Biopsychology 10th Edition by John P. J. Pinel – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

The Research Methods of Biopsychology:

Understanding What Biopsychologists Do

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Vestibular function can be assessed by assessing a patient’s reaction to

 

  1. facial nerve stimulation.
  2. electroencephalography.
  3. cold water flushed in the ear.
  4. needles inserted in the face.
  5. needles inserted in the foot.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 104

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

Type: Applied

Rationale: This answer is illustrated in the ironic case of Dr. P.

 

  1. The ironic case of Professor P. makes the point that

 

  1. two brains are better than one.
  2. Alzheimer’s disease can have an early onset.
  3. many research methods of biopsychology are used in clinical settings.
  4. brain tumors can be bilateral.
  5. cortical tumors are usually malignant.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 104

Topic: Chapter 5 Introduction

Type: Applied

Rationale: This is an important point for biopsychology students making career plans.

 

 

 

  1. Which technique is illustrated here?

 

 

  1. computed tomography
  2. cerebral angiography
  3. electroencephalography
  4. magnetic resonance imaging
  5. positron emission tomography

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 105

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

  1. Which contrast X-ray technique is designed to locate vascular abnormalities in the brains of human patients?

 

  1. cerebral angiography
  2. X-ray photography
  3. pneumoencephalography
  4. CT scans
  5. PET scans

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 105

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

Rationale: Figure 10.4 provides a beautiful illustration of this point.

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a contrast X-ray technique?

 

  1. angiography
  2. magnetoencephalography
  3. positron emission tomography
  4. structural magnetic resonance imaging
  5. functional MRI

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 105

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

  1. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the human brain is usually presented as a series of eight or nine

 

  1. horizontal sections.
  2. frontal sections.
  3. coronal sections.
  4. sagittal sections.
  5. midsagittal sections.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following procedures is NOT an adaptation of X-ray photography?

 

  1. computed tomography
  2. MRI
  3. CT
  4. angiography
  5. both A and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 103

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following provides the most detailed three-dimensional view of the structure of the living human brain?

 

  1. CT
  2. PET
  3. angiography
  4. EEG
  5. MRI

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Positron emission tomography is a valuable research tool because it

 

  1. pictures the brain in fine detail.
  2. involves angiography.
  3. provides an image of brain function.
  4. provides an image of brain structure.
  5. involves low levels of radioactivity.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. A patient is sometimes injected with radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose before

 

  1. a CT scan.
  2. magnetic resonance imaging.
  3. a contrast X-ray.
  4. positron emission tomography.
  5. a sodium amytal test.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. The reason why radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose is useful for revealing the level of activity of neurons in different parts of the brain is that fluorodeoxyglucose

 

  1. is absorbed by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  2. is metabolized by neurons in relation to their level of activity.
  3. is not metabolized by neurons.
  4. both A and C
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Functional MRI generates images of increases to areas of the brain of

 

  1. oxygenated blood flow.
  2. water flow.
  3. nitric oxide flow.
  4. alpha waves.
  5. fluorodeoxyglucose.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 107

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which technique records the BOLD signal?

 

  1. MRI
  2. CT
  3. fMRI
  4. PET
  5. MEG

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 107

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Functional MRI requires the injection of radioactive

 

  1. water.
  2. glucose.
  3. fluorodeoxyglucose.
  4. oxygen.
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 108

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which method provides structural and functional information about the living human brain on the same image?

 

  1. functional MRI
  2. angiography
  3. PET
  4. CT
  5. EEG

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 108

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a method used by cognitive neuroscientists to turn off part of the brain while the effects on cognition and behavior are assessed?

 

  1. 2-DG
  2. ERP
  3. TMS
  4. PET
  5. EEG

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Unlike brain-imaging techniques, TMS permits the study of __________ between human cortical activity and cognition.

 

  1. links
  2. causal relations
  3. correlations
  4. neural connections
  5. communication

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. An electroencephalograph is

 

  1. a gross measure of the electrical activity of the brain.
  2. a gross measure of the electrical activity of the cortex.
  3. a gross measure of the electrical activity of neurons.
  4. a gross measure of the electrical activity of groups of neurons.
  5. an EEG machine.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. In human patients, EEG activity is commonly recorded directly from

 

  1. muscle.
  2. the hippocampus.
  3. the scalp.
  4. the neocortex.
  5. the heart.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. Alpha wave EEG activity is associated with

 

  1. high arousal.
  2. sleep.
  3. relaxed wakefulness.
  4. epilepsy.
  5. evoked potentials.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following biopsychologists would be most likely to study cortical ERPs in human volunteers?

 

  1. a neuropsychologist
  2. a psychophysiologist
  3. a physiological psychologist
  4. a psychopharmacologist
  5. a comparative psychologist

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Signal averaging is commonly used in the recording of ERPs because it reduces the magnitude of

 

  1. large signals.
  2. sensory evoked potentials.
  3. random signals.
  4. the P300.
  5. far-field potentials.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The main difference between an average evoked potential (AEP) and a “raw” evoked potential is that

 

  1. an AEP is usually unobservable.
  2. an AEP is an alpha wave.
  3. a raw evoked potential is often unobservable amidst the random noise of the ongoing EEG signal.
  4. an AEP is a unit response.
  5. a raw evoked potential is likely to be larger.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. The P300

 

  1. is an EEG wave that often occurs after the presentation of a momentary stimulus meaningful to the volunteer.
  2. is a negative EEG wave.
  3. is a far-field potential occurring 300 mm from the electrode.
  4. occurs about 300 seconds prior to a response.
  5. is a component of the potential evoked by a meaningless click.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. The signals in the first few milliseconds of the average auditory evoked potential

 

  1. always originate next to the scalp electrode.
  2. are far-field potentials.
  3. originate in the sensory nuclei of the brain stem.
  4. all of the above
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Components of AEPs recorded in the first few milliseconds after a stimulus are

 

  1. almost always auditory.
  2. almost always visual.
  3. not usually influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.
  4. of special interest to cognitive psychologists.
  5. almost always influenced by the meaning of the stimulus.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. The short-latency low-amplitude signals (indicated by the arrow) in this average auditory evoked potential are termed

 

 

  1. the P300.
  2. the P400.
  3. the ERP.
  4. the sensory evoked potential.
  5. far-field potentials.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 110

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following technique measures changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the brain?

 

  1. MRI
  2. fMRI
  3. MEG
  4. EMG
  5. EEG

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. MEG records

 

  1. the time of particular EEG signals.
  2. changes in magnetic fields on the surface of the scalp.
  3. the frequency of particular EEG signals.
  4. the latency of far-field potentials.
  5. the P300.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Muscle tension is monitored by

 

  1. electroencephalography.
  2. electromyography.
  3. electrooculography.
  4. ERPs.
  5. MEGs.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Electrooculography is

 

  1. usually performed with one electrode mounted on each cornea.
  2. a method of estimating eye movement.
  3. a method of measuring skin conductance.
  4. an indirect method of measuring pupil constriction.
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Electrooculography is a technique for monitoring

 

  1. penile engorgement.
  2. cortical activity.
  3. blood pressure.
  4. eye movement.
  5. muscle tension.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. In electrooculography, how many electrodes are typically used to monitor the movements of one eye?

 

  1. 4
  2. 8
  3. 3
  4. 1
  5. 6

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Illustrated here is

 

 

  1. electroencephalography.
  2. magnetoencephalography.
  3. electrooculography.
  4. plethysmography.
  5. electromyography.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. If you were startled by a loud noise, there would be an increase in your skin’s conductance of electricity. This response is called

 

  1. a skin conductance response.
  2. an EKG.
  3. a skin conductance level.
  4. an average evoked potential.
  5. a P300 wave.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which gland or glands directly influence the SCL and the SCR?

 

  1. gonads
  2. pituitary gland
  3. sweat glands
  4. pancreas
  5. adrenal glands

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a record of a person’s heart beat?

 

  1. electrocardiogram
  2. ECG
  3. EKG
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Hypertension is

 

  1. stress.
  2. caused by excitement.
  3. chronic high blood pressure.
  4. chronic low blood pressure.
  5. a sphygmomanometer.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Applied

Rationale: Many students incorrectly select A.

 

 

 

  1. The level of 130/70 mmHg is

 

  1. indicative of stress.
  2. the ratio of diastolic to total systolic blood pressure.
  3. a healthy human blood pressure.
  4. indicative of hypertension.
  5. both A and C

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Applied

Rationale: Everybody should know this.

 

  1. Which of the following have traditionally been used by physicians to measure blood pressure?

 

  1. sphygmomanometers
  2. plethysmographs
  3. oscilloscopes
  4. electrodes
  5. ERPs

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Applied

 

  1. Penile erection is

 

  1. a muscular response.
  2. an electromyographic response.
  3. a plethysmographic response.
  4. a sphygmomanometric response.
  5. an aberrant response.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Stereotaxic surgery in human patients typically requires

 

  1. a stereotaxic atlas.
  2. a stereotaxic instrument.
  3. a head holder.
  4. an electrode holder.
  5. all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Applied

 

  1. The method by which the experimental devices are accurately positioned in subcortical structures of human patients and animal subjects is

 

  1. autoradiography.
  2. cryogenesis.
  3. perfusion.
  4. stereotaxic surgery.
  5. aspiration.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Applied

 

  1. Bregma is

 

  1. the point of intersection between two major skull sutures.
  2. a common reference point for rat stereotaxic brain surgery.
  3. a naughty word.
  4. a type of electrode holder.
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The reference point for many stereotaxic atlases of the rat brain is

 

  1. smegma.
  2. lambda.
  3. the intersection between two major tracts.
  4. bregma.
  5. both C and D

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Unlike subcortical lesions, cortical lesions are often made by

 

  1. the electrolytic method.
  2. aspiration.
  3. radio-frequency current.
  4. transection.
  5. stereotaxic surgery.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following brain lesion techniques is least likely to be associated with damage to major blood vessels?

 

  1. aspiration lesions
  2. electrolytic lesions
  3. radio-frequency lesions
  4. knife cuts
  5. lobotomy

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The __________ created by the current is the main cause of tissue damage produced by a radio-frequency lesion.

 

  1. vibration
  2. current induction
  3. heat
  4. ion deposits
  5. acid

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Reversible brain lesions, if properly done,

 

  1. destroy only those neurons that have been cooled.
  2. produce a discrete area of permanent damage.
  3. destroy neurons by freezing them.
  4. produce no permanent neural damage.
  5. eliminate all neural activity in the brain for about 3 hours.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Cooling can be used to produce a functional or reversible brain lesion because

 

  1. the damage that it produces lasts only a few weeks.
  2. the damage that it produces lasts only a day or two.
  3. it can temporarily suppress neural activity in a particular area of the brain without damaging the brain.
  4. it produces lesions that can be reversed with drugs.
  5. the subjects usually survive.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. A temporary or reversible lesion can be produced by

 

  1. excision or cutting.
  2. aspiration or suction.
  3. cooling the target brain structure or injecting an anesthetic into it.
  4. radio-frequency current.
  5. invasive EEG.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Reversible lesions can be produced by microinjection directly into the target brain structure of a

 

  1. local anesthetic such as lidocaine.
  2. a micro knife blade.
  3. coolant followed by antifreeze.
  4. both A and B
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 113

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

Rationale: Note: Coolants or antifreeze are never injected into the brain.

 

  1. Lesions that are commonly referred to as amygdala lesions often

 

  1. damage neural structures other than the amygdala.
  2. do not destroy the entire amygdala.
  3. damage prefrontal cortex.
  4. both A and B
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: This is an important idea that needs emphasis, which is why this is a good question.

 

 

 

  1. Lesions restricted to structures on one half of the brain are called

 

  1. unilateral lesions.
  2. bilateral lesions.
  3. monopolar lesions.
  4. bipolar lesions.
  5. unitary lesions.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Lesions restricted to structures in one half of the brain usually have effects that are much less severe than do comparable

 

  1. unilateral lesions.
  2. bipolar lesions.
  3. cryogenic lesions.
  4. aspiration lesions.
  5. bilateral lesions.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Intracellular unit recording is not commonly used in biopsychological research because

 

  1. it is too difficult for biopsychologists.
  2. biopsychologists are usually not interested in neurons.
  3. it is a neurophysiological procedure.
  4. it is very difficult to keep the tip of a microelectrode inside a single neuron in a moving subject.
  5. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Intracellular unit recording is particularly difficult in

 

  1. humans.
  2. monkeys.
  3. rats.
  4. freely moving animals.
  5. higher species.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which method was used to record this signal?

 

 

  1. extracellular unit recording
  2. intracellular unit recording
  3. electroencephalography
  4. multiple-unit recording
  5. plethysmography

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Unlike other electrophysiological methods of recording neural activity, intracellular unit recording provides measurements of

 

  1. cell firing.
  2. action potentials.
  3. the membrane potential.
  4. reductions in neural firing.
  5. EEG activity.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Extracellular unit recording provides information about

 

  1. the magnitude of the membrane potential.
  2. the wave form of action potentials.
  3. EPSPs.
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which method was used to record this signal?

 

 

  1. extracellular unit recording
  2. intracellular unit recording
  3. electroencephalography
  4. integrated multiple unit recording
  5. plethysmography

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Multiple-unit signals are typically

 

  1. recorded through microelectrodes.
  2. recorded through electrodes that are larger than microelectrodes.
  3. integrated, or added together, to facilitate their interpretation.
  4. both A and C
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. In laboratory animals, cortical EEG signals are commonly recorded through

 

  1. stainless steel skull screws.
  2. electrodes placed around the eyes.
  3. subcortical electrodes.
  4. disk electrodes taped to the scalp.
  5. cortical pipettes.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. IP, SC, and IM are all

 

  1. recording methods.
  2. drugs.
  3. stimulation methods.
  4. cranial nerves.
  5. routes of drug administration.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Drugs that do not penetrate the blood brain barrier can be administered to particular neural structures

 

  1. by SC injection.
  2. through a stereotaxically positioned cerebral cannula.
  3. through an intracerebral microelectrode.
  4. by IV injection.
  5. by injection into a carotid artery.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Both ibotenic acid and kainic acid

 

  1. are neurotoxins.
  2. destroy neurons whose cell bodies are at the tip of an intracerebral cannula, while leaving axons passing through the region undamaged.
  3. are selective dopamine agonists.
  4. are selective dopamine antagonists.
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. The neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively destroys

 

  1. neurons that release dopamine or norepinephrine.
  2. axons.
  3. cell bodies.
  4. multipolar neurons.
  5. the hypothalamus.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. A method of identifying all of the brain areas of a laboratory animal that were particularly active during a behavioral test is

 

  1. cerebral dialysis.
  2. the 2-deoxyglucose technique.
  3. immunocytochemistry.
  4. the 6-OHDA technique.
  5. the kainic acid technique.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The final stage of the 2-deoxyglucose technique involves

 

  1. autoradiography.
  2. injecting fluorodeoxyglucose.
  3. injecting radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose.
  4. immunocytochemistry.
  5. cerebral dialysis.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. A method of measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals in particular sites in the brains of active laboratory animals is

 

  1. cerebral dialysis.
  2. the 6-OHDA histological technique.
  3. in situ hybridization.
  4. immunocytochemistry.
  5. electroencephalography.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Cerebral dialysis is a method of

 

  1. stimulating the brain.
  2. stimulating the neuroendocrine system.
  3. measuring changes in the extracellular concentrations of various neurochemicals at particular sites in the brains of active animals.
  4. 6-OHDA.
  5. recording AEPs.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a technique for locating particular proteins in the brain?

 

  1. immunocytochemistry
  2. the 6-OHDA technique
  3. in situ hybridization
  4. both A and B
  5. both A and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following procedures employs labeled antibodies?

 

  1. immunocytochemistry
  2. in situ hybridization
  3. cerebral dialysis
  4. electroencephalography
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. In immunocytochemistry, the labeled ligand is

 

  1. an amino acid.
  2. a microelectrode.
  3. an antibody.
  4. a neurotransmitter.
  5. a receptor.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Immunocytochemistry is to in situ hybridization as

 

  1. antibody is to messenger RNA.
  2. DNA is to antibody.
  3. neurotransmitter is to cell body.
  4. antibody is to DNA.
  5. RNA is to antibody.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Knockout mice are mice that

 

  1. have had a concussion.
  2. are susceptible to concussion.
  3. have amnesia.
  4. both A and C
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 118

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

Rationale: Knockout out mice are those in whom a particular gene has been deleted or “knocked out.”

 

  1. Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique as a method of biopsychological research?

 

  1. Most behavioral traits are influenced by many interacting genes.
  2. Elimination of one gene often influences the expression of other genes.
  3. The effects of some gene knockouts are likely to depend on experience.
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 118

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: To get this answer correct, students need to recognize only that more than one of the statements is correct.

  1. Melanopsin knockout mice have difficulty

 

  1. adjusting their circadian rhythms in response to changes in the daily light-dark cycle.
  2. seeing.
  3. sleeping on a regular schedule.
  4. displaying circadian rhythms.
  5. recognizing circadian signals.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 118

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

  1. Transgenic mice always possess

 

  1. more chromosomes than normal.
  2. genes of the other sex.
  3. the behavioral characteristics of the other sex.
  4. fewer chromosomes than normal.
  5. genes of another species.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 118

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

  1. Green fluorescent protein

 

  1. was first isolated from a species of jelly fish.
  2. fluoresces when exposed to blue light.
  3. has been used to visualize neurons in a few plants, but not yet in animals.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

Rationale: C is clearly incorrect: Plants do not have neurons.

 

 

 

  1. The brainbow technique

 

  1. is an extension of the green fluorescent protein technique.
  2. is a technique for labeling neurons in an animal different colors so that each can be traced.
  3. has not yet been applied to neural tissue in multicellular animals.
  4. both A and B
  5. both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 119

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

  1. Neuroscientists insert specific opsin genes into particular neurons so that exposure to light influences their activity. This technique is generally referred to as

 

  1. optogenetics.
  2. immunochemistry.
  3. brainbow.
  4. in situ hybridization.
  5. autoradiography.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 120

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

  1. A behavioral paradigm normally includes a method for
  2. producing the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  3. measuring the behavioral phenomenon under investigation.
  4. recording brain activity.
  5. all of the above
  6. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 120–121

Topic: Introduction: Behavioral Research Methods

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: This important two-part concept is emphasized in the text.

 

 

 

  1. The main difference between neurologists and neuropsychologists is that

 

  1. neurologists deal with brain-damaged people.
  2. neuropsychologists tend to focus on the assessment of complex behavioral problems.
  3. neuropsychologists generally refer patients to neurologists, but not vice versa.
  4. neurologists deal with behavior.
  5. neurologists are scientists.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: This is an important point for students making career decisions.

 

  1. Neuropsychological assessment is useful because it can

 

  1. assist diagnosis.
  2. influence treatment.
  3. be the basis for effective counseling.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: To get this question correct, the student needs to recognize that more than one of the three statements (all three of which are made in the text) are true.

 

  1. Before the 1950s, neuropsychological testing usually employed the

 

  1. standardized-test-battery approach.
  2. single-test approach.
  3. customized-test-battery approach.
  4. neurological approach.
  5. psychophysical approach.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Factual

 

  1. The primary purpose of the single-test and standardized-test-battery approaches to neuropsychological testing was to

 

  1. identify brain-damaged patients.
  2. locate the area of brain damage.
  3. characterize the nature of the psychological deficits.
  4. measure brain activity.
  5. compete with neurologists.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Factual

 

  1. The modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing typically begins with a

 

  1. test of memory.
  2. test of speech.
  3. test of motor function.
  4. test of emotion.
  5. battery of tests.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. Tests used in the modern customized-test-battery approach to neuropsychological testing

 

  1. are often specifically designed to measure aspects of psychological function that have been spotlighted by modern theories and data.
  2. often focus on the cognitive strategies employed by the patient, rather than on just how well the patient does.
  3. often require skilled practitioners for their prescription, administration, and interpretation.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: All three of these points are made in the text; the student needs to recognize only two of them to deduce the correct answer.

 

  1. Many current neuropsychological assessments begin with the

 

  1. sodium amytal test.
  2. dichotic listening test.
  3. WAIS.
  4. Psychiatric Test Inventory (PTI).
  5. ERP

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. The digit-span test is a common test of

 

  1. short-term memory.
  2. counting.
  3. arithmetic.
  4. intelligence.
  5. lateralization.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: Unfortunately, it is quite insensitive to brain damage.

 

  1. On the digit-span test, most people score about

 

  1. 65%.
  2. 85%.
  3. 50%.
  4. 100%.
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: The correct answer is 7; students who understand the test should be able to deduce the answer.

 

  1. Which of the following WAIS subtests are perceptual reasoning subtests?

 

  1. Picture Completion
  2. Digit Symbol
  3. Block Design
  4. Object Assembly
  5. all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: Students need only to recognize that more than one of the options is correct to deduce the answer.

  1. Which of the following subtests of the WAIS involves cartoon drawings?

 

  1. Object Assembly
  2. Picture Arrangement
  3. Coloring
  4. Similarities
  5. Digit Span

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is a test of language ability that employs objects of two shapes, two sizes, and five different colors?

 

  1. block-span test
  2. token test
  3. aphasia subtest of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery
  4. paired-associate test
  5. Wechsler Language Scale Test

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. The sodium amytal test and dichotic listening test are tests of

 

  1. audition.
  2. memory.
  3. intelligence.
  4. language lateralization.
  5. language.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. In the sodium amytal test, injections are sequentially made into the left and right

 

  1. language areas of the cortex.
  2. speech areas of the cortex.
  3. carotid arteries.
  4. auditory cortex.
  5. motor cortex.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: To answer correctly the student only needs to know that sodium amytal is not injected into the brain during this test.

 

  1. In the sodium amytal test, an injection into the carotid artery contralateral to the dominant hemisphere for speech renders the patient completely mute for

 

  1. 50 seconds.
  2. 2 minutes.
  3. 4 minutes.
  4. 30 minutes.
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: Injection into the nondominant side does not render the patient mute.

 

  1. In the conventional dichotic listening test of language lateralization, on each trial

 

  1. seven digits are presented.
  2. three digits are presented twice in rapid succession.
  3. seven pairs of digits are presented.
  4. three pairs of digits are presented.
  5. seven dichotic stimuli are presented.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Memories that are demonstrated by improved performance in the absence of any conscious awareness of the memories are called

 

  1. implicit memories.
  2. explicit memories.
  3. semantic memories.
  4. episodic memories.
  5. short-term memories.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Repetition priming tests are tests of

 

  1. explicit memory.
  2. implicit memory.
  3. episodic memory.
  4. semantic memory.
  5. consolidated memory.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 123

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Brain damage may produce selective language deficits associated with the sounds, grammar, or meaning of language. In other words, they may disrupt

 

  1. syntax, phonology, or semantics, respectively.
  2. phonology, semantics, or syntax, respectively.
  3. phonology, syntax, or semantics, respectively.
  4. semantics, syntax, or phonology, respectively.
  5. semantics, phonology, or syntax, respectively.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. Dyslexia is a difficulty in

 

  1. speaking.
  2. reading.
  3. understanding.
  4. thinking.
  5. fleeming.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. A common neuropsychological test of frontal-lobe damage is the

 

  1. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.
  2. token test.
  3. Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test.
  4. digit-span test.
  5. block-design test.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

 

 

  1. Illustrated here is the

 

 

  1. Washington Symbols Test.
  2. Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test.
  3. classic test of parietal-lobe damage.
  4. both A and C
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

Rationale: This is a classic test of frontal lobe damage.

 

  1. Most cognitive neuroscientific research is based on the assumption that

 

  1. complex cognitive processes result from the combination of simple constituent cognitive processes.
  2. each constituent cognitive process is mediated by activity in a particular area of the brain.
  3. almost all constituent cognitive processes tend to be localized in subcortical structures.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 124–125

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: A and B are emphasized in the text, and students should have little difficulty recognizing that C is incorrect.

 

 

 

  1. If a PET image is recorded while a patient is reading, many areas of activity on the PET image will have nothing to do with the cognitive activity of reading per se. That is why cognitive neuroscientists often use

 

  1. functional MRI.
  2. structural MRI.
  3. the paired-image subtraction technique.
  4. the additive-image control procedure.
  5. EEG.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: Factual

 

  1. A network of brain structures that tends to be active when a person sits quietly and lets her mind wander has been termed the

 

  1. limbic system.
  2. constituent cognitive processor.
  3. default mode network.
  4. cerebral paradigm.
  5. paired-image subtraction mode.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: Factual

 

  1. In most PET and functional MRI studies of cognitive processes, the signal-to-noise ratio is increased by

 

  1. subtraction.
  2. addition.
  3. signal averaging.
  4. signal splitting.
  5. multiplication.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 125

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is a commonly studied species-common behavior?

 

  1. copulating
  2. nest building
  3. grooming
  4. swimming
  5. all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

Rationale: Students can either memorize the correct answer from the text or deduce it from their understanding of species common behaviors.

 

  1. The open-field test is usually conducted in

 

  1. a large, empty chamber.
  2. the animals’ natural habitat.
  3. an open space in the animals’ natural habitat.
  4. a thigmotaxic chamber.
  5. Iowa.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. In the open-field test, a high bolus count is frequently used as an indicator of

 

  1. aggression.
  2. fearfulness.
  3. motor activity.
  4. attention.
  5. defense.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. In the open-field test, thigmotaxia is often used as a measure of

 

  1. body temperature.
  2. fearfulness.
  3. sexual motivation.
  4. obesity.
  5. aggression.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. If a rat with its hair erect, moves sideways towards another rat and then pushes against it, the

 

  1. first rat is likely sexually motivated.
  2. second rat is likely a female.
  3. first rat is likely a female.
  4. first rat is likely a dominant male displaying social aggression.
  5. second rat is likely dominant to the first.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. In rats, boxing (rearing up and pushing with the forepaws) is usually a sign of

 

  1. sexual motivation.
  2. aggression.
  3. predation.
  4. defense against conspecific attack.
  5. a lack of sexual motivation in alpha males.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The elevated plus maze is a commonly used test of

 

  1. balance.
  2. learning.
  3. memory.
  4. all of the above
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Applied

Rationale: The elevated plus maze is a commonly used test of defensiveness or anxiety in the study of anxiolytic drugs.

 

  1. The elevated plus maze is commonly employed to study

 

  1. memory in rats.
  2. anxiety or defensiveness in studies of anxiolytic drugs.
  3. aggression in drug experiments.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Applied

 

  1. Normally, a male rat cannot intromit unless

 

  1. it is all by itself.
  2. it first displays lordosis.
  3. the female first displays lordosis.
  4. the female has a low lordosis quotient.
  5. it first ejaculates.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a commonly used measure of male rat sexual behavior?

 

  1. number of mounts required to achieve an intromission
  2. number of intromissions required to achieve an ejaculation
  3. duration of the interval between an ejaculation and the reinitiation of mounting
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

Rationale: All three of the correct options are listed in the text.

 

  1. Which of the following is a commonly used measure of the sexual receptivity of female rats?

 

  1. postejaculatory interval
  2. mount frequency
  3. lordosis quotient
  4. number of intromissions to ejaculation
  5. number of ejaculations to intromission

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. During conventional Pavlovian conditioning, the conditional stimulus is repeatedly presented just before the

 

  1. conditional response.
  2. unconditional stimulus.
  3. other conditional stimulus.
  4. operant response.
  5. classical stimulus.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. In operant conditioning paradigms, the rate of a voluntary response is increased by __________ and decreased by __________.

 

  1. positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement
  2. reinforcement; punishment
  3. brain stimulation; food
  4. food; brain stimulation
  5. conditional stimuli; unconditional stimuli

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

Rationale: Students often assume that negative reinforcement and punishment are the same. They aren’t: all reinforcements (positive or negative) increase response rates; punishments reduce response rates.

 

  1. The self-stimulation paradigm is

 

  1. a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm.
  2. an operant conditioning paradigm.
  3. a punishment procedure.
  4. both A and C
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. In most self-stimulation paradigms, laboratory animals

 

  1. press levers or perform other operant responses to obtain reinforcement.
  2. receive electrical stimulation through implanted electrodes.
  3. receive punishment for inappropriate self-stimulation.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. The first time a wild rat encounters a food it has never tasted before, it usually displays

 

  1. conditioned taste aversion.
  2. neophobia.
  3. thigmotaxis.
  4. temporal contiguity.
  5. an emetic reaction.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. Cancer patients sometimes develop conditioned taste aversions in response to their

 

  1. tumors.
  2. bad news.
  3. chemotherapy.
  4. X-rays.
  5. ulcers.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Applied

Rationale: This greatly complicates the treatment of cancer.

 

 

 

  1. This apparatus is

 

 

  1. an elevated plus maze.
  2. a Hebb-Williams maze.
  3. a wheel maze.
  4. a Morris maze.
  5. none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

Rationale: It is a radial arm maze.

 

  1. The radial arm maze is commonly used to study

 

  1. eating.
  2. motor activity.
  3. foraging for food.
  4. Pavlovian conditioning.
  5. discrimination learning.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

Rationale: It can also be used to study memory.

 

 

 

  1. The discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged the

 

  1. principle of equipotentiality.
  2. belief that temporal contiguity is necessary for conditioning.
  3. the engram theory of memory.
  4. all of the above
  5. both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Conceptual

Rationale: To answer this question correctly, students need to understand the impact of the discovery of conditioned taste aversion. Three kinds of impact are described in the text: These include A and B but not C.

 

  1. Most radial arm mazes have

 

  1. 8 or more arms radiating out from a central starting area.
  2. 8 or more arms radiating out from a central goal area.
  3. 8 arms that continuously revolve.
  4. no goal areas.
  5. no starting area.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. In the typical radial arm maze, rats tend to orient themselves on the basis of

 

  1. the colors of the arms.
  2. the size of the arms.
  3. the number of the arms.
  4. the length of the arms.
  5. external room cues.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The Morris water maze is commonly used to study

 

  1. swimming in fish.
  2. spatial ability in rats.
  3. maze running in rats.
  4. passive avoidance in fish.
  5. swimming in rats.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. The typical Morris water maze

 

  1. is circular.
  2. contains a clearly visible escape platform.
  3. is filled with clear water.
  4. all of the above
  5. both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. If a rat receives a single painful stimulus from a small object in a test box containing commercial bedding material, the rat will usually investigate the object and then

 

  1. flee.
  2. bury it.
  3. dig a tunnel.
  4. escape.
  5. build a nest.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Antianxiety (anxiolytic) drugs tend to reduce the amount of

 

  1. conditioned taste aversion.
  2. time spent in the closed arms of the elevated plus maze.
  3. self-stimulation.
  4. conditioned defensive burying.
  5. both B and D

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 127–129

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. The patient is often injected with radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose before positron emission __________.

 

Answer: tomography

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 106

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

  1. The two most common techniques for producing images of human brain function are PET and functional __________.

 

Answer: MRI

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 106–107

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

  1. A technique for disrupting activity of an area of cortex in healthy human volunteers is transcranial __________ stimulation.

 

Answer: magnetic

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. In humans, EEG electrodes are usually taped to the __________.

 

Answer: scalp

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 109

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. The unabbreviated name of the procedure used to record muscle tension is __________.

 

Answer: electromyography

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 111

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. The SCL and SCR are both influenced by __________ glands.

 

Answer: sweat

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Type: Factual

 

  1. Electrodes are accurately implanted in subcortical structures by __________ surgery.

 

Answer: stereotaxic

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 112

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Applied

 

  1. Intracellular unit recording provides a measure of the __________ potential over time.

 

Answer: membrane

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 114

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. As the final step in the 2-deoxyglucose technique, brain slices are subjected to __________.

 

Answer: autoradiography

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 116

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. To facilitate immunocytochemistry, neurochemists have created stocks of __________ to most neuropeptides.

 

Answer: antibodies

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 117

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

  1. Gene __________ techniques are used to create organisms that lack particular genes.

 

Answer: knockout

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 118

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Type: Factual

 

  1. The test of intelligence that is most frequently used in neuropsychological assessment is abbreviated __________.

 

Answer: WAIS

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. A commonly used test of short-term memory is the __________ subtest of the WAIS.

 

Answer: digit span

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 122

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. In the open-field test, fearful rats are __________, that is, they stay near the walls of the test box.

 

Answer: thigmotaxic

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 126

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. Sexually receptive female rats often assume the __________ posture when mounted by a male rat.

 

Answer: lordosis

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. Pavlovian conditioning typically involves repeatedly presenting the conditional stimulus just before the __________.

 

Answer: unconditional stimulus

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 127

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. Some cancer patients receiving chemotherapy develop conditioned __________.

 

Answer: taste aversions

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Applied

 

  1. The __________ maze typically has eight or more arms and is used to study the spatial abilities of rats.

 

Answer: radial arm

Diff: 1 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. The typical __________ maze contains a hidden escape platform.

 

Answer: Morris water

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

  1. If a rat is hurt by a small object in a test chamber containing commercial bedding material, the rat will often __________ the object.

 

Answer: bury

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 129

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

  1. Describe and compare the various techniques commonly used for obtaining structural images of the brains of neurological patients.

 

Answer:

50% for describing contrast X-rays (e.g., cerebral angiography), CT, and MRI

50% for comparing them

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 104–108

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Type: Applied

 

  1. Describe and compare the various methods for recording the electrical activity of the brain through invasive electrodes.

 

Answer:

50% for describing intracellular unit recording, extracellular unit recording, multiple unit recording, and invasive EEG recording

50% for comparing them

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 114–115

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Type: Factual

 

 

 

  1. Describe the modern customized-test-battery approach to assessing the psychological deficits of neuropsychological patients. Give examples of two specific tests. How is this approach an improvement over previous approaches?

 

Answer:

40% for describing the two phases of this approach

40% for describing how this is an improvement over the standardized-test-battery approach

20% for intelligently discussing two specific tests

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 121–124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Discuss the assessment of memory deficits in neuropsychological patients. Discuss the effectiveness of the memory span and repetition priming tests.

 

Answer:

50% for explaining that assessing memory deficits is complex because there are so many different kinds of memory deficits

25% for describing the memory span test and its insensitivity to brain damage

25% for describing the repetition priming tests and that it is particularly sensitive to brain damage

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 123–124

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Type: Applied

 

  1. Describe both the paired-image subtraction and the averaging techniques that are used in cognitive neuroscience research. Why are they employed?

 

Answer:

35% for describing paired-image subtraction

35% for describing averaging

30% for explaining why they are used

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 125–126

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Type: Conceptual

 

 

 

  1. Describe the conditioned taste aversion phenomenon and how it changed how researchers thought about learning.

 

Answer:

20% for describing the step-by-step assumption

20% for describing the equipotentiality assumption

20% for describing the temporal contiguity assumption

40% for explaining how the discovery of conditioned taste aversion challenged these three assumptions

Diff: 3 

Page Ref: 128

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Conceptual

 

  1. Your text describes three categories of paradigms for studying the behavior of laboratory animals. Name and describe the three categories, and describe one example of each.

 

Answer:

25% for naming and describing “paradigms for the assessment of species common behaviors”

25% for naming and describing “traditional conditioning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing “seminatural animal learning paradigms”

25% for naming and describing one test from each category

Diff: 2 

Page Ref: 126–129

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Type: Factual

 

 

REVEL QUIZ QUESTIONS

 

EOM_5.1.1

 

Which of the following uses the infusion of a radio-opaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system during x-ray photography?

 

  1. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
  2. positron emission tomography (PET)
  3. cerebral angiography
  4. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.1 Describe two x-ray-based techniques for visualizing the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating The Living Human Brain

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.1.2

 

Which of the following is a procedure in which high-resolution images are constructed from the measurement of waves that hydrogen atoms emit when they are activated by radio-frequency waves in a magnetic field?

 

  1. scalp electroencephalography
  2. positron emission tomography (PET)
  3. cerebral angiography
  4. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.3 Describe three magnetic-field-based techniques for imaging the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating The Living Human Brain

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.1.3

 

Diffusion tensor imaging is a method of identifying

 

  1. those pathways along which water molecules rapidly diffuse.
  2. activity in particular brain regions.
  3. the BOLD signal.
  4. particular brain structures.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.3 Describe three magnetic-field-based techniques for imaging the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating The Living Human Brain

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.1.4

 

Which of the following methods is used to activate particular areas of human cortex?

 

  1. transcranial direct current stimulation
  2. PET activation
  3. MRI stimulation
  4. BOLD stimulation

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.4 Describe two transcranial stimulation techniques.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating The Living Human Brain

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.1.5

 

Which of the following attributes of oxygenated blood makes functional MRI (fMRI) possible?

 

  1. Active areas of the brain take up less oxygenated blood than they need for their energy requirements.
  2. It can be seen using x-rays.
  3. Active areas of the brain take up more oxygenated blood than they need for their energy requirements.
  4. It can be labeled with radioactive fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.3 Describe three magnetic-field-based techniques for imaging the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing or Stimulating The Living Human Brain

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.2.1

 

The scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) signal reflects the sum of electrical events throughout the head. These events include

 

  1. action potentials.
  2. postsynaptic potentials.
  3. electrical signals from the skin.
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.5 Describe two psychophysiological measures of brain activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.2.2

 

One problem noted in recording sensory evoked potentials is that

 

  1. the measurement of auditory evoked potentials involves low volume stimuli.
  2. small auditory evoked potentials are often missed by a recording.
  3. the averaging of a sensory evoked potential can generate inaccurate results.
  4. the sensory evoked potential is masked by background noise.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.5 Describe two psychophysiological measures of brain activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOM_5.2.3

 

The usual procedure for measuring muscle tension is

 

  1. electrooculography.
  2. electroencephalography.
  3. electromyography.
  4. the electrocardiogram.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.6 Describe two psychophysiological measures of somatic nervous system activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.2.4

 

The electrical activity between each heartbeat is measured by a(n)

 

  1. plethysmograph.
  2. electroencephalogram.
  3. electromyograph.
  4. electrocardiogram.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.7 Describe two psychophysiological measures of autonomic nervous system activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.2.5

 

The usual procedure for measuring changes in the volume of blood in a particular part of the body is

 

  1. electrooculography.
  2. electroencephalography.
  3. electromyography.
  4. plethysmography.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.7 Describe two psychophysiological measures of autonomic nervous system activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.3.1

 

The _____________________ is used to locate brain structures in much the same way that a map is used to locate geographic landmarks.

 

  1. bregma map
  2. stereotaxic atlas
  3. stereotaxic instrument
  4. stereotaxic map

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.8 Describe the process of stereotaxic surgery.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.3.2

 

Which of the following lesion methods is used to eliminate conduction in a nerve or tract?

 

  1. aspiration
  2. radio-frequency
  3. knife cut
  4. reversible lesion

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.9 Describe four types of lesion methods, and explain why it is important to be cautious when interpreting the effects of lesions.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.3.3

 

Which of the following lesion methods would you use to selectively remove the parietal cortex while leaving the underlying white matter intact?

 

  1. aspiration
  2. radio frequency
  3. knife cut
  4. reversible lesion

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.9 Describe four types of lesion methods, and explain why it is important to be cautious when interpreting the effects of lesions.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOM_5.3.4

 

Which of the following methods would you use to temporarily inactivate the amygdala?

 

  1. aspiration
  2. radio frequency
  3. knife cut
  4. reversible lesion

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.9 Describe four types of lesion methods, and explain why it is important to be cautious when interpreting the effects of lesions.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: Moderate

 

 

EOM_5.3.5

 

Which of the following invasive electrophysiological recording methods would you use to record the resting membrane potential of a neuron?

 

  1. intracellular unit recording
  2. extracellular unit recording
  3. multiple unit recording
  4. invasive EEG recording

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.11 Describe four invasive electrophysiological recording methods.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOM_5.4.1

 

Which of the following is a route of drug administration?

 

  1. intraperitoneal
  2. intramuscular
  3. subcutaneous
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.12 Describe the various methods of drug administration.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.4.2

 

To bypass the blood–brain barrier, drugs can be administered in small amounts through a fine, hollow tube called a

 

  1. cannula.
  2. needle.
  3. fistula.
  4. stereotaxic tube.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.12 Describe the various methods of drug administration.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.4.3

 

Which of the following is a neurotoxin?

 

  1. kainic acid
  2. ibotenic acid
  3. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.13 Describe the method of selective neurotoxic lesions.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.4.4

 

Which method of measuring the extracellular concentration of specific neurochemicals in behaving animals does not require that the animal be euthanized for study?

 

  1. 2-deoxyglucose technique
  2. in situ hybridization
  3. cerebral dialysis
  4. kainic-ibotenic chromatography

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.14 Describe two techniques for measuring chemical activity in the brain.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOM_5.4.5

 

Which of the following is a technique for locating particular neurotransmitters or receptors in the brain?

 

  1. immunocytochemistry
  2. in situ hybridization
  3. 2-deoxyglucose technique
  4. both a and b

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.15 Describe two techniques for locating particular neurotransmitters or receptors in the brain.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

 

EOM_5.5.1

 

Mice that are the products of gene knockout techniques are referred to as

 

  1. transgenic mice.
  2. optogenetic mice.
  3. knockout mice.
  4. brainbow mice.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.16 Describe gene knockout and gene replacement techniques, and explain what is meant by the term transgenic.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.5.2

 

Mice that contain the genetic material of another species are called

 

  1. transgenic mice.
  2. optogenetic mice.
  3. knockout mice.
  4. brainbow mice.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.16 Describe gene knockout and gene replacement techniques, and explain what is meant by the term transgenic.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

 

EOM_5.5.3

 

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used

 

  1. for optogenetics.
  2. to create a brainbow.
  3. to visualize neurons.
  4. both b and c

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.17 Explain how green fluorescent protein has been used as a research tool in the neurosciences.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.5.4

 

__________ are light-sensitive ion channels that are found in the cell membranes of certain bacteria and algae.

 

  1. Opsins
  2. Brainbows
  3. GFPs
  4. Caenorhabditis elegans

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.18 Explain how opsins have been used as a research tool in the neurosciences.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.5.5

 

By inserting an opsin gene into a particular type of neuron, a neuroscientist could use light to

 

  1. depolarize the neuron.
  2. hyperpolarize the neuron.
  3. selectively destroy the neuron.
  4. both a and b

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.18 Explain how opsins have been used as a research tool in the neurosciences.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.6.1

 

Many current neuropsychological assessments begin with the

 

  1. WAIS.
  2. Wisconsin card sorting test.
  3. digit span test.
  4. repetition priming test.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.20 Describe those tests that are often administered as part of an initial common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.6.2

 

The most widely used test of short-term memory is the

 

  1. token test.
  2. WAIS.
  3. sodium amytal test.
  4. digit span test.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.20 Describe those tests that are often administered as part of an initial common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.6.3

 

A common invasive test of language lateralization is the

 

  1. sodium amytal test.
  2. Wisconsin card sorting test.
  3. digit span test.
  4. repetition priming test.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.20 Describe those tests that are often administered as part of an initial common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.6.4

 

Widely used tests of implicit memory are the

 

  1. dichotic listening tests.
  2. Wisconsin card sorting tests.
  3. digit span tests.
  4. repetition priming tests.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.21 Describe some tests that might be used by a neuropsychologist to investigate in more depth general problems revealed by a common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.6.5

 

A test of frontal-lobe damage is the

 

  1. dichotic listening test.
  2. Wisconsin card sorting test.
  3. digit span test.
  4. WAIS.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.22 Describe the Wisconsin card sorting test.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.7.1

 

PET and fMRI studies almost always employ the paired-image ________ technique.

 

  1. subtraction
  2. multiplication
  3. averaging
  4. addition

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.23 Describe the paired-image subtraction technique.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

EOM_5.7.2

 

There is substantial brain activity when humans sit quietly and let their minds wander—this level of activity has been termed the brain’s

 

  1. resting mode.
  2. mind-wandering state.
  3. default mode.
  4. solid state.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.24 Understand the default mode network, and know the structures that are part of that network.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.7.3

 

In cognitive neuroscience, one common assumption is that each complex cognitive process results from the combined activity of simple cognitive processes called

 

  1. combined active components.
  2. constituent cognitive processes.
  3. the default mode.
  4. the mean difference image.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.23 Describe the paired-image subtraction technique.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.7.4

 

A mean difference image ______________ areas of activity that are common to many participants and _____________ areas of activity that are peculiar to a few of them.

 

  1. adds; subtracts
  2. averages; subtracts
  3. deemphasizes; emphasizes
  4. emphasizes; deemphasizes

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.24 Understand the default mode network, and know the structures that are part of that network.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOM_5.7.5

 

Brain structures typically active in the default mode and less active during cognitive or behavioral tasks are collectively referred to as the

 

  1. subtractive network.
  2. default mode network.
  3. non-cognitive network.
  4. default structures.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.24 Understand the default mode network, and know the structures that are part of that network.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.8.1

 

A commonly used test of rat fearfulness is the ________ test.

 

  1. open-field
  2. closed-field
  3. colony intruder
  4. lordosis

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.8.2

 

Male rats’ aggressive and defensive behavior is readily assessed by the ________ paradigm.

 

  1. conditioned defensive burying
  2. colony-intruder
  3. self-stimulation
  4. lordosis

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOM_5.8.3

 

The most commonly used test of anxiolytic drug effects is the ________ maze.

 

  1. Morris water
  2. radial arm
  3. elevated plus
  4. anxiety provoking

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.8.4

 

The most common measure of the sexual receptivity of a female rat is the

 

  1. intromission count.
  2. lordosis quotient.
  3. ejaculation frequency.
  4. self-stimulation count.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOM_5.8.5

 

The spatial abilities of foraging rodents are often assessed with a ________ maze.

 

  1. Morris water
  2. elevated plus
  3. radial arm
  4. intromission

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.28 Describe four semi-natural animal learning paradigms.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

EOC_5.1

 

A method of measuring the extracellular concentration of particular neurochemicals in the brain through a fine semipermeable tube is

 

  1. cerebral dialysis.
  2. immunocytochemistry.
  3. extracellular unit recording.
  4. intracellular unit recording.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.14 Describe two techniques for measuring chemical activity in the brain.

Topic: Pharmacological Research Methods

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.2

 

Mice that have had genetic material of another species (e.g., a pathological human gene) inserted into their genome are called

 

  1. knockout mice.
  2. transgenic mice.
  3. homozygous.
  4. heterozygous.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.16 Describe gene knockout and gene replacement techniques, and explain what is meant by the term transgenic.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOC_5.3

 

The colony-intruder paradigm is commonly used to study

 

  1. natural environment.
  2. spatial perception.
  3. reproduction.
  4. aggressive and defensive behavior.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.4

 

A seminatural animal learning paradigm that is often used to study spatial ability is the

 

  1. self-stimulation paradigm.
  2. conditioned defensive burying paradigm.
  3. radial arm maze.
  4. the conditioned taste aversion paradigm.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.28 Describe four seminatural animal learning paradigms.

Topic: Paradigms for Assessment of Species-Common Behaviors

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOC_5.5

 

This test can infer the location of a cerebral tumor from the displacement of blood vessels at the site.

 

  1. PET
  2. MRI
  3. cerebral angiography
  4. computed tomography

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.1 Describe two x-ray-based techniques for visualizing the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.6

 

This procedure is used to visualize connections in the living human brain.

 

  1. diffusion tensor imaging
  2. connectome.
  3. computed tomography
  4. TMS

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.3 Describe three magnetic-field-based techniques for imaging the living human brain.

Topic: Methods of Visualizing and Stimulating the Living Human Brain

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOC_5.7

 

Alpha waves are recorded by

 

  1. electroencephalography.
  2. diffusion tensor imaging.
  3. BOLD.
  4. fMRI.

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.5 Describe two psychophysiological measures of brain activity.

Topic: Recording Human Psychophysiological Activity

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.8

 

Subcortical electrodes can be accurately implanted using

 

  1. cerebral angiography.
  2. temporal resolution.
  3. signal averaging.
  4. stereotaxic surgery.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.8 Describe the process of stereotaxic surgery.

Topic: Invasive Physiological Research Methods

Skill: Apply What You Know

Difficulty: Moderate

 

EOC_5.9

 

An extension of the green fluorescent protein technique led to the development of

 

  1. bregma.
  2. BOLD.
  3. gene knockouts.
  4. brainbow.

 

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO 5.17 Explain how green fluorescent protein has been used as a research tool in the neurosciences.

Topic: Genetic Engineering

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Moderate

 

 

EOC_5.10

 

The _________ is often administered as part of the initial common neuropsychological test battery.

 

  1. P300
  2. default mode
  3. WAIS
  4. sodium amytal test

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.20 Describe those tests that are often administered as part of an initial common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.11

 

Repetition priming tests are used to assess

 

  1. explicit memory.
  2. implicit memory.
  3. short-term memory.
  4. eidetic memory.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.21 Describe some tests that might be used by a neuropsychologist to investigate in more depth general problems revealed by a common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOC_5.12

 

Typically, intromission precedes

 

  1. lordosis.
  2. mounting.
  3. ejaculation.
  4. thigmotaxis.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Understand the Concepts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.13

 

The ________ is a test of defensiveness commonly used to study the anxiolytic effects of drugs on rats.

 

  1. elevated-plus-maze test
  2. Morris water maze test
  3. conditioned taste aversion test
  4. self-stimulation paradigm

 

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO 5.26 Describe three behavioral paradigms used to study species-specific behaviors.

Topic: Biopsychological Paradigms of Animal Behavior

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

 

EOC_5.14

 

Almost all functional brain-imaging studies use the

 

  1. default mode.
  2. paired-image subtraction technique.
  3. aspiration control.
  4. constituent cognitive process.

 

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO 5.23 Describe the paired-image subtraction technique.

Topic: Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

 

EOC_5.15

 

A noninvasive test of language lateralization is the

 

  1. sodium amytal test.
  2. repetition priming test.
  3. dichotic listening test.
  4. Wisconsin card-sorting test.

 

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO 5.20 Describe those tests that are often administered as part of an initial common neuropsychological test battery.

Topic: Neuropsychological Testing

Skill: Remember the Facts

Difficulty: Easy

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