Chapter 54 Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing 13Th Edition

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Chapter 54  Brunner & Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing 13Th Edition

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

1. The nurse is assessing a patient suspected of having developed acute glomerulonephritis. The nurse should expect to address what clinical manifestation that is characteristic of this health problem?

  1. A)  Hematuria
  2. B)  Precipitous decrease in serum creatinine levels
  3. C)  Hypotension unresolved by fluid administration
  4. D)  Glucosuria

Ans: A

Feedback:

The primary presenting feature of acute glomerulonephritis is hematuria (blood in the urine), which may be microscopic (identifiable through microscopic examination) or macroscopic or gross (visible to the eye). Proteinuria, primarily albumin, which is present, is due to increased permeability of the glomerular membrane. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels may rise as urine output drops. Some degree of edema and hypertension is noted in most patients.

2. The nurse is caring for acutely ill patient. What assessment finding should prompt the nurse to inform the physician that the patient may be exhibiting signs of acute kidney injury (AKI)?

  1. A)  The patient is complains of an inability to initiate voiding.
  2. B)  The patient’s urine is cloudy with a foul odor.
  3. C)  The patient’s average urine output has been 10 mL/hr for several hours.
  4. D)  The patient complains of acute flank pain.

Ans: C

Feedback:

Oliguria (<500 mL/d of urine) is the most common clinical situation seen in AKI. Flank pain and inability to initiate voiding are not characteristic of AKI. Cloudy, foul- smelling urine is suggestive of a urinary tract infection.

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3. The nurse is caring for a patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus who has been recently diagnosed with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The patient has an elevated phosphorus level and has been prescribed calcium acetate to bind the phosphorus. The nurse should teach the patient to take the prescribed phosphorus- binding medication at what time?

  1. A)  Only when needed
  2. B)  Daily at bedtime
  3. C)  First thing in the morning
  4. D)  With each meal

Ans: D

Feedback:

Both calcium carbonate and calcium acetate are medications that bind with the phosphate and assist in excreting the phosphate from the body, in turn lowering the phosphate levels. Phosphate-binding medications must be administered with food to be effective.

4. The nurse is working on the renal transplant unit. To reduce the risk of infection in a patient with a transplanted kidney, it is imperative for the nurse to do what?

  1. A)  Wash hands carefully and frequently.
  2. B)  Ensure immediate function of the donated kidney.
  3. C)  Instruct the patient to wear a face mask.
  4. D)  Bar visitors from the patient’s room.

Ans: A

Feedback:

The nurse ensures that the patient is protected from exposure to infection by hospital staff, visitors, and other patients with active infections. Careful handwashing is imperative; face masks may be worn by hospital staff and visitors to reduce the risk for transmitting infectious agents while the patient is receiving high doses of immunosuppressants. Visitors may be limited, but are not normally barred outright. Ensuring kidney function is vital, but does not prevent infection.

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5. The nurse is caring for a patient receiving hemodialysis three times weekly. The patient has had surgery to form an arteriovenous fistula. What is most important for the nurse to be aware of when providing care for this patient?

  1. A)  Using a stethoscope for auscultating the fistula is contraindicated.
  2. B)  The patient feels best immediately after the dialysis treatment.
  3. C)  Taking a BP reading on the affected arm can damage the fistula.
  4. D)  The patient should not feel pain during initiation of dialysis.

Ans: C

Feedback:

When blood flow is reduced through the access for any reason (hypotension, application of BP cuff/tourniquet), the access site can clot. Auscultation of a bruit in the fistula is one way to determine patency. Typically, patients feel fatigued immediately after hemodialysis because of the rapid change in fluid and electrolyte status. Although the area over the fistula may have some decreased sensation, a needle stick is still painful.

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