Chapter 1 Using Evidence in Nursing Practice

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Chapter 1  Using Evidence in Nursing Practice

 

 

Complete Chapter Questions And Answers
 

Sample Questions

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Evidence-based practice is a problem-solving approach to making decisions about patient care that is grounded in:
a.
the latest information found in textbooks.
b.
systematically conducted research studies.
c.
tradition in clinical practice.
d.
quality improvement and risk management data.

ANS: B
The best evidence comes from well-designed, systematically conducted research studies described in scientific journals. Portions of a textbook often become outdated by the time it is published. Many health care settings do not have a process to help staff adopt new evidence in practice, and nurses in practice settings lack easy access to risk management data, relying instead on tradition or convenience. Some sources of evidence do not originate from research. These include quality improvement and risk management data; infection control data; retrospective or concurrent chart reviews; and clinicians’ expertise. Although non–research-based evidence is often very valuable, it is important that you learn to rely more on research-based evidence.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Comprehension REF: Text reference: p. 2
OBJ: Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)

2. When evidence-based practice is used, patient care will be:
a.
standardized for all.
b.
unhampered by patient culture.
c.
variable according to the situation.
d.
safe from the hazards of critical thinking.

ANS: C
Using your clinical expertise and considering patients’ cultures, values, and preferences ensures that you will apply available evidence in practice ethically and appropriately. Even when you use the best evidence available, application and outcomes will differ; as a nurse, you will develop critical thinking skills to determine whether evidence is relevant and appropriate.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: Text reference: p. 2
OBJ: Discuss the benefits of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Assessment
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)

3. When a PICOT question is developed, the letter that corresponds with the usual standard of care is:
a.
P.
b.
I.
c.
C.
d.
O.

ANS: C
C = Comparison of interest. What standard of care or current intervention do you usually use now in practice?
P = Patient population of interest. Identify your patient by age, gender, ethnicity, disease, or health problem.
I = Intervention of interest. What intervention (e.g., treatment, diagnostic test, prognostic factor) do you think is worthwhile to use in practice?
O = Outcome. What result (e.g., change in patient’s behavior, physical finding, change in patient’s perception) do you wish to achieve or observe as the result of an intervention?

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: Text reference: p. 3
OBJ: Develop a PICO question. TOP: PICO
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)

4. A well-developed PICOT question helps the nurse:
a.
search for evidence.
b.
include all five elements of the sequence.
c.
find as many articles as possible in a literature search.
d.
accept standard clinical routines.

ANS: A
The more focused a question that you ask is, the easier it is to search for evidence in the scientific literature. A well-designed PICOT question does not have to include all five elements, nor does it have to follow the PICOT sequence. Do not be satisfied with clinical routines. Always question and use critical thinking to consider better ways to provide patient care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Analysis REF: Text reference: p. 4
OBJ: Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)

5. The nurse is not sure that the procedure the patient requires is the best possible for the situation. Utilizing which of the following resources would be the quickest way to review research on the topic?
a.
CINAHL
b.
PubMed
c.
MEDLINE
d.
The Cochrane Library

ANS: D
The Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews is a valuable source of synthesized evidence (i.e., preappraised evidence). The Cochrane Database includes the full text of regularly updated systematic reviews and protocols for reviews currently happening. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PubMed are among the most comprehensive databases and represent the scientific knowledge base of health care.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Synthesis REF: Text reference: p. 4
OBJ: Describe the six steps of evidence-based practice. TOP: Evidence-Based Practice
KEY: Nursing Process Step: Implementation
MSC: NCLEX: Safe and Effective Care Environment (management of care)

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