Chapter 23 Vascular Surgery

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Chapter 23  Vascular Surgery

 

 

Complete chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What properties enable arteries to compensate for changes in blood pressure and blood volume?

  1. Regeneration and thick muscularis
  2. Dilatation and absence of valves
  3. Contraction and constriction
  4. Elasticity and distensibility

ANS: D
The properties of elasticity and distensibility enable arteries to compensate for changes in blood pressure and volume. Because of the thicker muscle layer, severed arteries are capable of contracting and constricting enough to stop hemorrhage.

REF: Page 969

2. Identify the venous structure that prevents blood backflow.

  1. Semilunar intimal folds
  2. Coarctation segments
  3. Pressure receptors
  4. Venules

ANS: A
Another difference between arteries and veins is the presence of semilunar intimal folds, or valves, in veins that prevent backflow.

REF: Page 969

3. Patients with acute arterial insufficiency with occlusion usually present with the onset of the six P’s: sudden severe pain, pulselessness, paresthesia, paralysis, pallor, and poikilothermia (coolness) of an extremity. This occlusion can be the result of which condition?

  1. Atrial tachycardia
  2. Rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque
  3. Asystole
  4. Hypothermia

ANS: B

Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Test Bank 23-2

Arterial insufficiency may result from an acute occlusion, as in embolic disease, or from the rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque, causing acute thrombosis of the vessel. Emboli usually arise from the heart as a result of atrial fibrillation but may occasionally result from a myocardial infarction (MI), where a clot forms on the endocardium (the lining of the heart) in an area of muscle damage. Atherosclerotic plaque can also detach from other areas and result in an acute arterial blockage.

REF: Page 973

4. Patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are not typically treated surgically as often as patients with arterial disease because:

  1. CVI is not life-threatening or limb-threatening.
  2. venous surgery contributes to thromboembolism.
  3. surgical interventions for venous valves have not been refined.
  4. All of the options are correct.

ANS: A
Patients with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) have not been treated surgically as often as patients with arterial disease for several reasons. CVI is generally not life-threatening or limb-threatening.

REF: Page 975

5. What statement regarding risk factors for developing vascular disease is true?

  1. Cigarette smoking is more of a risk factor for lung disease than vascular disease.
  2. Advanced age, male gender, and family history are established risk factors for

    atherosclerosis.

  3. A sedentary lifestyle can contribute to developing diabetes if one has

    atherosclerosis.

  4. Arteriosclerosis is a natural part of the aging process.

ANS: D
Arteriosclerosis is a natural part of the aging process and occurs when the walls of the arterial vasculature undergo changes such as increased thickness and hardening, reducing the elasticity of the arteries. Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis: hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; relative risk factors include advanced age, male gender, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, sedentary lifestyle, and family history.

REF: Page 973

6. While arteriosclerosis is a natural part of the aging process and occurs when the walls of the arterial vasculature undergo changes such as increased thickness and hardening, reducing the elasticity of the arteries, certain risk factors for arteriosclerosis are modifiable by the individual. Select the dyad of modifiable risk factors that could minimize the potential for acute or chronic vascular insufficiency.

  1. Past surgical history and hypercholesterolemia
  2. Cigarette smoking and sedentary lifestyle

Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Test Bank 23-3

c. Hypertension and diabetes
d. Hyperhomocysteinemia and hypertriglyceridemia

ANS: B
Cigarette smoking and sedentary lifestyle are modifiable risk factors because the individual can improve his/her chances of avoiding acute and chronic vascular insufficiency by quitting cigarette smoking and becoming more physically active. Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis: hypercholesterolemia, cigarette smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus; relative risk factors are advanced age, male gender, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, sedentary lifestyle, and family history.

REF: Page 973

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