Chapter 19 Orthopedic Surgery

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Chapter 19  Orthopedic Surgery

 

 

Complete chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Identify the layer of connective tissue that covers all bone. a. Periosteum
b. Calcium
c. Cartilage

d. Fascia ANS: A

A layer of connective tissue called periosteum covers all bone.

REF: Page 719

2. A long bone fracture in a child can have devastating consequences in terms of the child’s skeletal maturity and potential for limb shortening and malformation when the fracture line involves the:

  1. epiphysis.
  2. diaphysis.
  3. epiphyseal plate.
  4. cancellous bone.

ANS: C
Long bones consist of a shaft (diaphysis) and two ends (epiphyses). The shaft is composed of compact bone. The epiphyses flare out and consist of cancellous bone. They are covered by cartilage, which provides a cushion and offers protection during weight-bearing and movement. Until skeletal maturity, a line of cartilage called the epiphyseal plate separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis. Fractures in this region in children can be devastating because they often lead to malformation and permanent limb shortening.

REF: Page 720

3. The rotator cuff consists of which group of muscles?

  1. Deltoid, teres major, and teres minor
  2. Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis
  3. Latissimus dorsi, deltoid, and teres major
  4. Supraspinatus, subscapularis, pectoralis major, and deltoid

ANS: B
The muscles immediately surrounding the shoulder joint are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles; together they are referred to as the rotator cuff. These muscles stabilize the shoulder joint, whereas the powerful deltoid, pectoralis major, teres major, and latissimus dorsi muscles move the entire arm.

REF: Page 723

Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Test Bank 19-2

4. The scaphoid, also called the navicular, links the proximal row of carpal bones as it:

  1. articulates with each metacarpal head.
  2. attaches its rough surfaces to the ligaments.
  3. stabilizes and coordinates the movement of the proximal and distal rows.
  4. articulates proximally with its matching carpal row.

ANS: C
Functionally, the scaphoid links the rows as it stabilizes and coordinates the movement of the proximal and distal rows. The eight carpal bones in the wrist are arranged in two rows. The distal row, proceeding from the radial to the ulnar side, includes the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate; the proximal row consists of the scaphoid (also called the navicular), lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform. Each carpal bone consists of several smooth articular surfaces for contact with the adjacent bones, as well as rough surfaces for the attachment of ligaments.

REF: Pages 723-724 (Figure 19-5)

5. The vertebral bodies are connected by several cartilaginous joints. What purpose does this connection enable?

  1. Communication between the spinous processes and vertebral bodies
  2. Vertebral flexion, rotation, and extension
  3. Vertebral flexion and torsion
  4. Sustains integrity and spinal support

ANS: B
Vertebrae form the longitudinal axis of the skeleton. The vertebral bodies are connected by several cartilaginous joints that enable the vertebrae to flex, extend, or rotate while being held together. Intervertebral disks and ligaments connect the bodies of adjacent vertebrae. The ligamenta flava bind the laminae of adjacent vertebrae.

REF: Pages 721-722

6. Before surgery, the perioperative nurse reviews the patient record, noting relevant aspects of the history and physical examination; the nature of the problem and its onset; and results of radiographic studies, laboratory data, and other findings. The nurse assesses the patient’s range of motion, neurovascular status, and general condition. The patient’s perception and understanding of the surgical procedure and postoperative rehabilitation is determined, and patient education is begun. Such activities reflect which important part of the nursing process?

  1. Nursing assessment
  2. Preoperative interview
  3. Preincision briefing
  4. Nursing diagnosis

ANS: A

Copyright © 2011, 2007 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

Test Bank 19-3

Assessment information helps the nurse to determine specific needs related to surgical positioning, skin preparation, equipment, instrumentation, and supplies. Results of the nursing assessment are stated as nursing diagnoses. Nursing diagnoses related to the care of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery might include the following: Anxiety, Risk for peripheral neurovascular dysfunction, Risk for perioperative positioning injury, Impaired Gas Exchange, Risk for infection, and Risk for imbalanced body temperature. Preoperative films or images are present in the OR or procedure room.

REF: Page 729

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