Brain And Behavior An Introduction to Biological 4th Edition – Test Bank


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Chapter 5


Multiple Choice


  1. Which of the following drugs contributed to Balzac’s death by a heart condition?
    1. Morphine
    2. Opium
    3. Caffeine (*)
    4. Cocaine


  1. Which of the following defines a drug?
    1. A chemical that is addictive
    2. A chemical that alters the body or its functioning (*)
    3. A chemical that corrects abnormal cellular functioning
    4. A chemical that is effective in low amounts


  1. A drug that mimics or amplifies the effect of a neurotransmitter is called a(n):
    1. Antagonist
    2. Ligand
    3. Receptor binder
    4. Agonist (*)


  1. A drug that blocks the effect of a neurotransmitter is called a(n):
    1. Ligand
    2. Antagonist (*)
    3. Receptor binding agent
    4. Agonist


  1. A ___ drug has effects on behavior such as producing euphoria or dysphoria, sedation or stimulation, or even hallucinations.
    1. psychoactive (*)
    2. psychologically dependent
    3. psychotherapeutic
    4. psychedelic


  1. The defining feature(s) of addiction is:
    1. Whether or not the opiate system is involved
    2. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms
    3. Being preoccupied with a drug, compulsive use and high likelihood of relapse (*)
    4. Whether or not the drug has a reinforcing effect


  1. Marc has tried to quit heroin seven times only to relapse each and every time; Marc has used dirty needles to shoot up and claims he doesn’t care about the risks from sharing needles, and Marc spends the majority of his waking hours obsessing about how to get high again. Marc shows the hallmark signs of:
    1. Being in withdrawal
    2. Addiction (*)
    3. Low self-esteem
    4. Psychoactive drug use


  1. Withdrawal symptoms produced by abstaining from a drug are:
    1. Often opposite to the effects of the drug itself (*)
    2. Seen only in narcotics
    3. Extremely severe in all cases
    4. What maintains a drug habit


  1. Which of the following is likely to occur during heroin withdrawal?
    1. Coma
    2. Flu-like symptoms (*)
    3. Constipation
    4. Sleepiness


  1. A decrease in the effectiveness of a drug that is administered repeatedly is:
    1. Tolerance
    2. A predictor of addiction
    3. Addictiveness
    4. Withdrawal (*)


  1. Which of the following is true with respect to tolerance?
    1. It is defined as a decreased drug effect with repeated use.
    2. It most likely involves a compensatory adaptation of the nervous system.
    3. It can lead to an increased risk for overdose.
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Opiates have analgesic effects, which means they can:
    1. Induce sleep
    2. Decrease anxiety
    3. Increase alertness
    4. Reduce pain (*)


  1. Opiates have hypnotic effects, which means they can:
    1. Induce sleep (*)
    2. Reduce pain
    3. Increase alertness
    4. Decrease anxiety


  1. Opiates produce all of the following effects except:
    1. Hallucinations (*)
    2. Analgesia
    3. Dedation
    4. Euphoria



  1. Opium is the naturally occurring source of:
    1. Endorphins
    2. Aspirin
    3. Codeine (*)
    4. All of the above


  1. Opiate-based drugs have been used to treat all of the following except:
    1. Coughing
    2. Diarrhea
    3. Depression (*)
    4. Cancer pain


  1. A key reason for heroin being so addictive is that it:
    1. Can be consumed in many ways
    2. Easily and rapidly enters the brain (*)
    3. Produces euphoria followed by a phase of intense alertness
    4. Has very aversive withdrawal symptoms


  1. In a long-term study of heroin users, about ___ of the subjects were dead by age 46 with ___ being the most common cause of death.
    1. half, drug overdose (*)
    2. three-quarters, homicide or suicide
    3. half, poor health
    4. 90 percent, drug overdose


  1. The conditioned tolerance study in your text suggests that:
    1. Cocaine is very similar to caffeine
    2. Nicotine can be both a stimulant and a depressant
    3. Heroin overdose may occur when the drug is administered in a novel environment (*)
    4. Tolerance to alcohol often produces tolerance to marijuana


  1. Eliza woke up in the emergency room, much to her surprise. The physician told her she was lucky that she had been found unconscious in her car. It didn’t make sense to Eliza; she had shot up her usual dose, the same as yesterday, from the same old supplier but she had never, ever administered her heroin in her car. Eliza had overdosed because:
    1. She had panicked and the adrenaline reduced her tolerance
    2. The heroin was a designer drug to which she had no cross-tolerance
    3. She had administered the drug in a novel environment (*)
    4. The heroin was most likely contaminated with another drug


  1. Which of the following is an opioid?
    1. Morphine
    2. OxyContin (*)
    3. Codeine
    4. Laudanum


  1. Naltrexone is a(n):
    1. Neurotransmitter
    2. Opiate agonist
    3. Endogenous opiate
    4. Opiate antagonist (*)


  1. Endorphins:
    1. Are analgesics (*)
    2. Inhibit the production of dopamine
    3. Produce dysphoria
    4. Are blocked by methadone


  1. Depressants have all of the following effects except:
    1. Hypnotic effects
    2. Analgesic effects (*)
    3. Anxiolytic effects
    4. Sedative effects


  1. Alcohol:
    1. Has some stimulatory effects at high doses
    2. Is consumed by humans but not other animals
    3. Is considered to be the oldest of all abused drugs (*)
    4. Is a depressant at all doses


  1. Alcohol or ethanol is involved in ___ of all U.S. traffic fatalities.
    1. one half
    2. one third (*)
    3. one fourth
    4. None of the above


  1. Ethanol generally does not produce:
    1. Euphoria
    2. Anxiety (*)
    3. Tolerance
    4. Lack of motor coordination


  1. An adult is legally considered to be too impaired to drive when their BAC reaches ___ in the United States and Canada.
    1. .80
    2. .08 (*)
    3. .20
    4. .02


  1. Which of the following is a potential adverse effect of alcohol consumption?
    1. Coma or death
    2. Cirrhosis of the liver
    3. Aggression
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Which of the following is not true about Korsakoff’s syndrome?
    1. It is caused by chronic alcohol consumption
    2. It involves severe memory loss
    3. It involves a vitamin D deficiency (*)
    4. It causes motor and sensory impairment


  1. During withdrawal from chronic alcohol administration, you are not likely to see:
    1. Tremors
    2. Sleep disturbances
    3. Anxiolytic effects (*)
    4. Mood disturbances


  1. Delirium tremens:
    1. Is an abnormal form of alcohol withdrawal
    2. Is characterized by hallucinations, delusions and confusion (*)
    3. Is a behavioral condition where individuals exhibit anxiety, uncontrollable sweats, and a bad body odor
    4. All of the above


  1. Which of the following are most likely to be impulsive and have memory disorders?
    1. People who drink a moderate amount of alcohol for most of their life
    2. People who drink alcohol for its euphoric effects
    3. Binge drinkers (*)
    4. Chronic alcoholics


  1. Alcohol:
    1. Inhibits the release of glutamate (*)
    2. Decreases activity of the GABA receptor
    3. Has no effect at the glutamate receptor
    4. Has no effect at the GABA receptor


  1. Besides its effects on the GABA receptor, alcohol also affects:
    1. Glutamate release
    2. Opiate receptors
    3. Serotonin receptors
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Alcohol exerts its major effects on the ___ receptor, a complex that has at least five kinds of receptors.
    1. Dopamine
    2. Glutamate
    3. GABAA (*)
    4. GABAB


  1. The GABAA receptor complex:
    1. Seems to be responsible for drug addiction
    2. Can be activated by barbiturates and benzodiazepines (*)
    3. Is one of the few complexes that does not have multiple receptor subtypes
    4. Is only found in the brain stem


  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the leading cause of ___ in the Western world.
    1. Miscarriages
    2. Intellectual impairment (*)
    3. Multiple births
    4. Infertility


  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome is most likely to occur if the mother:
    1. Attempts to withdraw from alcohol during pregnancy
    2. Drinks a small amount of alcohol every day during pregnancy
    3. Occasionally binge drinks five or more drinks in a row (*)
    4. Is a polydrug user


  1. Alison told the waiter to mind his own business; even if she was pregnant, a single glass of wine was safe. The waiter bit his tongue, but he knew that:
    1. Red wine is particularly likely to produce FAS effects
    2. She had had more than just one glass of wine
    3. Her age made FAS more likely
    4. There is no accepted safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (*)


  1. Barbiturates:
    1. Are currently the drug of choice for treating anxiety
    2. Are preferred over benzodiazepines because they are less dangerous
    3. Selectively act to inhibit behavior at high doses (*)
    4. Are like alcohol in that they cause the release of glutamate


  1. Barbiturates are useful clinically because they:
    1. Do not produce tolerance at clinical doses (*)
    2. Do not produce dependence at clinical doses
    3. Are safe for most people regardless of other medications
    4. Do not produce withdrawal symptoms when drug is stopped


  1. Problems that may be encountered with barbiturates use include:
    1. Tolerance above clinical doses, increasing the probability of taking higher doses
    2. Addiction, if taken improperly
    3. Accidental overdose, especially in combination with alcohol
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Famous Hollywood overdose deaths of the 1960s such as Marilyn Monroe and Judy Garland were the result of ___.
    1. heroin
    2. nicotine
    3. barbiturates (*)
    4. benzodiazepines


  1. Barbiturates:
    1. Inhibit glutamate activity
    2. Inhibit GABAA activity, just like alcohol
    3. Open the chloride channels in the GABA complex (*)
    4. All of the above


  1. Benzodiazepines replaced barbiturates because:
    1. They are not GABA agonists
    2. They also have analgesic properties
    3. Barbiturates became difficult to obtain
    4. They are less likely to produce an accidental overdose (*)


  1. Which of the following is a benzodiazepine effect?
    1. The muscle relaxation effects are produced in the limbic system
    2. The amnesic effects are produced in the brain stem
    3. The anxiolytic effects involve suppressing the limbic system. (*)
    4. The sedation effects occur via the hippocampus


  1. Which of the following is not true about Valium?
    1. It is a barbiturate (*)
    2. It is an addictive drug
    3. It can produce mental confusion
    4. It is one of the best known of the benzodiazepines


  1. Which of the following has a reputation as a date rape drug?
    1. Valium
    2. Halcion
    3. Rohypnol (*)
    4. Xanax


  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of stimulants?
    1. An increase in arousal
    2. Elevated mood
    3. Analgesia (*)
    4. Increased alertness


  1. Cocaine does not produce:
    1. Euphoria
    2. Relief from fatigue
    3. Increased alertness
    4. An increase in appetite (*)


  1. All of the following are true about cocaine except:
    1. It was used as a general anesthetic (*)
    2. The coca leaf that provides the cocaine has been used for centuries
    3. It was once an ingredient in Coca-Cola
    4. At one time it could be purchased as an over-the-counter medication


  1. Cocaine can be administered:
    1. By snorting
    2. As “crack,” a less pure product
    3. By smoking the freebase form
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Dopamine:
    1. Has an excitatory effect
    2. Enhances the effects of the cortex on lower structures
    3. Increases in the synapse when cocaine blocks its reuptake (*)
    4. Is probably not involved in the effects of cocaine


  1. Jerecho obviously did something in the bathroom at the club. While he was moody and tired when we went in, he came out very happy, alert, and aware of everyone staring at him. It was immediately obvious that he took ___ in the bathroom.
    1. Cocaine (*)
    2. Benzodiazepines
    3. Marijuana
    4. PCP


  1. Prenatal exposure to cocaine:
    1. Cannot occur since cocaine does not cross the placenta
    2. Causes abnormal circuit formation among dopamine neurons (*)
    3. Is much more devastating than prenatal exposure to alcohol
    4. Has beneficial effects on IQ because it is a stimulant


  1. Which of the following is unlikely to occur during the “crash” that occurs after a cocaine binge?
    1. Anxiety
    2. Seizures (*)
    3. Depression
    4. Craving


  1. Treatment for cocaine abuse is difficult because:
    1. Users often abuse other drugs
    2. Many addicts also have psychological disorders
    3. The drug produces intense euphoria
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Amphetamines:
    1. Are natural substances
    2. Increase concentration (*)
    3. Include cocaine
    4. Are not used to treat clinical disorders


  1. Which of the following is not an amphetamine?
    1. Crack (*)
    2. Ice
    3. Speed
    4. Meth


  1. Amphetamines:
    1. Increase appetite
    2. Can be used to treat narcolepsy (*)
    3. Induce sleep
    4. All of the above


  1. Psychotic behavior following heavy amphetamine use:
    1. Has never been documented
    2. Lacks the delusions of schizophrenia
    3. May be permanent
    4. May be accompanied by a permanent sensitivity to amphetamines (*)


  1. Overall, about ____ of people who try to stop smoking are still smoke free after 2 years.
    1. 0%
    2. 50%
    3. 20% (*)
    4. 80%


  1. When smoked in short puffs nicotine produces ___ effects; when inhaled deeply it produces ___ effects.
    1. depressant, stimulant
    2. stimulant, depressant (*)
    3. stimulant, hypnotic
    4. hypnotic, depressant


  1. In large doses nicotine:
    1. Produces nausea but cannot produce death
    2. Produces vomiting and headaches (*)
    3. Inhibits motor activity
    4. Produces lightheadedness


  1. Which of the following is not typically observed during nicotine withdrawal?
    1. Anxiety
    2. Vomiting (*)
    3. Drowsiness
    4. Headache


  1. Which of the following is not true with respect to tobacco use?
    1. A compound in tobacco smoke damages a cancer-suppressing gene, causing lung cancer.
    2. Smoking causes cancers in the respiratory system only, because tobacco smoke is inhaled. (*)
    3. Women who smoke during pregnancy give birth to underweight infants.
    4. Smoking can produce constriction of the blood vessels requiring amputation of extremities.


  1. Nicotine:
    1. Stimulates the ACh receptor (*)
    2. Stimulates the endorphin receptor
    3. Inhibits dopamine neurons
    4. Inhibits the GABA complex


  1. Caffeine:
    1. Decreases the release of acetylcholine
    2. Activates the endorphin receptor
    3. Blocks receptors for the neuromodulator adenosine (*)
    4. Retards the production of dopamine


  1. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms:
    1. Last about a week
    2. Include headaches and fatigue
    3. Are easily reversed
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Caffeine is:
    1. An illegal drug
    2. An abused drug (*)
    3. Not considered a drug
    4. None of the above


  1. Psychedelic drugs cause all of the following effects except:
    1. Sleepiness (*)
    2. Perceptual distortions
    3. Changes in time perception
    4. The user’s body changes shape or size


  1. Which of the following is not a psychedelic drug?
    1. Mescaline
    2. LSD
    3. Rohypnol (*)
    4. Psilocybin


  1. Many psychedelics are chemically similar to neurotransmitters. In particular:
    1. Peyote is structurally similar to GABA
    2. Mescaline is structurally similar to glutamate
    3. LSD is structurally similar to serotonin (*)
    4. MDMA is structurally similar to opiates


  1. The effects of MDMA:
    1. Have not been shown to produce long-term damage
    2. Are important in religious ceremonies and are sanctioned for use in the Native American Church
    3. Include appetite enhancement
    4. Include stimulation and sensory distortions (*)


  1. MDMA:
    1. Was developed as an anesthetic
    2. Stimulates the release of dopamine and serotonin (*)
    3. Causes dramatic negative effects on cognition, especially memory
    4. Is also called angel dust


  1. Phencyclidine was developed as an anesthetic, but abandoned for clinical use in humans because it:
    1. Produces schizophrenic symptoms (*)
    2. Destroys serotonergic neurons in the hindbrain
    3. Causes permanent memory loss, even at low doses
    4. Wasn’t a strong enough anesthetic to be effective


  1. Officer Gart was trying his best to make the case that PCP is an addictive drug because of research showing that:
    1. Lab animals will self-administer PCP (*)
    2. The craving for the drug is dependent on dopamine
    3. It stimulates glutamate receptors
    4. All of the above


  1. Which of the following drugs has contributed most to research on new models for schizophrenia?
    1. LSD
    2. MDMA
    3. PCP (*)
    4. Peyote


  1. All of the following are true about marijuana except:
    1. It comes from the Indian hemp plant, which was cultivated in the United States during World War II
    2. Its major psychoactive ingredient is THC
    3. A mild form of marijuana is called hashish (*)
    4. It can be smoked or eaten


  1. Which of the following act at cannabinoid receptors?
    1. Anandamide
    2. Marijuana
    3. 2-AG
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Cannabinoid receptors:
    1. Are most highly concentrated in the brain stem
    2. That are involved in muscle control are found in the frontal cortex
    3. In the hippocampus are responsible for the memory effects of cannabinoids (*)
    4. Are not found in the basal ganglia


  1. Why are researchers particularly concerned about the effects of heavy marijuana smoking on the user, based on recent studies?
    1. It produces cognitive deficits that are irreversible
    2. It causes memory deficits that persist at least a year after ceasing to smoke
    3. Daily use reduces the volume of the hippocampus and amygdala (*)
    4. It causes major psychotic symptoms


  1. The effects of marijuana on prenatal development:
    1. Are not as obvious as those caused by alcohol and cocaine
    2. Have received little attention
    3. Include later deficits in memory and language comprehension
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Which of the following is the best support for the possible addictive nature of marijuana?
    1. Marijuana is self-administered by both humans and lower primates. (*)
    2. Most chronic users experience noticeable withdrawal symptoms when drug use stops.
    3. Tolerance develops to the euphoric effects fairly rapidly.
    4. Marijuana causes physiological dependence.


  1. Why are patterns of brain activity due to drug use different than normal brain activity?
    1. They affect wide areas of the brain indiscriminantly (*)
    2. They shut down excitatory areas, and stimulate inhibitory areas
    3. Drugs are things that are unnatural, and do things the brain doesn’t do
    4. Anything that creates withdrawal is causing damage to the brain


  1. Which of the following show that medical marijuana is being viewed more positively?
    1. Fifteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the medical use of marijuana.
    2. The Department of Veterans Affairs announced it would allow patients in hospitals and clinics to use medical marijuana
    3. In a 2010 survey, 46% of the population supported legalization of marijuana.
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Which of the following supports the belief that addiction should not be defined only by the user’s desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms?
    1. Something other than withdrawal avoidance must explain the user’s initial drug use up to the point of addiction.
    2. Many users purposely go through withdrawal to reset their tolerance level.
    3. The addictiveness of a drug is not related to the severity of withdrawal symptoms.
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Which of the following produces withdrawal symptoms when no longer used, AND is addictive?
    1. Drugs for angina pain
    2. Drugs for hypertension
    3. Coffee (*)
    4. Nasal decongestants


  1. Withdrawal symptoms:
    1. Are due to mechanisms separate from the mechanisms of addiction (*)
    2. Can be artificially produced by electrically stimulating the VTA
    3. Can be terminated by administration of an antagonist
    4. Are modulated through the cerebellum


  1. The major drug reward system:
    1. Is located in the mesolimbocortical dopamine system (*)
    2. Seems to motivate rats to press a lever to turn off electrical currents in the nucleus accumbens
    3. Is disrupted when the PAG is lesioned
    4. All of the above


  1. Miller was lecturing on dopamine as the key neurotransmitter of reward and addiction; her main points were that rats will not press a lever for amphetamines or cocaine if given a drug that ___ dopamine activity, and the same drug will block the ___ effects of ESB.
    1. agonizes, rewarding
    2. antagonizes, rewarding (*)
    3. blocks, punishing
    4. facilitates, rewarding


  1. Which of the following brain areas, when stimulated using ESB, does NOT result in reward?
    1. Medial forebrain bundle
    2. Hippocampus (*)
    3. Nucleus accumbens
    4. Ventral tegmental area


  1. PET imaging reveals that chronic drug users are more likely to become addicts due to:
    1. A reduced number of dopamine receptors (*)
    2. An increased number of dopamine receptors
    3. “Reward efficiency syndrome”
    4. Increased release of reward neurotransmitters


  1. The role of dopamine as the only factor in drug abuse has been questioned because:
    1. Most drugs of abuse do not alter levels of dopamine
    2. PCP produces its rewarding effects by stimulating glutamate receptors
    3. The rewarding effects of cocaine are blocked by naloxone
    4. Opiates play a role in the rewarding effects of alcohol (*)


  1. Recent research has identified dopamine neurons that encode both the ___ and ____ of stimuli, which makes relapse more likely in the future.
    1. Compulsiveness; obviousness
    2. Addiction; withdrawal
    3. Motivational value; salience (*)
    4. Randomness; intent


  1. Which of the following statements is true?
    1. Reward is not essential for early drug taking, but it is for maintenance of long-term drug abuse.
    2. Dopamine signals rewards as well as errors in prediction. (*)
    3. Addiction theorists have shifted from using the term “reinforcer” to that of “reward” to explain drug-taking behavior.
    4. Learning only occurs when the reward is expected.


  1. Based on animal models, there is evidence that cocaine abusers have malformed dendrites and disrupted functioning in the ___, which impairs judgment and decision making.
    1. Nucleus amygdala
    2. Nucleus accumbens
    3. Hippocampus
    4. Prefrontal cortex (*)


  1. All of the following are true about craving except:
    1. It involves potentially life-long changes in brain functioning.
    2. Drug paraphernalia evoke craving in addicts.
    3. Craving involves both reward and learning circuits in the brain.
    4. It occurs when there is a shift from increased metabolism to hyperactivity in prefrontal areas. (*)



  1. Synanon:
    1. Found that many residents had more trouble abstaining from nicotine than any other drug (*)
    2. Is a “spin-off” of an organization initiated by Freud
    3. Is an outpatient facility
    4. Supplied addicts with cigarettes in 1970 when it was discovered that smoking reduced their craving for other drugs


  1. Freud found it personally most difficult to give up a drug, and using that drug resulted in his own death. Which drug was it?
    1. Nicotine (*)
    2. Alcohol
    3. Heroin
    4. Opiates


  1. Detoxification is most dangerous with:
    1. Heroin
    2. Alcohol (*)
    3. Cocaine
    4. Benzodiazepines


  1. Methadone is a:
    1. Synthetic morphine antagonist
    2. Natural morphine antagonist
    3. Synthetic morphine agonist (*)
    4. Natural morphine agonist


  1. One of the problems with using antagonist treatments to decrease drug abuse is that:
    1. The user often just substitutes the antagonist for the original abused drug
    2. Most antagonists produce tolerance, making them ineffective
    3. It offers no alternative for the abused drug’s benefit (*)
    4. The antagonist makes the person ill by interfering with metabolism, so addicts will not accept it


  1. Which of the following treatments shows the most promise for treating addiction?
    1. Agonists like methadone
    2. Aversive treatments such as Antabuse
    3. Oral medications such as Chantix
    4. Antidrug vaccines (*)


  1. What neurotransmitter is the focus of some of the newer treatments for smoking and alcohol addiction?
    1. Norepinephrine
    2. Serotonin (*)
    3. Glutamate
    4. GABA


  1. The annual cost of treating addictions in the United States is around ____.
    1. 450 billion dollars
    2. 750 billion dollars
    3. 600 billion dollars (*)
    4. 250 billion dollars


  1. All of the following are true about of drug treatment except:
    1. Not everyone agrees that it is right to treat drug addiction with a drug
    2. Treatment may be more difficult because a genetic factor is involved.
    3. A major difficulty for treating addiction is comorbidity with mental and emotional disorders
    4. Pharmacological intervention is not very effective in producing abstinence (*)


  1. Twin and adoption studies indicate:
    1. Since alcoholism tends to follow family lines, it must be inherited
    2. The heritability for alcoholism is around 50–60 percent (*)
    3. Alcoholism is determined more by environment than genetics
    4. The heritability for alcoholism is around 20–30 percent


  1. Early-onset (Type 2) alcoholics:
    1. Are late-onset alcoholics
    2. Are cautious and emotionally dependent
    3. Feel guilty about overindulging
    4. Are almost always male (*)


  1. Late-onset (Type 1) alcoholics:
    1. Start drinking at an early age
    2. Can abstain for a long time, but then engage in binge drinking when they do drink (*)
    3. Have a tendency toward antisocial behavior
    4. Show low harm avoidance as children


  1. One difference between early- and late-onset alcoholics is that:
    1. Children of late-onset alcoholics were likely to become alcoholics only if reared in a home where alcohol was abused. (*)
    2. Children of late-onset alcoholics were likely to become alcoholics regardless of whether alcohol was abused in the home.
    3. Children of early-onset alcoholics were likely to become alcoholics only if reared in a home where alcohol was abused.
    4. There is no difference in the likelihood of their children becoming alcoholics.


  1. Which of the following genes have been implicated in cocaine addiction?
    1. The a4 nicotinic receptor gene
    2. The Clock gene that affects acetylcholine
    3. Homer genes that regulate glutamate (*)
    4. All of the above


  1. Many Asians react to alcohol with intense flushing and nausea due to a(n):
    1. Inherited deficiency of aldehyde
    2. Excess of ALDH
    3. Build up of aldehyde (*)
    4. Lack of the enzyme that breaks alcohol down to aldehyde


  1. ALDH deficiency:
    1. Has effects that are similar to the drug Antabuse
    2. Is infrequent in Caucasians
    3. Provides some protection from alcohol abuse
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. In predicting which children are the most likely to become alcoholics, the more consistent procedure would be to:
    1. Look for a change in the P3 dip of the evoked potential (*)
    2. Examine the effects of the GABAB receptor
    3. Look for decreased high frequency EEG patterns
    4. Study personality and social factors that would put children at risk



  1. The study of addiction is important because:
    1. Alcoholism is the root of drug abuse, and decreasing alcoholism will decrease all drug abuse
    2. Each abused drug operates via different neurotransmitters, therefore we know there cannot be a common biomechanism and we need to look for psychological mechanisms
    3. The evidence illustrates the interplay between genetics and environmental influences (*)
    4. We now know that dopamine is the neurotransmitter that we should focus treatments on


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of heroin use?
    1. It may lead to an addiction that is difficult to overcome
    2. It may lead to withdrawal symptoms that are very severe (*)
    3. Users experience intense euphoria followed by relaxation
    4. It may lead to conditioned tolerance


  1. Jerry, a 45-year-old chronic alcoholic, has recently begun experiencing memory loss and coordination problems. His doctor informs him that he may be suffering from ____ as a result of his long-term alcohol abuse.
    1. delirium tremens
    2. conditioned tolerance
    3. Korsakoff’s syndrome (*)
    4. psychosis


  1. Which of the following drugs enhances the activity of GABA?
    1. Alcohol
    2. Barbiturates
    3. Benzodiazepines
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Prenatal exposure to alcohol has been linked to all of the following except:
    1. Impaired function on frontal lobe tasks, appearing at age 4 (*)
    2. Poor cognitive development
    3. Facial abnormalities such as a thin upper lip
    4. Trouble maintaining attention and irritability


  1. Which of the following is not a potential health problem associated with cigarette smoking or tobacco use?
    1. Buerger’s disease
    2. Cancer of the mouth
    3. Gangrene
    4. Korsakoff’s syndrome (*)


  1. The psychoactive ingredient in marijuana affects the same receptor sites as which of the following ligands?
    1. Endorphins
    2. Anandamide (*)
    3. Dopamine
    4. Glutamate


  1. Many addictive drugs produce euphoric effects by:
    1. Blocking the reuptake of dopamine (*)
    2. Blocking dopamine receptors
    3. Eliminating dopamine from the synapse
    4. Inhibiting the release of dopamine


  1. A male rat that is presented with a sexually receptive female shows an increase of dopamine in the:
    1. Hippocampus
    2. Nucleus accumbens (*)
    3. Lateral forebrain bundle
    4. Prefrontal cortex


  1. Opiates are implicated in the rewarding effects of which drug?
    1. Alcohol (*)
    2. Cocaine
    3. Amphetamine
    4. Nicotine


  1. Sharon was recently admitted to the hospital because she was suffering severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures. She was given benzodiazepine to reduce the severity of her symptoms. Which of the following drugs is Sharon most likely addicted to?
    1. Alcohol (*)
    2. Heroin
    3. Nicotine
    4. Cocaine


  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true of anti-drug vaccines?
    1. They lead to the destruction of drug molecules before they can reach the brain.
    2. They are not ready for clinical trials in humans. (*)
    3. They result in fewer side effects than other pharmacological treatments.
    4. Their effects may be longer lasting than other pharmacological treatments.


  1. Which of the following is NOT a predictor of alcoholism?
    1. Being the child of an alcoholic
    2. Feeling fewer effects of alcohol when drinking
    3. Having no exposure to alcohol when young (*)
    4. Showing an abnormal P300 wave


  1. Alcohol use results in inhibition of the release of ____, which produces a sedating effect.
    1. GABA
    2. Glutamate (*)
    3. Serotonin
    4. Adenosine


  1. Alcohol can affect which neurotransmitter systems?
    1. GABA
    2. Opiate
    3. Cannabinoid
    4. All of the above (*)


  1. Cocaine users will experience ____ to the drug in terms of its euphoric effects and ____ to the seizure-producing effects of the drug.
    1. increasing sensitivity; decreasing sensitivity
    2. tolerance; increasing sensitivity (*)
    3. increasing sensitivity; tolerance
    4. tolerance; withdrawal


  1. Surprisingly, the number of people who die each year due to inhalation of second-hand smoke is ___ the deaths due to heroin and cocaine combined.
    1. 50% of
    2. Equal to
    3. Twice
    4. 9-10 times (*)




  1. Discuss the differences between agonists and antagonists.
  2. How are barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and alcohol similar? Different?
  3. List the similarities and differences in opiates and sedative/hypnotics.
  4. How do the major drugs of abuse alter fetal development and/or later performance?
  5. What are the health consequences of chronic alcoholism?
  6. What are the differences in the symptoms of withdrawal for the major drugs of abuse?
  7. Identify four major stimulants and indicate what neurotransmitter(s) they primarily affect. Pick one and describe its negative effects on the brain and/or body.
  8. How does marijuana challenge our understanding of addiction?
  9. What evidence suggests that there is a neural basis for addiction and reward? How might this be related to the motivation to engage in survival behaviors such as eating or sexual behavior?
  10. Discuss the personality traits of early- and late-onset alcoholics.
  11. What evidence has cast doubt on the exclusive importance of dopamine in drug abuse?






  1. Drugs that produce euphoric feelings are psychoactive substances. (T)
  2. Most psychoactive substances produce sedation. (F)
  3. Tolerance does not develop at the same rate for all drug effects. (T)
  4. The first use of opium occurred in the 1800s. (F)
  5. Heroin was developed in the late 1800s. (T)
  6. With chronic alcoholism vitamin B1 deficiency can occur, which can produce Korsakoff’s syndrome. (T)
  7. Alcohol increases anxiety and therefore aggression. (F)
  8. Cocaine does not cross the placenta. (F)
  9. The effects of amphetamine are often difficult to distinguish from schizophrenia. (T)
  10. The word psychedelic means many colors. (F)
  11. The major psychoactive ingredient in marijuana is anandamide. (F)
  12. When followed until age 15, children prenatally exposed to marijuana have shown no developmental or cognitive differences from children who were not exposed to marijuana. (F)
  13. Withdrawal from cocaine includes diarrhea and vomiting. (F)
  14. The active component of peyote is mescaline. (T)
  15. Cannabinoid receptors are located in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia. (T)
  16. Rats will self-administer PCP. (T)
  17. Parkinson’s disease medications may increase the likelihood of compulsive gambling. (T)
  18. The abnormal P300 wave in alcoholics is also observed in childhood conduct disorder. (T)
  19. Most Type 2 alcoholics are males. (T)
  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency occurs in approximately 2% of Japanese non-alcoholics and about 50% of Japanese alcoholics. (F)
  21. Treatment of accompanying psychological disorders has no effect on the success of addiction treatments. (F)

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