Business and Society Stakeholders Ethics Public Policy 15th Edition Lawrence – Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Ethics and Ethical Reasoning

 

True / False Questions

1. Ethics are primarily based on religious beliefs.

True    False

 

2. Ethical ideas are present in all societies, all organizations, and all individual persons.

True    False

 

3. If all people relied on ethical relativism, there would be no universal ethical standards on which people around the globe could agree.

True    False

 

4. Business must develop its own definition of what is right and wrong, apart from ethics.

True    False

 

5. Being ethical includes developing a sense of trust, which promotes positive alliances among business partners.

True    False

 

6. Business cannot expect to be profitable while adhering to ethical principles of conduct.

True    False

 

7. The U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines provide a strong incentive for businesses to promote their ethics at work.

True    False

 

8. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that firms maintain good financial practices, apart from high ethical standards, in how they conduct and monitor business operations.

True    False

 

9. An ethical egoist acts for the benefit of others and sacrifices self-interest.

True    False

 

10. Because managers make major decisions, they have limited opportunity to influence the ethical tone of the firm.

True    False

 

11. Only in the last few years have scholars found a positive relationship between an organization’s economic performance and attention to spiritual values.

True    False

 

12. Managers in the same company are likely to be at the same stages of moral reasoning at any given time.

True    False

 

13. For managers who reason at stages 2 and 3, their personal rewards, recognition from others, or compliance with the company’s rules become their main ethical compass.

True    False

 

14. According to utilitarian reasoning, an action is ethically preferred when its benefits outweigh its costs.

True    False

 

15. Business managers should use all four methods of ethical reasoning – virtues, utility, rights and justice – to better understand ethical issues at work.

True    False

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

16. A conception of right and wrong is:

A. Impossible to know.

 

B. The definition of ethics.

 

C. Determined by power.

 

D. Based on stakeholder dialogue.

 

17. People’s ethical beliefs come from:

A. Legislative action and judicial decisions.

 

B. Reading the company’s profit and loss statements.

 

C. Their religious background, family, and education.

 

D. The organization’s code of ethics.

 

18. People everywhere depend on ethical systems to tell them whether their actions are:

A. Legal or illegal.

 

B. Right or wrong.

 

C. Financially attainable or not.

 

D. Logical and reasonable judgment.

 

19. Businesses are expected to be ethical in their relationships with:

A. Stockholders.

 

B. Customers.

 

C. Competitors.

 

D. All of the above.

 

20. Why should business be ethical?

A. Most people want to act in ways that are consistent with their own sense of right and wrong.

 

B. Ethical behavior protects business firms from abuse by unethical employees and competitors.

 

C. Society’s stakeholders expect it from businesses.

 

D. All of the above.

 

21. Business executives are finding that a trusting, ethical relationship with a business partner is:

A. Best left to not-for-profit companies.

 

B. Too costly to maintain.

 

C. Likely to cause legal problems.

 

D. Often essential in conducting business.

 

22. Under the U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines, if a firm has developed a strong ethics program, corporate executives found guilty of criminal activity may have their sentence:

A. Increased.

 

B. Reduced.

 

C. Unaffected.

 

D. Decided by the company.

 

23. Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, corporations are required to:

A. Have executives vouch for the accuracy of a firm’s financial reports.

 

B. Have their audit committee comprised of only executives employed by the firm.

 

C. Collect reimbursements from the U.S. government if financial restatements occur.

 

D. All of the above.

 

24. The SEC filed civil false-certification charges against which U.S. financial institution?

A. Wells Fargo.

 

B. Countrywide.

 

C. J.P. Morgan Chase.

 

D. Bear Stearns.

 

25. A bottom-line mentality in business is reflected in which statement?

A. “I want it.”

 

B. “We have to beat the others at all costs.”

 

C. “Help yourself and those closest to you.”

 

D. “Foreigners have a funny notion of what’s right and wrong.”

 

26. A purchasing agent directing her company’s orders to a firm which she received a valuable gift, is an example of:

A. Conflict of interest.

 

B. Ethical relativism.

 

C. Moral development.

 

D. Egotism.

 

27. Cross-cultural contradictions arise due to:

A. The emergence of a developing country’s economic power.

 

B. Religious differences practiced by business executives.

 

C. Differences between home and host countries’ ethical standards.

 

D. All of the above.

 

28. Which of the following examples best illustrate an ethics issue based on cross-cultural contradictions?

A. Legally marketing a pesticide abroad that has been banned in the U.S.

 

B. Circumventing government regulations to ensure company profits.

 

C. Hiring child workers in violation of civil law.

 

D. False and misleading advertising claims.

 

29. As business becomes increasingly global:

A. It must turn to national laws for guidance.

 

B. Ethical issues become issues of free trade.

 

C. A global code of conduct will emerge for businesses.

 

D. Cross-cultural contradictions will increase.

 

30. A recent study found that, compared to the 1980s, managers today place what importance on moral values, such as honesty and forgiveness?

A. Less important.

 

B. About the same importance.

 

C. Slightly more important.

 

D. Triple the importance.

 

31. According to a 2013 opinion poll, Americans hold a dim view of:

A. Nurses.

 

B. The Supreme Court.

 

C. Churches.

 

D. Business executives.

 

32. According to an annual Gallup poll, which occupation was consistently ranked the highest for honesty and ethics?

A. Congressional members.

 

B. Car salespeople.

 

C. Nurses.

 

D. Clergy.

 

33. Scholars found that spirituality:

A. Negatively affects employee and organizational performance.

 

B. Positively affects employee and organizational performance.

 

C. Has no affect on employee and organizational performance.

 

D. Only affects the employee performance of not for profit organizations.

 

34. As an additional employee benefit to promote spirituality, companies have begun to provide employees with the services of:

A. Philosophers.

 

B. Chaplains.

 

C. Financial advisors.

 

D. Ombudspersons.

 

35. Which statement characterizes the moral reasoning typically found in a child?

A. “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”

 

B. “I’ll let you play with my toy if I play with yours.”

 

C. “Seek the greatest good for the greatest number.”

 

D. “Respect the rights of others.”

 

36. Mature adults typically base their ethical reasoning on broad principles and relationships such as:

A. Human rights and constitutional guarantees of human dignity.

 

B. Universal principles of justice.

 

C. Customs and traditions show by their peers.

 

D. Both A and B, but not C.

 

37. All of the following values are present in most ethical decisions except:

A. Be fair and just.

 

B. Be kind.

 

C. Act responsibly.

 

D. Be honest.

 

38. Business managers need a set of ethical guidelines to help them:

A. Understand the changing customs throughout the world.

 

B. Justify the resolution which best helps themselves.

 

C. Identify and analyze the nature of ethical problem.

 

D. None of the above.

 

39. Aristotle argued:

A. Self-control is the most virtuous of values.

 

B. Faith is a road to charity and modesty.

 

C. Moral virtue is a mean between two virtues.

 

D. High-mindedness delivers human integrity.

 

40. When the benefits of an action outweigh its costs, the action is considered ethically preferred according to:

A. Utilitarian reasoning.

 

B. Virtue ethics.

 

C. Theological reasoning.

 

D. Plato and Aristotle.

 

41. The main drawback to utilitarian reasoning is that:

A. The majority may override the rights of those in the minority.

 

B. Managers using this reasoning process often fail to consider the means taken to reach the end.

 

C. It is difficulty to accurately measure both costs and benefits.

 

D. Cost-benefit calculations can only be provided by accountants.

 

42. At the core of rights reasoning is the belief that:

A. The company’s right to a profit must be protected.

 

B. Respecting others is the essence of human rights.

 

C. The right to join a union is no longer universally accepted.

 

D. Economic and political powers determine who is right.

 

43. Which of the following is not true about justice reasoning?

A. The reasoner is interested in the net value of benefits.

 

B. The reasoner considers who pays the costs and who receives the benefits.

 

C. The reasoner seeks a fair distribution to all affected.

 

D. The reasoner relies upon some accepted rule or standard.

 

44. A just or fair ethical decision occurs when:

A. The rights of all affected are considered.

 

B. The greatest good for those with power is achieved.

 

C. Benefits and burdens are distributed equally.

 

D. All of the above.

 

45. The reason(s) behind the uncertainty of an ethical or unethical decision is (are) that different people and groups:

A. May honestly and genuinely use different sources of information.

 

B. May rank various rights in different ways.

 

C. May not share the same meaning of justice.

 

D. All of the above.

 

 

Short Answer Questions

46. Briefly discuss the meaning of ethics.

 

 

 

 

47. Discuss why businesses should be ethical.

 

 

 

 

48. Explain the purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. What issues does the act address? Is this Act still a potent government tool?

 

 

 

 

49. There are four reasons stated in the textbook as to why ethical problems occur in business. Identify the nature of each ethical problem and the typical approach taken in response to the problem.

 

 

 

 

50. How does a person’s spirituality influence his/her ethical behavior? How have organizations responded to increased attention to spirituality and religion at work attempting to accommodate their employees?

 

 

 

 

51. Define and discuss the six stages of moral development. What is the ethics referent at each stage? What is the basis of ethics reasoning at each stage?

 

 

 

 

52. What are the four methods of ethical reasoning? Discuss the limitations of each of the four methods.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 05 Ethics and Ethical Reasoning Answer Key

 

True / False Questions

1. Ethics are primarily based on religious beliefs.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

2. Ethical ideas are present in all societies, all organizations, and all individual persons.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

3. If all people relied on ethical relativism, there would be no universal ethical standards on which people around the globe could agree.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

4. Business must develop its own definition of what is right and wrong, apart from ethics.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

5. Being ethical includes developing a sense of trust, which promotes positive alliances among business partners.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

6. Business cannot expect to be profitable while adhering to ethical principles of conduct.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

7. The U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines provide a strong incentive for businesses to promote their ethics at work.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

8. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that firms maintain good financial practices, apart from high ethical standards, in how they conduct and monitor business operations.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

9. An ethical egoist acts for the benefit of others and sacrifices self-interest.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

10. Because managers make major decisions, they have limited opportunity to influence the ethical tone of the firm.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identifying managerial values as influencing ethical decision making.
 

 

11. Only in the last few years have scholars found a positive relationship between an organization’s economic performance and attention to spiritual values.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-05 Recognizing how people’s spirituality influences their ethical behavior.
 

 

12. Managers in the same company are likely to be at the same stages of moral reasoning at any given time.

FALSE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-06 Understanding stages of moral reasoning.
 

 

13. For managers who reason at stages 2 and 3, their personal rewards, recognition from others, or compliance with the company’s rules become their main ethical compass.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-06 Understanding stages of moral reasoning.
 

 

14. According to utilitarian reasoning, an action is ethically preferred when its benefits outweigh its costs.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

15. Business managers should use all four methods of ethical reasoning – virtues, utility, rights and justice – to better understand ethical issues at work.

TRUE

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

16. A conception of right and wrong is:

A. Impossible to know.

 

B. The definition of ethics.

 

C. Determined by power.

 

D. Based on stakeholder dialogue.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

17. People’s ethical beliefs come from:

A. Legislative action and judicial decisions.

 

B. Reading the company’s profit and loss statements.

 

C. Their religious background, family, and education.

 

D. The organization’s code of ethics.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

18. People everywhere depend on ethical systems to tell them whether their actions are:

A. Legal or illegal.

 

B. Right or wrong.

 

C. Financially attainable or not.

 

D. Logical and reasonable judgment.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

19. Businesses are expected to be ethical in their relationships with:

A. Stockholders.

 

B. Customers.

 

C. Competitors.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

20. Why should business be ethical?

A. Most people want to act in ways that are consistent with their own sense of right and wrong.

 

B. Ethical behavior protects business firms from abuse by unethical employees and competitors.

 

C. Society’s stakeholders expect it from businesses.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

21. Business executives are finding that a trusting, ethical relationship with a business partner is:

A. Best left to not-for-profit companies.

 

B. Too costly to maintain.

 

C. Likely to cause legal problems.

 

D. Often essential in conducting business.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

22. Under the U.S. Corporate Sentencing Guidelines, if a firm has developed a strong ethics program, corporate executives found guilty of criminal activity may have their sentence:

A. Increased.

 

B. Reduced.

 

C. Unaffected.

 

D. Decided by the company.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

23. Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, corporations are required to:

A. Have executives vouch for the accuracy of a firm’s financial reports.

 

B. Have their audit committee comprised of only executives employed by the firm.

 

C. Collect reimbursements from the U.S. government if financial restatements occur.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

24. The SEC filed civil false-certification charges against which U.S. financial institution?

A. Wells Fargo.

 

B. Countrywide.

 

C. J.P. Morgan Chase.

 

D. Bear Stearns.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

25. A bottom-line mentality in business is reflected in which statement?

A. “I want it.”

 

B. “We have to beat the others at all costs.”

 

C. “Help yourself and those closest to you.”

 

D. “Foreigners have a funny notion of what’s right and wrong.”

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

26. A purchasing agent directing her company’s orders to a firm which she received a valuable gift, is an example of:

A. Conflict of interest.

 

B. Ethical relativism.

 

C. Moral development.

 

D. Egotism.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

27. Cross-cultural contradictions arise due to:

A. The emergence of a developing country’s economic power.

 

B. Religious differences practiced by business executives.

 

C. Differences between home and host countries’ ethical standards.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

28. Which of the following examples best illustrate an ethics issue based on cross-cultural contradictions?

A. Legally marketing a pesticide abroad that has been banned in the U.S.

 

B. Circumventing government regulations to ensure company profits.

 

C. Hiring child workers in violation of civil law.

 

D. False and misleading advertising claims.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

29. As business becomes increasingly global:

A. It must turn to national laws for guidance.

 

B. Ethical issues become issues of free trade.

 

C. A global code of conduct will emerge for businesses.

 

D. Cross-cultural contradictions will increase.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

30. A recent study found that, compared to the 1980s, managers today place what importance on moral values, such as honesty and forgiveness?

A. Less important.

 

B. About the same importance.

 

C. Slightly more important.

 

D. Triple the importance.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identifying managerial values as influencing ethical decision making.
 

 

31. According to a 2013 opinion poll, Americans hold a dim view of:

A. Nurses.

 

B. The Supreme Court.

 

C. Churches.

 

D. Business executives.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identifying managerial values as influencing ethical decision making.
 

 

32. According to an annual Gallup poll, which occupation was consistently ranked the highest for honesty and ethics?

A. Congressional members.

 

B. Car salespeople.

 

C. Nurses.

 

D. Clergy.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-04 Identifying managerial values as influencing ethical decision making.
 

 

33. Scholars found that spirituality:

A. Negatively affects employee and organizational performance.

 

B. Positively affects employee and organizational performance.

 

C. Has no affect on employee and organizational performance.

 

D. Only affects the employee performance of not for profit organizations.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-05 Recognizing how people’s spirituality influences their ethical behavior.
 

 

34. As an additional employee benefit to promote spirituality, companies have begun to provide employees with the services of:

A. Philosophers.

 

B. Chaplains.

 

C. Financial advisors.

 

D. Ombudspersons.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-05 Recognizing how people’s spirituality influences their ethical behavior.
 

 

35. Which statement characterizes the moral reasoning typically found in a child?

A. “When in Rome, do as the Romans do.”

 

B. “I’ll let you play with my toy if I play with yours.”

 

C. “Seek the greatest good for the greatest number.”

 

D. “Respect the rights of others.”

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-06 Understanding stages of moral reasoning.
 

 

36. Mature adults typically base their ethical reasoning on broad principles and relationships such as:

A. Human rights and constitutional guarantees of human dignity.

 

B. Universal principles of justice.

 

C. Customs and traditions show by their peers.

 

D. Both A and B, but not C.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-06 Understanding stages of moral reasoning.
 

 

37. All of the following values are present in most ethical decisions except:

A. Be fair and just.

 

B. Be kind.

 

C. Act responsibly.

 

D. Be honest.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

38. Business managers need a set of ethical guidelines to help them:

A. Understand the changing customs throughout the world.

 

B. Justify the resolution which best helps themselves.

 

C. Identify and analyze the nature of ethical problem.

 

D. None of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

39. Aristotle argued:

A. Self-control is the most virtuous of values.

 

B. Faith is a road to charity and modesty.

 

C. Moral virtue is a mean between two virtues.

 

D. High-mindedness delivers human integrity.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

40. When the benefits of an action outweigh its costs, the action is considered ethically preferred according to:

A. Utilitarian reasoning.

 

B. Virtue ethics.

 

C. Theological reasoning.

 

D. Plato and Aristotle.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

41. The main drawback to utilitarian reasoning is that:

A. The majority may override the rights of those in the minority.

 

B. Managers using this reasoning process often fail to consider the means taken to reach the end.

 

C. It is difficulty to accurately measure both costs and benefits.

 

D. Cost-benefit calculations can only be provided by accountants.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

42. At the core of rights reasoning is the belief that:

A. The company’s right to a profit must be protected.

 

B. Respecting others is the essence of human rights.

 

C. The right to join a union is no longer universally accepted.

 

D. Economic and political powers determine who is right.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

43. Which of the following is not true about justice reasoning?

A. The reasoner is interested in the net value of benefits.

 

B. The reasoner considers who pays the costs and who receives the benefits.

 

C. The reasoner seeks a fair distribution to all affected.

 

D. The reasoner relies upon some accepted rule or standard.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

44. A just or fair ethical decision occurs when:

A. The rights of all affected are considered.

 

B. The greatest good for those with power is achieved.

 

C. Benefits and burdens are distributed equally.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

45. The reason(s) behind the uncertainty of an ethical or unethical decision is (are) that different people and groups:

A. May honestly and genuinely use different sources of information.

 

B. May rank various rights in different ways.

 

C. May not share the same meaning of justice.

 

D. All of the above.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

Short Answer Questions

46. Briefly discuss the meaning of ethics.

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-01 Defining ethics and business ethics.
 

 

47. Discuss why businesses should be ethical.

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

48. Explain the purpose of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. What issues does the act address? Is this Act still a potent government tool?

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-02 Evaluating why businesses should be ethical.
 

 

49. There are four reasons stated in the textbook as to why ethical problems occur in business. Identify the nature of each ethical problem and the typical approach taken in response to the problem.

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-03 Knowing why ethical problems occur in business.
 

 

50. How does a person’s spirituality influence his/her ethical behavior? How have organizations responded to increased attention to spirituality and religion at work attempting to accommodate their employees?

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-05 Recognizing how people’s spirituality influences their ethical behavior.
 

 

51. Define and discuss the six stages of moral development. What is the ethics referent at each stage? What is the basis of ethics reasoning at each stage?

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-06 Understanding stages of moral reasoning.
 

 

52. What are the four methods of ethical reasoning? Discuss the limitations of each of the four methods.

Answers may vary.

 

Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 05-07 Analyzing ethical problems using generally accepted ethics theories.
 

 

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