Chapter 17 Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balances

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Chapter 17  Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balances

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. A nursing student is caring for a 35-year-old patient who is suffering from kidney failure and is receiving peritoneal dialysis. He remembers that peritoneal dialysis works by instilling a solution into the abdomen that contains dextrose that will pull wastes and extra fluid into the abdominal cavity. What is the name of this process?
A.
Diffusion
B.
Osmosis
C.
Filtration
D.
Active transport

ANS: B
Fluids and solutes move across cell membranes by four processes: diffusion, osmosis, filtration, and active transport. Osmosis is the movement of a solvent such as water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower concentration to one that has a higher concentration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 468
OBJ: Describe the basic physiological mechanism responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

2. A 9-year-old patient has been admitted to the postsurgical nursing unit after surgery to remove her spleen. The health care provider has ordered the child to have an IV of 0.9% sodium chloride. The nurse who is caring for the patient recognizes this as what type of solution?
A.
Hypotonic
B.
Isotonic
C.
Hypertonic
D.
None of the above

ANS: B
Solutions are hypertonic, isotonic, or hypotonic. Infusion of isotonic solutions such as 0.9% sodium chloride (a solution of equal osmotic pressure) expand the body’s intravascular fluid volume without causing a fluid shift from one compartment to another.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 468
OBJ: Describe the basic physiological mechanism responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

3. Aaron and Brittney, two nursing students were having pizza one evening as they were studying. Brittney remarked to Aaron that she noticed whenever she ate pizza, she was incredibly thirsty. Aaron remarked that eating salty foods increases ___________ pressure of body fluids.
A.
ophthalmic
B.
osmotic
C.
oncotic
D.
hydrostatic

ANS: B
The osmoreceptors continually monitor serum osmotic pressure and when osmolality increases, the hypothalamus stimulates thirst. Eating salty foods increases the osmotic pressure of the body fluids and stimulates the thirst mechanism.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: 469
OBJ: Describe the basic physiological mechanism responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

4. A 26-year-old patient is in a coma after a motor vehicle accident. One of the interventions that were initiated as soon as he was hospitalized was to provide IV access. In addition to the medications that he receives through the IV, he is getting an isotonic IV fluid. The primary purpose for this is to:
A.
provide nutrition.
B.
move fluid from intravascular space into cells.
C.
pull fluid from cells.
D.
expand the body’s intravascular fluid volume.

ANS: D
Oral fluid intake requires an alert state. Infants, patients with neurological or psychological problems, and some older adults who are unable to perceive or respond to the thirst mechanism are at risk for dehydration.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 468
OBJ: Describe the basic physiological mechanism responsible for maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

5. A 15-year-old patient suffered a head injury as the result of a bicycle accident. The nurse is concerned about potential complications caused by the injury to his right temple near his pituitary gland and should be closely monitoring which of the following?
A.
Bowel elimination
B.
Urine output
C.
Hypoactive thyroid
D.
Diuresis

ANS: B
Hormones regulate fluid intake through different mechanisms. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is stored in the posterior pituitary gland and is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity.

PTS: 1 DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: 477
OBJ: Discuss and identify factors that affect normal fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balances TOP: Nursing Process: Assessment
MSC: Client Needs: Physiological Integrity

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