Chapter 46 Antimicrobial Agents

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Chapter 46  Antimicrobial Agents

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A patient allergic to penicillin is being evaluated for a gram-negative infection. Which antimicrobial drug class would the health care provider be cautious in prescribing because of a possible cross-sensitivity and/or allergic reaction?
A.
Cephalosporins
B.
Aminoglycosides
C.
Sulfonamides
D.
Quinolones

ANS: A

Feedback
A
Cephalosporins may be used with caution as alternatives when patients are allergic to the penicillins, but cephalosporins are chemically similar in structure to penicillins and may produce a cross-sensitivity and/or allergic reaction.
B
Aminoglycosides do not tend to produce cross-sensitivities.
C
Sulfonamides do not tend to produce cross-sensitivities.
D
Quinolones do not tend to produce cross-sensitivities.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 746
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

2. The health care provider has prescribed penicillin and probenecid for a patient with a sexually transmitted disease. What is the purpose of combining these medications?
A.
To accelerate the excretion of the penicillin
B.
To inhibit the absorption of penicillin to allow the drug to remain in the transport phase
C.
To inhibit the excretion of the penicillin
D.
To reduce toxic effects associated with penicillin

ANS: C

Feedback
A
Probenecid slows down the excretion of penicillin.
B
Probenecid does not affect absorption.
C
The combination therapy of penicillin and probenecid allows the penicillin to remain in the body longer, which enhances drug availability and action. The combination may be used advantageously in treating serious or resistant infections. Probenecid inhibits the excretion of penicillin.
D
Probenecid does not affect toxic effects.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 740
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

3. An older adult who has septicemia is receiving IV aminoglycoside therapy. Which symptom is most important for the nurse to monitor?
A.
Bone marrow suppression
B.
Ototoxicity
C.
Gastrointestinal distress
D.
Photosensitivity

ANS: B

Feedback
A
Aminoglycosides do not produce bone marrow depression; this is characteristic of treatment with chloramphenicol.
B
Eighth cranial nerve damage can result from aminoglycoside therapy. Patients should be monitored during and after therapy has been discontinued for signs and symptoms of ototoxicity, including dizziness, tinnitus, and progressive hearing loss.
C
Aminoglycosides do not typically produce GI distress.
D
Aminogylcosides do not produce photosensitivity; this is characteristic of treatment with glycylcyclines.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 743
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Physiological Integrity

4. On what is the selection of an antimicrobial agent based?
A.
Sensitivity of the microorganism to the drug
B.
Half-life of the medication
C.
Therapeutic levels of the drug
D.
Bioavailability of the drug

ANS: A

Feedback
A
The selection of the antimicrobial agent must be based on the sensitivity of the pathogen and the possible toxicity to the patient.
B
The half-life of the drug is not a concern with selection in comparison to sensitivity.
C
Therapeutic levels of the drug are not criteria for selection.
D
Bioavailability is a lesser concern than sensitivity.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: 737
TOP: Nursing Process Step: Evaluation
MSC: NCLEX Client Needs Category: Safe, Effective Care Environment

 

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