Cities and Urban Life 6th Edition by John J. Macionis – Test Bank


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Examination Questions


Multiple Choice


  1. Urban sociology emerged in the context of

* a. the Industrial Revolution in Europe.

  1. the Revolutionary War in the United States.
  2. World War II.
  3. None of the above


Page 122


  1. Sociology emerged with the work of

* a. Auguste Comte.

  1. Karl Marx.
  2. Ferdinand Tönnies.
  3. Max Weber.


Page 122


  1. According to Marx, social institutions are determined by
  2. the political structure.
  3. religion.

* c. the economic system.

  1. tradition.


Page 122


  1. The “Asiatic modes of production” refer to
  2. the factory system in China.
  3. a concept developed by Weber.

* c. an economic structure characterized by limited division of labor, common property, and lack of individualism.

  1. an urban setting characterized by high specialization of labor and impersonal relationships.


Page 122


  1. The concept of “gemeinschaft” means
  2. association.

* b. community.

  1. organism.
  2. neighborhood.


Page 122-123


  1. Which of the following characteristics is NOT part of gesellschaft?
  2. rational and calculating behavior
  3. focus on self-interest

* c. kinship

  1. decline of family


Page 123


  1. Durkheim saw “organic solidarity” as
  2. the equivalent to Tönnies’s “gemeinschaft.”
  3. a social order based on common belief, customs and rituals.
  4. an automatic form of dependence.

*d. a social order based on a complex division of labor.


Page 125


  1. Georg Simmel focused on
  2. the structure of cities.
  3. the economic function of cities.
  4. the social mobility of individuals in cities.

* d. the social psychology of city life.


Page 126


  1. According to Simmel, individual behavior in the city is dominated by
  2. passion.

* b. rationality.

  1. compassion.
  2. None of the above


Page 126


  1. What does the murder of Ms. Genovese illustrate?
  2. the concept of compassion
  3. the concept of gemeinschaft dominant in modern cities
  4. the mechanical aspect of solidarity emphasized by Durkheim

* d. the cultivated indifference observed by Simmel


Pages 128


  1. The comparative approach to urban sociology was promoted by
  2. Durkheim.
  3. Tönnies.

* c. Weber.

  1. Simmel.


Page 129


  1. According to Weber, the ideal city is characterized by
  2. a relative predominance of trade and commercial relations.
  3. some degree of political autonomy.
  4. a related form of association.

* d. All of the above


Page 130


  1. Authors in the classical European tradition all saw the city as
  2. increasing human choice.
  3. characterized by a complex division of labor.
  4. an improvement of the quality of life.

* d. Both a and b


Page 131


  1. Park’s image of the city includes all but which of the following?

* a. a homogeneous population

  1. formal social structures
  2. a more rational life
  3. a commercial structure


Page 133


  1. Compared to the classical European tradition, Parks’ urban sociology
  2. is more abstract.

* b. is more empirical.

  1. is less relevant to contemporary urban problems.
  2. is more theoretical.


Page 133


  1. According to Wirth, the large population size of cities creates
  2. greater cultural homogeneity.

* b. a need for formal control structures.

  1. a problem for economic growth.
  2. the conditions for democracy.


Page 136


  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the types of urban lifestyles identified by Herbert Gans?
  2. cosmopolites
  3. the unmarried or childless
  4. the ethnic villagers

* d. the urban sophisticates


Page 138


  1. Wirth’s mistake was in

* a. generalizing too much from the urban conditions of the time in which he lived.

  1. underestimating the popularity of the suburbs.
  2. failing to identify the exurbs.
  3. not understanding the complexities of urban life.


Page 139


  1. Which of the following is NOT central to Claude Fischer’s subcultural theory?
  2. critical mass

* b. cultural isolation

  1. cultural diffusion
  2. urbanism


Pages 140


  1. Modern researchers have shown that
  2. tolerance is more pervasive in rural areas.
  3. people with lower levels of income are more tolerant.

* c. urban tolerance is a product of migration.

  1. modern technologies, such as television, have lowered tolerance in cities.


Page 141-142


  1. Urban “neighboring”

* a. varies markedly.

  1. is always active.
  2. is always impersonal.
  3. usually involves only working-class people.


Page 143


  1. The positive relationship between density and pathological behavior
  2. has been proven by genetic analysis.
  3. is rejected by J.B. Calhoun.
  4. is primarily biological.

*d. appears to be linked to poverty and racial discrimination.


Page 145


  1. According to recent evidence, the city
  2. is more tolerant than other types of settlements.
  3. is not as impersonal as many thought it was.
  4. does not promote a greater malaise than rural areas do.

* d. All of the above


Page 146





  1. For Marx, cities announced a transition to “barbarism.” (F)


Page 122


  1. Marx and Engels believed that the flaws of capitalism cause poverty and unemployment. (T)


Page 122


  1. Gemeinschaft characterized the large city. (F)


Page 122-123


  1. Tönnies understood cities as part of a continuum. (T)


Page 122-123


  1. Organic solidarity refers to a social order based on individual differences. (T)


Page 125


  1. Durkheim’s view of the city is pessimistic. (F)


Page 125


  1. According to Simmel, money is very important in urban life. (T)


Page 126


  1. Simmel explained the spread of graffiti in cities by economic inequality. (F)


Page 129


  1. Weber compared cities in different parts of the world. (T)


Page 129-130


  1. Weber saw the modern city as closer to his ideal city type than the medieval city was. (F)


Page 129-130


  1. Park saw urban life as disorder and chaos. (F)


Pages 133


  1. Park argued that urban research should be based on a disciplined observation. (T)


Page 133


  1. Wirth attempted to define universal social characteristics of the city. (T)


Page 136


  1. Wirth’s idea of “social segmentalization” refers to discrimination in the housing market. (F)


Page 136


  1. An emphasis on historical perspective is one of Wirth’s major contributions to urban sociology. (F)


Page 136


  1. Urbanization necessarily generates urbanism. (F)


Page 136


  1. White’s study of ethnic neighborhoods supports Wirth’s argument about urban anonymity. (F)


Page 146


  1. Cities create greater psychological distress. (F)


Page 147





  1. Most classical theories were pessimistic about the urban life. Why do you think that is the case? What are the negative and positive aspects of urban life?


  1. Compare Tönnies’s and Durkheim’s theories of urban life. What are the differences and similarities?


  1. Do you think that urban life is as negative as the classic authors thought it was? Explain the positive and negative aspects of urban life.



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