Chapter 7 Medical Asepsis

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Chapter 7  Medical Asepsis

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The nurse understands that the priority nursing action needed when medical asepsis is used includes:
a.
handwashing.
b.
surgical procedures.
c.
autoclaving of instruments.
d.
sterilization of equipment.

ANS: A
Medical asepsis, or clean technique, includes procedures used to reduce the number, and prevent the spread, of microorganisms. Hand hygiene, barrier techniques, and routine environmental cleaning are examples of medical asepsis. Surgical asepsis, or sterile technique, includes procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms from an area. Sterilization destroys all microorganisms and their spores. The techniques used in maintaining surgical asepsis are more rigid than those performed under medical asepsis.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: pp. 166-167
OBJ: Explain the difference between medical and surgical asepsis.
TOP: Medical Asepsis KEY: Nursing Process Step: Intervention
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. Handwashing with soap and water is:
a.
the most effective way to reduce the number of bacteria on the nurse’s hands.
b.
more effective than alcohol-based products for washing hands.
c.
necessary for hand hygiene if hands are visibly soiled.
d.
not necessary if the nurse wears artificial nails.

ANS: C
Soap and water is still necessary for hand hygiene if hands are visibly soiled. Recent research has shown that handwashing with plain soap sometimes results in paradoxical increases in bacterial counts on the skin. Alcohol-based products have been more effective for standard handwashing or hand antisepsis than soap or antiseptic soaps. Studies have shown the efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizers in reducing infection in a variety of settings from intensive care to long-term care. Studies have shown that health care workers with chipped nail polish or long or artificial nails have high numbers of bacteria on their fingertips. For this reason, the CDC recommends that health care workers not wear artificial nails and extenders, and that they keep natural nails less than one-quarter of an inch long when caring for high-risk patients.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 168
OBJ: Describe factors that can influence nursing staff compliance with hand hygiene.
TOP: Hand Hygiene KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. When caring for patients, the nurse understands that the single most important technique to prevent and control the transmission of infection is:
a.
hand hygiene.
b.
the use of disposable gloves.
c.
the use of isolation precautions.
d.
sterilization of equipment.

ANS: A
The most important and most basic technique in preventing and controlling transmission of infection is hand hygiene. Use of disposable gloves may help reduce the transmission of infection, but it is not the single most important technique to prevent and control the transmission of infection. Neither the use of isolation precautions nor the sterilization of equipment is the single most important technique to prevent and control the transmission of infection.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 168
OBJ: Describe factors that can influence nursing staff compliance with hand hygiene.
TOP: Hand Hygiene KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. Which of the following measures is appropriate when a nurse is washing his or her hands?
a.
Use very hot water.
b.
Leave rings and watches in place.
c.
Lather for at least 15 to 20 seconds.
d.
Keep the fingers and hands up and the elbows down.

ANS: C
Perform hand hygiene using plenty of lather and friction for at least 15 to 20 seconds. Interlace fingers and rub palms and back of hands with circular motion at least 5 times each. Keep fingertips down to facilitate removal of microorganisms. Hot water can be damaging to the skin. Regulate the flow of water so that the temperature is warm. Warm water removes less of the protective oils on the hands than hot water. Jewelry and watches can be a place for pathogens to hide. Push wristwatch and long uniform sleeves above wrists. Avoid wearing rings. If worn, remove during washing. This provides complete access to fingers, hands, and wrists. Wearing of rings increases the numbers of microorganisms on the hands. The position of hands and arms will aid in washing pathogens away. Wet hands and wrists thoroughly under running water. Keep hands and forearms lower than elbows during washing. Hands are the most contaminated parts to be washed. Water flows from the least to the most contaminated area, rinsing microorganisms into the sink.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 171
OBJ: Perform proper procedures for hand hygiene. TOP: Hand Hygiene
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. The nurse shows an understanding of the psychological implications for a patient on isolation when planning care to control the risk for:
a.
denial.
b.
aggression.
c.
regression.
d.
isolation.
e.
depression.

ANS: D
A sense of loneliness may develop because normal social relationships become disrupted. The nurse should plan care to control the risk that the patient may feel isolated. Denial and regression are not risks related to isolation. Aggression is not a risk for the patient on isolation precautions.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 168
OBJ: Perform correct isolation techniques. TOP: Isolation
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Planning MSC: NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

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