Cognition Binder Ready Version 9th Edition by Margaret W. Matlin – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Long-Term Memory

5-1.      Which of the following statements about episodic memory is correct?

  1. Episodic memory stores information about events in our lives.
  2. Episodic memory refers to working memory, whereas semantic memory refers to long-term memory.
  3. Episodic memory includes knowledge about words and symbols.
  4. Episodic memory refers to our memory about how to perform tasks.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

5-2.      Which of the following statements is an example of episodic memory?

  1. Trees often lose their leaves in the fall.
  2. I know how to record a program from PBS.
  3. The word semantic is related to the word meaning.
  4. I remember reading the book Sense and Sensibility in twelfth grade.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-3.      Which of the following is an example of episodic memory?

  1. I remember receiving the letter of acceptance from my college.
  2. I remember how to make spinach lasagna.
  3. I know that daffodils bloom in the spring.
  4. I know that Spanish has two different words for “to be.”

Answer: a

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-4.      Which of the following is an example of semantic memory?

  1. Before dinner tonight, I must go to the fitness center.
  2. I recall the first time I ever thought about becoming a psychology major.
  3. I remember seeing the word consciousness in the third chapter of this textbook.
  4. I know that cabbage tastes bitter.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-5.      Consider this sentence: “I know that the winters in Wisconsin are colder than the winters in New Jersey.” This sentence is an example of

  1. episodic memory.
  2. semantic memory.
  3. source monitoring.
  4. memory encoding.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-6. Consider this sentence: “I know that winters in Wisconsin are colder than winters in South Carolina.” The knowledge expressed in this sentence is probably coded

  1. acoustically, by the sound of the words.
  2. visually, by the appearance of the letters.
  3. semantically, by its meaning.
  4. in visual, acoustic, and semantic form.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-7.      Imagine that you have to turn the clocks ahead for daylight saving time. You manage to recall the rather complex system by which you can advance the clock in your car. This skill is an example of your

  1. working memory.
  2. semantic memory.
  3. episodic memory.
  4. procedural memory.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-8. Your knowledge of how to program your DVR to record your favorite television show is an example of

  1. working memory.
  2. semantic memory.
  3. episodic memory.
  4. procedural memory.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Brief Overview of Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.1

Objective text: Discuss the vast nature of long-term memory and its components

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-9.      Suppose that you look at a new term in a foreign language, and this item is then stored in your memory. Cognitive psychologists call this process

  1. procedural memory.
  2. retrieval.
  3. encoding.
  4. recognition.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-10.    The levels-of-processing approach

  1. states that we remember material better if we encode it in terms of sensory characteristics.
  2. states that deeper processing of material usually leads to more permanent retention.
  3. emphasizes the difference between short-term memory and long-term memory.
  4. emphasizes that the best way to learn something is to repeat it over and over.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-11.    According to the levels-of-processing approach, the most effective way to learn a passage in a textbook is usually in terms of

  1. its meaning.
  2. its physical characteristics.
  3. the sound of the words that you need to remember.
  4. the color of ink in which the passage is printed

Answer: a

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-12.    Suppose that you are trying to recall a friend’s phone number, so you repeat it over and over to yourself without analyzing it or giving it a meaning. According to the levels-of-processing approach, this activity would be categorized as

  1. shallow processing.
  2. working-memory processing.
  3. deep processing.
  4. the self-reference effect.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-13.    What is one explanation that Craik and his colleagues propose for the reason why a deep level of processing leads to greater recall?

  1. At a deep level, you recognize the patterns more efficiently.
  2. Deep levels make the stimulus different from other memory traces in the system; it’s more distinctive.
  3. Deep levels place more emphasis on vivid physical characteristics of the material.
  4. Encoding specificity is more likely to occur.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-14.    Suppose that when you hear a new acquaintance’s name, Chris Money, you think about the meaning of the name Money, including both coins and dollar bills, and the importance of money in our culture. The kind of processing you would be using is called

  1. serial processing.
  2. automatic processing.
  3. sensory memory.
  4. elaboration.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-15.    Which of the following students provides the best understanding of the concept called elaboration?

  1. Harry: “Elaboration means that you retrieve an item from working memory and use it immediately.
  2. Jodi: “Elaboration happens when you have successfully used encoding specificity.”
  3. Elizabeth: “Elaboration means that you are trying to make an item as different as possible from all other items in memory.”
  4. Soltan: “Elaboration means that you think about how an item is related to other concepts.”

Answer: d

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-16.    What can we conclude about the self-reference effect?

  1. Although early research found evidence of this effect, more recent experiments have been unable to demonstrate it.
  2. Although the self-reference effect operates with children, it does not apply to adolescents or adults.
  3. The research shows that people are more likely to recall words that apply to themselves compared with words that do not apply.
  4. The self-reference effect is one exception to the general tendency for deep levels of processing to be particularly effective in enhancing memory.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-17.    Researchers have developed several explanations for the observation that people recall information more accurately if they try to connect that information with themselves. Chapter 5 noted that one likely explanation is that people are more likely

  1. to use encoding specificity when connecting information to other people, so this problem leads to memory errors.
  2. to use auditory cues when connecting information to other people, so this problem leads to memory errors.
  3. to link self-referenced information to a more distinctive and more well-rehearsed set of cues, so this enhances recall.
  4. to picture themselves in an unusual context, and this novel context enhances recall.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-18.    In general, self-reference instructions

  1. enhance memory in the laboratory, but not in real-life settings.
  2. enhance short-term memory, but not long-term memory.
  3. enhance memory in a wide variety of situations.
  4. are actually no more effective than instructions to use shallow processing.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-19.    You read in a psychology journal that the authors of an article have conducted a meta-analysis. You conclude that they have

  1. analyzed the variety of independent variables that would probably influence the dependent variable they are studying.
  2. conducted a study with at least 100 participants.
  3. located previous studies on a topic and then statistically combined the results of those studies in order to determine an overall effect.
  4. interviewed at least 20 experts in the appropriate field and compared their opinions on a particular topic.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-20.    Suppose that some researchers would like to see whether memory is enhanced by using vivid imagery. They locate a large number of studies and use a statistical method to combine all the information to determine whether vivid imagery is effective. The method they use would be called as

  1. dissociation.
  2. correlation.
  3. meta-analysis.
  4. metamemory.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-21.    Foley and her colleagues (1999) proposed that the research on self-reference may actually underestimate the magnitude of the self-reference effect. They reached this conclusion because

  1. participants typically process items at a shallow level of processing, even when they are instructed to use deep processing.
  2. the meta-analysis of the data on the self-reference effect demonstrates that this technique is not especially helpful.
  3. participants cannot really relate items to their own lives.
  4. the participants reported that they had often used self-reference processing, even when they had received other instructions.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-22.    Chapter 5 discusses a study by Foley and her colleagues, in which participants listened to a list of concrete nouns. Students in one group were told to visualize each object; students in another group were told to imagine themselves using the object. One important finding was that

  1. people remembered more nouns in the “visualize” condition.
  2. people often imagined themselves using the object, even if they were in the “visualize” condition.
  3. people apparently follow a researcher’s instructions quite carefully.
  4. there was no evidence for the self-reference effect.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-23.    According to your textbook, which of the following is one likely explanation for the self-reference effect?

  1. Self-reference instructions increase the likelihood of the item being stored in procedural memory.
  2. Self-reference instructions increase the capacity of working memory.
  3. When people think about whether words apply to themselves, they consider how their personal characteristics are interrelated.
  4. In reality, most people emphasize the physical characteristics of the stimulus, rather than using self-reference.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-24.    The encoding-specificity principle suggests that

  1. we recall something better if we are in the same context in which we originally learned the material.
  2. we recall something better if we are in a context that is moderately different from the original learning context—not too similar and not too different.
  3. recall depends upon how specific the instructions are; vague instructions lead to poor recall.
  4. it is more effective to encode material during learning than to decode the material during recall.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-25.    Chapter 5 describes a study by Marian and Fausey, who studied English–Spanish bilinguals. They presented two stories in English and two stories in Spanish. Then the researchers asked questions about the stories, sometimes in English and sometimes in Spanish. The results showed that

  1. there were no significant differences between conditions, demonstrating that encoding-specificity effect is weak.
  2. people were more accurate in the English–English condition, compared with the Spanish–Spanish condition.
  3. people were more accurate in the Spanish–Spanish condition, compared with the English–English condition.
  4. people were more accurate when the language of the stories matched the language of the questions.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-26. Years ago, you read a story called “Le Petit Prince” (“The Little Prince”) in French. According to the encoding-specificity principle, you would be likely to remember more about the story if

  1. you were asked questions about it in English.
  2. you were asked questions about it in French.
  3. you were asked to think about how the story related to your own life.
  4. you were asked to think about how the words appeared on the pages of the book.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

 

5-27.    What can we conclude about the encoding-specificity principle?

  1. Context effects are very clear-cut, especially in laboratory research.
  2. Current research suggests no evidence for the encoding-specificity principle.
  3. Context effects are often demonstrated in our daily experiences, but the effect is relatively weak in laboratory research.
  4. Context effects are especially prominent when the material has been well learned.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-28.    Suppose that a friend tells you that her introductory psychology textbook says you should study for a test in the same room where you will take the test, because of the effects of context. Your most informed response would be

  1. “Yes, that’s true, as long as you emphasize the physical characteristics of the material you are studying.”
  2. “Yes, that’s true; context provides the most helpful cues for prompting memory.”
  3. “No, that’s not true; researchers have found no convincing evidence for encoding specificity.”
  4. “Well, it can sometimes be helpful to have the same physical context for studying and for recall, but the effect is not very strong.”

Answer: d

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-29.    The research on encoding specificity shows that the effect

  1. is more likely when items have been in memory for a long time.
  2. is more likely when tested by recognition, rather than recall.
  3. works only for negative or neutral events.
  4. works best when testing physical context, rather than mental context.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-30.    Which of the following students has the best understanding about the inconsistent research results on encoding specificity?

  1. Albena: “Encoding specificity works especially well in laboratory settings.”
  2. Mary Lou: “Encoding specificity works especially well for events that happened long ago.”
  3. George: “Encoding specificity is especially likely when the material has been well learned.”
  4. Takeshi: “According to the research, physical context is more important than all other encoding cues; studies that have congruent physical context are very likely to demonstrate encoding specificity.”

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-31.    In Chapter 5 of your textbook, the discussion of encoding specificity and level of processing emphasized that

  1. both encoding specificity and level of processing activate the visual cortex during processing, and this activation directly improves recall.
  2. recall is more accurate if the instructions during encoding match the instructions during remembering; this match may actually be more important than deep processing.
  3. the most important factor in determining recall is whether people processed the material using deep processing or shallow processing.
  4. encoding specificity is the most important factor in laboratory research on memory, whereas level of processing is the most important factor for everyday memory tasks.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-32.    Which of the following students provides the best summary of the research on the relationship between encoding and retrieval?

  1. Chad: “Performance at retrieval is consistently best for those items that were encoded with deep levels of processing.”
  2. Juan: “When retrieval emphasizes shallow processing, then shallow processing is more effective at the time of encoding.”
  3. Silvia: “The research on source monitoring casts doubt on the relationship between encoding and retrieval.”
  4. Saundra: “For visual stimuli, encoding and retrieval are closely correlated; for auditory stimuli, they are not.”

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-33. Suppose that you performed a classic levels-of-processing memory task. At the time of retrieval, you are asked, “Was there a word on the list that rhymed with log?” You will be most likely to remember the word “dog” if you originally processed it by answering the question,

  1. “Is it printed in capital letters?”
  2. “Does it rhyme with log?”
  3. “Is it a type of animal?”
  4. “Does it fit into the sentence: The ____ jumped up on the man.”

Answer: b

Section Ref: Encoding in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.2

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-34.    Which of the following is an example of an explicit memory task?

  1. You are shown a set of photos and you are asked which ones are familiar because you have seen them before.
  2. You supply free associations more quickly to words that you have recently seen than to words you have not recently seen.
  3. You are shown some word fragments, and you complete the words more quickly if you have seen them before.
  4. You dial a familiar phone number more quickly than an unfamiliar phone number.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-35.    Which of the following is an example of an implicit memory task?

  1. Recognizing which advertisements had been presented 1 hour ago and which ones are new
  2. Recalling the names of popular fairy tales
  3. Matching French vocabulary words with their English translations
  4. Completing a word for which the first and last letter have been supplied

Answer: d

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-36.    Suppose that students in a research study see a list of English words. Which of the following would be the best way for the researchers to test implicit memory later on in the session?

  1. Ask them to recall as many words as possible.
  2. Show them a longer list of words and ask them to recognize which ones they saw earlier.
  3. See if they show more encoding specificity for the words that were not in the original list.
  4. Show them a longer list of words, with several letters missing from each word, and ask them to complete the words.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-37.    Suppose that you have been looking at a magazine that contains a number of photos of attractive desserts, including one of a lemon meringue pie. Later, someone asks you what your favorite dessert is, and you reply “lemon meringue pie,” You actually like other desserts equally well, though they were not among those original photos. This example is most like

  1. an explicit-memory task.
  2. an implicit-memory task.
  3. a mood-congruent task.
  4. a procedural memory task.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-38.    Which of the following is an example of the concept known as dissociation?

  1. Mood-congruence effects are usually stronger than mood-incongruence effects.
  2. Many people perform well on implicit memory tasks, even when they perform poorly on explicit memory tasks.
  3. Depressed people recall unpleasant material better than pleasant material, whereas non-depressed people recall pleasant material better than unpleasant material.
  4. Mood-congruence effects are fairly strong, whereas implicit-memory effects are inconsistent and not very strong.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-39. Suppose that you have been looking at a magazine that contains a number of photos of attractive desserts, including one of a lemon meringue pie. Later, someone asks you what your favorite dessert is, and you reply “lemon meringue pie,” you actually like other desserts equally well, though they were not among those original photos. You have experienced

  1. a failure of explicit memory.
  2. a dissociation.
  3. repetition priming.
  4. retrograde amnesia.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Describe how levels of processing and encoding specificity contribute to the encoding process

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-40.    According to the research on implicit memory and explicit memory,

  1. people with amnesia typically perform better on explicit memory tasks than on implicit memory tasks.
  2. when the tests are conducted properly, most people with normal memory reveal very little implicit memory.
  3. on implicit memory tasks, people recall much more when they have used deep levels of processing, rather than shallow levels.
  4. psychologists sometimes discover a dissociation; for example, a variable may have a large effect on an explicit task, but a small effect on an implicit task.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

 

 

5-41.    Suppose that you hear about a man who has retrograde amnesia. What kind of memory task will he find most difficult?

  1. Working-memory tasks
  2. Remembering events that happened before his brain injury
  3. Remembering visual information about events that happened after his brain injury
  4. Remembering verbal information about events that happened after his brain injury

Answer: b

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-42.    A person with anterograde amnesia

  1. has difficulty forming memories of things that happened after the brain damage.
  2. has difficulty on implicit memory tasks, rather than explicit memory tasks.
  3. has relatively weak long-term memory, compared to working memory.
  4. is likely to retain expertise in one specific area of knowledge.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-43.    Compared to control-group participants, people with anterograde amnesia are likely to

  1. perform similarly on implicit memory tasks, but poorer on explicit memory tasks.
  2. perform similarly on explicit memory tasks, but poorer on implicit memory tasks.
  3. perform significantly worse on both implicit and explicit tasks.
  4. perform well on recognition tasks, but poorly on all other measures of memory.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-44.    Suppose that Peter is an expert in gymnastics. You would expect to find that

  1. he is also an expert in several other unrelated areas.
  2. he actually has less vivid imagery about gymnastics than a nonexpert would have.
  3. he has an IQ that is in the gifted range.
  4. he practices gymnastics very conscientiously, typically at least an hour every day.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-45.    Suppose that you hear a guest lecturer who says, “We must remember that expertise is typically context specific.” Another way of stating this point is that

  1. a person’s expertise is often limited to one specific area; he or she may have average-level performance in other areas.
  2. an expert is even more likely than a novice to demonstrate encoding specificity.
  3. an expert is more likely than a novice to show dissociation on a variety of tasks.
  4. an expert’s performance is limited to the structure of his or her knowledge, rather than organizational or rehearsal processes.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-46.    Expertise is helpful in remembering material because experts

  1. tend to inhibit the development of mental images that can interfere with learning.
  2. are likely to reorganize the material that they must recall.
  3. use rote rehearsal more frequently than novices do.
  4. are less likely to “overlearn” material than novices do.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Knowledge

 

5-47.    Research on expertise in memory indicates that

  1. experts do not really perform substantially better than other people on memory tasks, when you consider memory for material related to their area of expertise.
  2. experts are usually accurate in reconstructing missing parts of information from material that they partially remember.
  3. experts typically have both a well-organized knowledge structure in a particular area and outstanding general memory skills.
  4. expertise is primarily helpful because it exercises the mind, similar to the way a body-builder exercises the muscles of the body.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-48.    Psychologists in the United States have conducted research on identifying faces of people from different ethnic groups. This research shows that

  1. Black and European American individuals are usually more accurate in recognizing members of their own ethnic groups, rather than members of other groups.
  2. Black individuals are significantly more accurate than European American individuals in recognizing members of both ethnic groups.
  3. in the current era, ethnicity is not a factor in recognizing faces.
  4. the results on ethnicity and recognition are so complex that no overall conclusions can be drawn.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-49.    According to the research on the own-ethnicity bias,

  1. people are always more accurate in recognizing individuals from their own ethnic group than from another ethnic group.
  2. people may not show the own-ethnicity bias if they have frequent contact with people from another ethnic group.
  3. people actually recognize individuals better if they are from a different ethnic group.
  4. there is currently little evidence for this kind of bias.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-50.    Chapter 5 discussed a study on the own-ethnicity bias. The study was conducted in Great Britain, where many residents are South Asian. According to this study,

  1. British White residents were more accurate in distinguishing British White faces than South Asian faces.
  2. British White residents were equally accurate in distinguishing British White faces and South Asian faces.
  3. South Asian residents were more accurate in distinguishing South Asian faces than British White faces.
  4. British White residents and South Asian residents are equally accurate in distinguishing both kinds of faces, probably because there are currently many films and advertisements that feature South Asian residents.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Retrieval in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.3

Objective text: Assess the factors that contribute to successful memory retrieval

Bloom’s Level: Knowledge

 

5-51.    The term autobiographical memory generally refers to

  1. research conducted in the laboratory.
  2. memory for issues and events from your own life.
  3. remembering that you must do a specific task in the future.
  4. memory for the events that are related to the lives of relatives and close friends.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Knowledge

 

5-52.    Your memory for the issues and events that are related to your own life is called

  1. implicit memory.
  2. encoding specificity.
  3. elaboration.
  4. autobiographical memory.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Knowledge

 

5-53. According to the discussion in the chapter on long-term memory, ecological validity

  1. is typically greater in the research on encoding than in the research on autobiographical memory.
  2. is relatively strong when the research examines the correspondence between a real-life event and the memory of the event.
  3. is more likely in the research on implicit memory than in the research on explicit memory.
  4. is a concept that was strongly emphasized in the early history of cognitive psychology, but it is now considered relatively unimportant.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-54.    Which of the following is the most accurate summary statement about the research on autobiographical memory?

  1. Most memory errors concern relatively trivial information, rather than central, important information.
  2. In autobiographical memory, implicit memory is much more accurate than explicit memory.
  3. Our autobiographical memory tends to be highly accurate, even for minor details.
  4. Each time we receive new information about a life event, it is stored together with a “marker” that indicates when this new information was added.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-55.    According to the discussion of schemas and memory,

  1. we form schemas based on our previous experiences with someone or something.
  2. once an event has occurred, we can no longer recall any specific information about the event.
  3. schemas only operate prior to the occurrence of an event.
  4. current researchers do not consider schemas to be a useful term in cognitive psychology.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-56.    According to the textbook’s description of a schema,

  1. a schema for an event is usually much more positive than the event really was.
  2. our schema for an event tends to be highly accurate.
  3. a schema is like a flashbulb memory, because it contains so many details.
  4. our schemas tend to guide our recall.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-57.    Which of the following students’ statements is the best summary of the consistency bias?

  1. Victor: “We are highly accurate in remembering events that happened to us personally.”
  2. Kyoko: “According to the consistency bias, we are consistently biased toward memories that enhance our self-esteem.”
  3. Harlan: “We often tend to adjust our memories in order to be consistent with the shared recall of friends and family members.”
  4. Nimian: “We sometimes exaggerate the extent to which our past ideas are consistent with our present ideas.”

Answer: d

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-58.    Suppose that you have spent some time thinking about how you are going to discuss a certain issue with a friend. Later, you try to decide whether you had actually discussed this issue, or whether you simply imagined doing so. This is an example of

  1. implicit memory.
  2. schematization of memory.
  3. source monitoring.
  4. mood congruence.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-59.    Stephanie is trying to decide whether she told Sid that the history test had been postponed—or whether she had only imagined telling him this. Stephanie is currently engaging in

  1. flashbulb memory.
  2. an implicit memory task.
  3. source monitoring.
  4. a dissociation.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-60.    According to the research and discussion about source monitoring,

  1. government agencies, corporations, and the media sometimes make source-monitoring errors.
  2. source-monitoring errors are generally easy to correct.
  3. people are almost always accurate in recognizing which ideas from an earlier session were actually their own.
  4. source monitoring occurs fairly often for visual information, but only rarely for auditory information.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-61.    Suppose that your cousin believes that he has a vivid memory for the details surrounding the death of a famous person. This phenomenon is often called

  1. a reconstructed memory.
  2. mood congruence.
  3. a semantic memory.
  4. a flashbulb memory.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-62.    Imagine that a friend has just read a magazine article that discusses flashbulb memories, and your friend argues that people retain a very clear memory of certain emotional events. What would you respond?

  1. “Yes, the research strongly supports the concept of certain strong, almost permanent memories for highly important events.”
  2. “Yes, the article is correct that some memories are very clear, but these fade after 2–3 years.”
  3. “No, the article overstates the case; these memories can be inaccurate and can fade with time.”
  4. “No, there is no evidence for flashbulb memories.”

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Evaluation

 

5-63.    According to the research on flashbulb memories,

  1. researchers agree that flashbulb memories are indeed more accurate than memories for other important events.
  2. people claim that they have accurate memories for these events, but many researchers have found that the memories contain inaccuracies.
  3. flashbulb memories are accurate only for unpleasant memories, rather than for pleasant ones.
  4. during the current era, no researcher has demonstrated more accurate recall for these significant life events.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-64.    The chapter on long-term memory discussed the research by Talarico and Rubin, about students’ memory for how they learned about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. According to this research,

  1. the students were overconfident that their recall of the event was accurate.
  2. the number of inconsistent details, supplied by the students, stayed the same over time.
  3. the students’ recall was much more accurate for the terrorist attack than for an ordinary event.
  4. the students’ memory for the terrorist attack actually included more inconsistent details than consistent details.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-65.    Suppose that Joe experienced a hurricane about 18 months ago. His cousin Sam read about the hurricane in the newspaper, but he did not experience it. Which of the following would be most likely?

  1. Joe would actually recall very little information about the hurricane, due to repression and other avoidance strategies.
  2. Joe would seldom think about the hurricane; if asked, however, he could accurately reconstruct the details.
  3. Joe’s recall would be more accurate than Sam’s, even if it is not perfect.
  4. Joe and Sam would have fairly similar patterns of recall, despite the differences in their experience with the hurricane.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-66.    What general conclusion can we draw about our memory accuracy for important events in our lives (“flashbulb memories”)?

  1. For these events, our memories are so accurate that the name “flashbulb memory” is appropriate.
  2. For a disastrous event, people who live far away from the event are actually somewhat more likely than others to develop an accurate “flashbulb memory.”
  3. These “flashbulb memories” can be explained by ordinary mechanisms, such as rehearsal frequency.
  4. Surprisingly, these “flashbulb memories” become even more accurate as time passes since the original event.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-67.    Why is retroactive interference relevant to the post-event misinformation effect?

  1. Recently learned material may interfere with the older memories.
  2. Information gathered prior to an event may somehow bias the way you perceive the event.
  3. More vivid information will be recalled more accurately than less vivid information.
  4. Eyewitnesses are less confident than they should be.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-68.    According to the research on the post-event misinformation effect,

  1. people are remarkably resistant to new, inconsistent information.
  2. a question containing incorrect information can alter people’s recall of the original event.
  3. misleading information influences recall for children, but not for adults.
  4. these new memories created by post-event information are more vivid than memories created by real events.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-69.    Which of the following statements would be most consistent with the constructivist approach to memory?

  1. “We often reconstruct the specific details of an event, and we fail to see its similarity to other similar events in our life.”
  2. “Our memory for an event sometimes changes over time, depending on our current beliefs.”
  3. “Memory resembles a blank slate, on which the events of our life are recorded; the marks on that slate that are most permanent will be the ones that endure in our memory.”
  4. “The constructivist approach is especially useful when people want to increase the accuracy of their memory.”

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-70.    Suppose that you have just read an autobiography by a novelist. You read a critique of that autobiography, which argues that we must take a constructivist approach to the book. This critique is likely to emphasize that

  1. people’s recall is generally highly accurate.
  2. people systemically describe themselves as smarter and better than they really are.
  3. the novelist may have written things about the past that were consistent with her current interpretation of her life—but may not have happened that way.
  4. existential moments shape our reality, and they are guided by our early childhood experiences.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-71.    Chapter 5 discusses several variables that can influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. According to this discussion, eyewitness testimony is most likely to be accurate when

  1. someone was carrying a weapon.
  2. there was a long delay between the event and the eyewitness testimony.
  3. the misinformation is believable.
  4. there is no social pressure for the witness to supply information.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-72.    People are more likely to make errors in eyewitness testimony

  1. if the original event was actually very consistent with a schema.
  2. if there was believable post-event misinformation.
  3. if there is no social pressure.
  4. if these people provided eyewitness testimony immediately after the event.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-73.    Eyewitness testimony is most likely accurate accurate when

  1. the witnesses do not experience social pressure.
  2. the misinformation seems highly probable.
  3. the witnesses are praised for their memory performance.
  4. the witnesses are tested for explicit memory, rather than implicit memory.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-74. Which of the following eyewitnesses would be most likely to accurately identify an attacker?

  1. Mary, who was threatened with a gun
  2. Jose, who saw a lineup over a year after the crime occurred
  3. Courtney, who identified a pickpocket from a lineup in which the investigating officer was careful to give her no feedback
  4. Sam, who was questioned with leading questions containing plausible but incorrect details

Answer: c

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-75.    When people estimate their confidence while providing eyewitness testimony,

  1. they are typically more correct than they estimate themselves to be.
  2. they are almost as confident about their incorrect memories as they are about their correct memories.
  3. their confidence about their eyewitness testimony is strongly correlated with the accuracy of the testimony.
  4. their confidence is reduced because of the constructivist effect.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Autobiographical Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.4

Objective text: Synthesize the key components of memory for events that have occurred in an individual’s life history

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

5-76.    In general, what is the relationship between emotional tone and recall accuracy in long-term memory?

  1. Emotional tone has little influence on recall in long-term memory, although it does influence working memory.
  2. Recall is generally most accurate for mildly unpleasant items.
  3. Recall is generally most accurate for neutral items.
  4. Recall is generally most accurate for pleasant items.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-77.    The Pollyanna Principle is consistent with which theme of the textbook?

  1. The cognitive processes are interrelated.
  2. The cognitive processes are active, rather than passive.
  3. The cognitive processes are efficient and accurate.
  4. People process positive information more accurately than negative information.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Hard

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Synthesis

 

5-78.    Chapter 5 discussed a study by Waring and Kensinger (2011), in which people looked at stimuli that were either very positive, very negative, or neutral; each stimulus was shown together with a neutral background, such as a river. The results of this study showed that people were least likely to recognize this neutral background

  1. when the stimulus was very positive.
  2. when the stimulus was very negative.
  3. when the stimulus was neutral.
  4. when they were tested immediately after the stimuli had been presented.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-79.    Suppose that you are an advertiser, and a television station has told you that you can select the TV program in which you want your advertisement to appear. According to the research on long-term memory, you want your ad to appear in a program that is

  1. emotionally neutral.
  2. mildly unpleasant.
  3. a violent cartoon show.
  4. a violent news program.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-80.    Chapter 5 discussed the relationship between the violence of a TV program and people’s recall of commercials shown during that program. According to this research, people recall a commercial more accurately

  1. when the program is extremely violent.
  2. when the program is moderately violent.
  3. when the program is nonviolent.
  4. when the visual component of the program is nonviolent but the auditory component is moderately violent.

Answer: c

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-81.    Suppose that some friends of yours want to advertise their new product on a television show. If they want people to remember the product, what kind of program would you recommend and why?

  1. A violent show, because the excitement of the show will enhance recall for their product
  2. A violent show, because the violence will encourage them to forget the show and remember the advertisement
  3. A nonviolent show, because violence and anger usually reduce memory for the advertisement
  4. A neutral show, because the boredom of the program will increase people’s attention to the advertisement

Answer: c

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Application

 

5-82. Over time, unpleasant memories

  1. never fade.
  2. fade less than pleasant memories.
  3. fade about the same as pleasant memories.
  4. fade more than pleasant memories.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-83.    Which of the following students provides the most accurate summary about the emotions associated with events that occurred in the past?

  1. Hongbo: “Neutral events usually become more negative.”
  2. Josiah: “The emotional tone of pleasant events fades more than the emotional tone of negative events.”
  3. Anna: “The emotional tone of unpleasant events fades more than the emotional tone of pleasant events.”
  4. Sidney: “People who tend to be depressed show no fading in emotional tone for either pleasant or unpleasant events.”

Answer: c

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-84.    Chapter 5 discussed research about anxiety disorders and memory accuracy for words related to anxiety. According to this research,

  1. no matter how memory is measured, there are no significant differences between low-anxious and high-anxious people with respect to memory for words related to anxiety.
  2. high-anxious and low-anxious people differ significantly, when memory is measured in terms of implicit memory.
  3. high-anxious and low-anxious people differ significantly, when memory is measured on a recognition test.
  4. high-anxious and low-anxious people differ significantly, when memory is measured on a recall test.

Answer: d

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Comprehension

 

5-85.    Which of the following statements most accurately captures the point of view called the “false memory perspective” with respect to childhood sexual abuse?

  1. As adults, people construct an incorrect memory about abuse, and they believe that the abuse actually did occur.
  2. As adults, people are encouraged to report an incorrect memory about abuse, but they actually know that the abuse did not occur.
  3. As adults, people construct an incorrect memory that their childhood was actually quite pleasant, and they cover up their actual experience of abuse.
  4. As children, people construct an incorrect memory about abuse, but as adults, they realize that the abuse did not occur.

Answer: a

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-86.    According to the discussion of the “false memory controversy,”

  1. we have extensive evidence that people repress painful memories and later recover them.
  2. in some cases, therapists have suggested that unpleasant events may have occurred during childhood, and people may mistakenly believe that they actually occurred.
  3. researchers have constructed a checklist to determine whether an individual is telling the truth about an early life event; this checklist has high validity.
  4. the research shows that people seldom make errors; when they say they experienced an event, it is almost certain that they did so.

Answer: b

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

5-87. In laboratory studies of false memories, about ___ of participants actually come to remember an event that never actually occurred.

  1. 10%
  2. 25%
  3. 50%
  4. 75%

Answer: b

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Easy

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Knowledge

 

5-88.    Freyd proposed that the concept of betrayal trauma can explain why people may forget about their own experience with sexual abuse during childhood. Which of the following statements would be most consistent with this perspective?

  1. “When a child is sexually abused by a trusted adult, the child may not be able to recall the abuse at a later time.”
  2. “Memory for child sexual abuse is just as accurate as memory for other childhood events.”
  3. “Memory is largely constructed, so an adult can construct a childhood event that did not really occur, as long as it is consistent with that adult’s current knowledge and ideas.”
  4. “Certain events are so traumatic to a child that he or she will recall them especially vividly—somewhat like a flashbulb memory.”

Answer: a

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

5-89.    Several students are discussing the controversy about recovered memory and false memory. Which of the following students provides the best summary of the “recovered memory perspective”?

  1. Michele: “According to this perspective, all memories that adults recover about childhood sexual abuse are inaccurate, resulting from source-monitoring problems.”
  2. Magali: “This perspective says that there is no objective way to tell whether recovered memories are accurate, so that individuals are advised not to be concerned about them.”
  3. Greg: “According to this perspective, childhood sexual abuse is so traumatic that people may forget those memories for a while, but may retrieve them during adulthood.”
  4. Sol: “According to this perspective, a recovered memory is actually a constructed memory, in other words, people revise the past so that it is consistent with the present.”

Answer: c

Section Ref: Special Topics in Long-Term Memory

Difficulty: Medium

Objective: 5.5

Objective text: Apply the principles of long-term memory to real-world issues

Bloom’s Level: Analysis

 

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