and delayed recall of a word list.
d. Neither immediate recall of a word list nor delayed recall of a word list.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A benefit of taking a Cognitive Psychology course is that you are more likely to use _____ judgments to make predictions about your learning.
a. experientially-based c. functionally-based
b. brain-based d. theory-based

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A method for increasing the number of tip-of-the-tongue states is to include questions that elicit
a. autobiographical experiences. c. scientific knowledge.
b. literature knowledge. d. emotional arousal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

MSC:  WWW

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Both Brown & McNeill and Read & Bruce found that the most frequently used strategy for searching LTM during the ‘tip-of-the-tongue’ stage was to
a. spontaneously recall the name without thinking.
b. use contextual information associated with the name.
c. use partial information related to the spelling of the name.
d. generate a list of plausible names.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. A difference between naturalistic and laboratory studies of the tip-of-the-tongue effect is that people are more likely in naturalistic studies to
a. spontaneously recall the name without thinking.
b. use contextual information associated with the name.
c. use partial information related to the spelling of the name.
d. generate a list of plausible names.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. One of the primary problems with the use of hypnosis to help eyewitnesses recall crimes is
a. hypnotism does not really work. It is just a sham that has been debunked by modern cognitive scientists.
b. hypnotists can induce witnesses to report things they never saw, or to report incorrectly.
c. no one can tell whether or not a person is actually hypnotized, or just faking it.
d. hypnotism is only effective within the first 24 hours after the incident.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. A biasing effect in administering a police lineup occurs when
a. a person in a lineup has a distinctive feature.
b. the investigator’s body language reveals unintentional cues.
c. a person in a lineup was included in a mug shot photo.
d. All of these.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. A cognitive interview involves
a. reinstating the context and reporting everything.
b. assessing the duration and capacity of the witness’s Long-Term Memory to see if he or she is capable of providing valid testimony.
c. revisiting the scene of the crime under hypnosis.
d. All of these

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. The cognitive interview procedure is
a. more difficult to learn than hypnosis.
b. more effective than the standard interview procedure.
c. less effective than the standard interview procedure.
d. currently ineffective for real crimes.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In a review of wrongly convicted cases based on subsequent DNA evidence, Wells et al. (2000) found
a. there was no primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
b. eyewitness testimony was the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
c. courtroom error was the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.
d. juror memory constraints were the primary factor in establishing the initial wrongful conviction.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Accurate eyewitness identification depends on
a. recognizing familiar faces.
b. recalling the perpetrator in context.
c. viewing mug shots prior to a line-up.
d. having prior media exposure of the suspect.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. One disadvantage of showing people mug shots is that it
a. produces retroactive interference.
b. produces proactive interference.
c. increases the probability of a false identification.
d. increases the probability of not recognizing a subject.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Which of the following does not belong?
a. multiple-choice question c. true/false question
b. essay question d. word fragment identification

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Warrington and Weiskrantz discovered that patients with severe amnesia performed as well as control subjects on
a. a recall test. c. a recognition test.
b. a word-fragment test. d. None of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Memory for the context in which a word occurs is unimportant when people are tested by
a. indirect memory tests. c. recall tests.
b. recognition tests. d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Semantic memory is _____ while episodic memory is _____.
a. general knowledge; memory for skills
b. general knowledge; memory for temporally linked information
c. memory for skills; memory for temporally linked information
d. memory for temporally linked information; general knowledge

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

 

 

  1. Procedural memory is a part of
a. episodic memory. c. STM.
b. semantic memory. d. LTM.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. A distinction between direct and indirect tests of memory, according to multimemory theories, is that direct tests measure
a. episodic memory. c. procedural memory.
b. semantic memory. d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which is an example of episodic memory?
a. tying your shoe c. recalling your 5th birthday
b. naming capitals of states d. learning definitions

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

MSC:  WWW

 

  1. Which is an example of procedural memory?
a. tying your shoe c. recalling your 5th birthday
b. naming capitals of states d. learning definitions

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Reading the same passage twice helps amnesics increase their
a. confidence level. c. performance on a multiple choice test.
b. reading speed. d. performance on a recall test.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which task requires explicit memory in Squire and Knowlton’s memory taxonomy?
a. learned skills and procedures c. classical conditioning
b. a recall test d. reflex learning

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which part of the brain supports explicit memory in Squire and Knowlton’s memory taxonomy?
a. amygdala c. medial temporal lobe
b. cerebellum d. neocortex

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Which research topic has the least amount of reliable evidence according to experts?
a. Long-term repression of memories c. Hypnotic suggestability
b. Wording of questions d. Mugshot induced bias

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Applied          REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Learning can be characterized as the transfer of information between STM to LTM.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The rate of decay from STM is less rapid than that of LTM.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. The worst recall in the serial position effect occurs at the middle of the list.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is when you know the information but you have difficulty articulating because of a motor deficit of the tongue.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. The primacy effect is better memory performance early in the morning.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

 

  1. Acquisition, retention, and retrieval are all important in using our knowledge.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Metacognition

 

  1. Showing mug shots to eyewitnesses is a good method for improving the reliability of the witness.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Improving Eyewitness Recall

 

  1. Evidence from neuroscience and neuropsychology suggest that there are different types of memory: implicit and explicit.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Conceptual     REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. Memory for skills is a component of implicit memory.

 

ANS:  T                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

  1. An important structure of the brain underlying memory is the parietal lobe.

 

ANS:  F                    DIF:    Factual           REF:   Indirect Tests of Memory

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Knowing what you now know about memory, apply what you have learned to how best to study.  Include, where possible, specific examples of research to support your claims.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Explain the primacy effect and the recency effect on the rehearsal of a list of words. How could you use your knowledge of these two effects to better remember an entire list of words?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. When you experience the “tip of the tongue” phenomenon, what methods do you use to try to recall the information from your long-term memory? Do these methods usually work? Are there any other methods that might work better for you?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Given what you now know about memory, do you think that the justice system should convict someone of a crime based solely on eye-witness testimony? Use the research discussed in your text to support your position.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss direct (explicit) and indirect (implicit) memory tests. What are some advantages to using implicit memory tests when assessing memory?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the importance of acquisition, retention, and retrieval in learning and memory. What are some of the factors that influence each?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory. Include in your answer how information is entered into long-term memory. Include also relevant supporting research.

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Discuss what you have learned about memory and the issue of eyewitness recall and identification. Would you as a member of a jury convict a defendant solely on the basis of eyewitness testimony? Why or why not?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. Compare and contrast explicit and implicit aspects of memory. What research is there to support this distinction?

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

 

  1. What is Squire and Knowlton’s conceptualization of long-term memory? How are the various brain structures related to different aspects of memory? (Hint: The diagram in your text was a good summary of this.)

 

ANS:

Answer not provided.

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