Chapter 38 Drug Therapy for Diarrhea


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Chapter 38  Drug Therapy for Diarrhea



Complete chapter Questions And Answers

Sample Questions



1. A patient with anorexia nervosa has taken a saline cathartic to lose weight. What is the patient at risk for?

  1. A)  Constipation
  2. B)  Diarrhea
  3. C)  Bowel obstruction
  4. D)  Hyponatremia

Ans: B Feedback:

A patient who uses laxatives, such as saline laxatives, and suffers from anorexia nervosa will be prone to diarrhea. The patient who takes a saline laxative will not suffer from constipation. The patient who takes a saline laxative will not be at risk for bowel obstruction. The patient who takes a saline cathartic will be at risk for hypernatremia, not hyponatremia.

  1. A grade school has an outbreak of gastroenteritis and vomiting with nearly half of the school—both students and staff—affected. Which organism is most likely the cause?
    1. A)  Norwalk-like virus (calicivirus)
    2. B)  Clostridium difficile
    3. C)  Vibrio vulnificus
    4. D)  E. coli

    Ans: A Feedback:

    An outbreak of gastroenteritis that is accompanied by vomiting and that affects both staff and students is most predominately caused by the Norwalk-like virus (calicivirus). Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial diarrhea that would not be characteristic of this population. Vibrio vulnificus is contamination of raw shellfish and would not be the cause of gastroenteritis. E. coli is a less likely cause.

  2. A cancer patient has intractable diarrhea that is not of an infectious nature. Which of the following medications will most likely be prescribed?
    1. A)  Bismuth
    2. B)  Pepto-Bismol
    3. C)  Psyllium
    4. D)  Opioids

Ans: D
Opioids are the most effective agents for symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. Bismuth and Pepto-Bismol are the same agents and would not be used for intractable, severe diarrhea. Psyllium would not be administered for diarrhea, except if there were a need to absorb toxins.

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4. An older adult patient is experiencing diarrhea. Which of the following is a likely cause of diarrhea?

  1. A)  Fluid volume deficit
  2. B)  Antihypertensive agents
  3. C)  Laxative abuse
  4. D)  Anemia

Ans: C
Laxative abuse is associated with diarrhea. This phenomenon is particularly common among older adults. Antihypertensive agents and anemia are not associated with diarrhea. Fluid volume deficit is a result, not cause, of diarrhea.

5. The physician orders bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) for your patient. What assessment is most important to make before administering this medication?

  1. A)  Assess for pain
  2. B)  Assess electrolytes
  3. C)  Assess for allergy to aspirin
  4. D)  Assess for allergy to opioids

Ans: C Feedback:

Bismuth salts have antibacterial and antiviral activity. Bismuth subsalicylate contains salicylate, and the patient should be assessed for an aspirin allergy before administration. It is important to assess for pain and electrolyte balance, but this is not the primary assessment to be made. The nurse would not need to assess for allergy to opioids because bismuth does not contain opioids.

6. A patient diagnosed with HIV/AIDS has diarrhea that is not responding to antidiarrheal agents. Which medication will best assist in treating this patient’s diarrhea?

  1. A)  Bismuth salts (Pepto-Bismol)
  2. B)  Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
  3. C)  Cholestyramine (Questran)
  4. D)  Octreotide acetate (Sandostatin)

Ans: D
Octreotide acetate (Sandostatin) is a synthetic form of somatostatin that is effective in diarrhea related to HIV/AIDS. Bismuth salts are not used for diarrhea that does not respond to other agents. Ciprofloxacin will not be used to treat diarrhea. Cholestyramine will not be used to treat diarrhea.

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