Biology The Unity And Diversity Of Life 14th Edition by Cecie Starr – Test Bank

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Multiple Choice

 

1. What are the effects of long term excessive alcohol consumption on the liver?

a. fat accumulation and abnormal discoloration of the liver
b. scarring, hardening, and increased fat metabolism
c. increased ability to degrade fats and toxins
d. decreased production of ethanol and cholesterol
e. scarring, hardening, and fat accumulation

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.1 A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.1 – Outline the negative effects of ethanol on the liver.

 

2. The enzyme responsible for breaking down alcohol is ____.​

a. ​alcohol methylase
b. ​alcohol polyphosphorylase
c. ​hydroxyl alcoholgenase
d. ​transmethylogenase
e. alcohol dehydrogenase​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.1 A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.1 – Outline the negative effects of ethanol on the liver.

 

3. Energy is commonly defined as ____.​

a. ​a form of heat
b. ​thermodynamics
c. ​the capacity to change
d. ​the capacity to do work
e. the ability to do work​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

4. According to the first law of thermodynamics, ____.​

a. ​the energy of a system always increases
b. ​the amount of energy in the universe is changeable
c. ​chemical reactions do not create or destroy energy
d. ​energy is always stable
e. energy always decreases​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

5. The second law of thermodynamics states that ____.​

a. ​energy can be transformed into matter, and because of this, something is obtained for nothing
b. energy can be destroyed during nuclear reactions such as those that occur inside the sun​
c. ​if energy is gained by one region of the universe, another place in the universe also must gain energy in order to maintain the balance of nature
d. ​energy tends to flow from concentrated to less concentrated forms
e. energy tends to be stable over time​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

6. What type of energy is the energy in chemical bonds?​

a. ​solar energy
b. ​activation energy
c. ​kinetic energy
d. ​potential energy
e. thermal energy​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.3 – Examine the importance of energy to all living organisms.

 

7. What statement is an application of the first law of thermodynamics?​

a. ​The level of entropy increases as time passes.
b. ​Living organisms represent an exception to the laws of energy.
c. ​The quantity of energy does not increase or decrease in the universe.
d. ​Fungi and plants do not make their own energy but derive it from somewhere else.
e. The amount of energy found in the compounds on one side of an equation is equal to that on the other side.​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

8. ​The activation energy of a reaction refers to the minimum amount of energy ____.

a. ​released by the reaction
b. ​in the reactants
c. ​in the products
d. ​necessary to cause a reaction to proceed on its own
e. variation between the energy of the reactants and the energy of the products​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.4 – Examine the significance of chemical bond energy and entropy.

 

9. CO2 and H2O will not form glucose on their own because ____.​

a. ​CO2 does not contain sufficient energy
b. ​H2O does not contain sufficient energy
c. ​neither CO2 nor H2O contain sufficient energy
d. ​the concentration of CO2 is too low in the atmosphere
e. the bonds of CO2 and H2O are too stable to be broken without an input of energy​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.5 – Examine endergonic and exergonic reactions.

 

10. ​Endergonic reactions ____.

a. ​result in products with less energy than the reactants
b. ​require a net input of energy
c. ​occur in the breakdown of glucose
d. ​are used by cells to provide energy for biological reactions
e. break down large molecules into smaller molecules​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.5 – Examine endergonic and exergonic reactions.

 

11. What is a key characteristic of exergonic reactions?​

a. ​They consume energy.
b. ​They require glucose fusion.
c. ​Their products have more energy than the reactants.
d. ​They convert some energy to less biologically useful forms.
e. They involve the formation of bonds.​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.5 – Examine endergonic and exergonic reactions.

 

12. What is a key characteristic of enzyme behavior?​

a. ​Enzyme shape is stable during catalysis.
b. ​The active site of an enzyme orients its substrate molecules, thereby promoting interaction of their reactive parts.
c. ​All enzymes have an active site where coenzymes are temporarily bound.
d. ​Each enzyme can catalyze multiple reactions.
e. Enzyme activity is not affected by pH and temperature.​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

13. Enzymes ____.

a. control the speed of a reaction​
b. ​change shapes to facilitate certain reactions.
c. ​may place physical stress on the bonds of the substrate.
d. ​always work on their own.
e. ​lower activation energy.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

14. ​

 

​What is the item labeled “C” in the accompanying figure?

a. ​The reactant
b. ​The substrate
c. ​The active site
d. ​The transition state
e. The product​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

15. ​

 

What is the key activity of panel II in the accompanying figure?​

a. The enzyme is consumed as the products form.
b. ​The substrate leaves the active site.
c. The conversion of substrates to products occurs.
d. ​The product leaves the enzyme.
e. The product decomposes to the reactants.​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

16. ​

 

What is the item labeled “B” in the accompanying figure?​

a. ​The enzyme
b. ​The substrate
c. ​The active site
d. ​The transition state
e. The product​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

17. The active site of an enzyme ____.​

a. ​is where the coenzyme is located
b. ​is a specific bulge or protuberance on an enzyme
c. ​is a groove or crevice in the structure of the enzyme complementary to the substrate
d. ​will react with only one substrate no matter how many molecules may resemble the shape of the substrate
e. rigidly resists any alteration of its shape​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

18. An enzyme lowers activation energy by ____.​

a. ​keeping substrates apart
b. ​orienting substrates randomly
c. ​breaking the laws of thermodynamics
d. ​shutting out water molecules
e. physically breaking chemical bonds​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

19. An enzyme is thought to optimize the fit between substrates by restraining and stretching or squeezing them into certain shapes and moving them to the transition state, as described by the ____ model of enzyme activity.​

a. ​lock and key
b. ​induced-fit
c. ​template
d. ​activation
e. conformational​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

20. In order to work best, enzymes ____.​

a. ​always need coenzymes
b. ​randomly grab surrounding molecules
c. ​need low pH
d. ​need high temperatures
e. need set environmental conditions​, specific for each enzyme

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analysis
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.7 – Examine the factors that affect the activity of enzymes.

 

21. Allosteric inhibition generally results from ____.​

a. ​excess substrates
b. ​binding of regulatory molecules at sites other than the active sites
c. ​a change in the temperature of the system
d. ​a lack of coenzymes
e. changes in pH​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

22. Allosteric enzymes ____.​

a. ​have regions that bind with inhibitor or activator molecules
b. ​are associated with important energy-carrying nucleotides
c. ​are not affected by temperature or pH
d. ​have two active sites
e. have a broader range of working conditions​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

23. ​

 

The figure above represents ____.​

a. ​an exergonic reaction
b. ​a metabolic pathway
c. ​allosteric inhibition
d. ​allosteric regulation
e. an endergonic reaction​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

24. ​

 

In the image above, the substance indicated as “B” is a(n) ____.​

a. ​inhibitor
b. ​regulatory molecule
c. ​substrate
d. ​coenzyme
e. cofactor​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

25. ​

 

In the image above, the substance indicated as “C” is a(n) _____.​

a. ​inhibitor
b. ​regulatory molecule
c. ​substrate
d. ​coenzyme
e. cofactor​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

26. In some cases, inhibitors or activators of enzyme-catalyzed reactions act by ____.​

a. ​binding to the substrates
b. ​affecting the supply of ATP
c. ​reversibly binding to an enzyme’s allosteric site
d. ​reducing or increasing the concentration of enzymes
e. binding to the products​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

27. Which statement below characterizes metabolic pathways?​

a. ​They are a random sequences of reactions.
b. ​They are always biosynthetic.
c. ​They are always degradative.
d. ​They are enzyme-mediated sequences of reactions.
e. They are always linear reactions.​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

28. In oxidation-reduction reactions, ____.​

a. ​both molecules give up electrons
b. ​both molecules gain electrons
c. ​cells harvest energy
d. ​the molecule that accepts electrons is reduced
e. hydrogen ions are usually absorbed​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analysis
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

29. A “high-energy bond” in ATP ____.​

a. ​absorbs a large amount of free energy when the phosphate group is attached during hydrolysis
b. ​is formed when ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and one phosphate group
c. ​is similar to the bonds in glucose molecules
d. ​forms as part of an endergonic reaction
e. cannot be readily used in reactions​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.6 Cofactors in Metabolic Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.9 – Examine the unique characteristics of different types of cofactors using examples.

 

30. During the process of phosphorylation, ____.​

a. ​a molecule gains a phosphate group
b. ​a molecule synthesizes a phosphate group
c. ​molecules become more stable
d. ​molecules are passed to enzymes
e. ADP is produced from ATP​

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.6 Cofactors in Metabolic Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.9 – Examine the unique characteristics of different types of cofactors using examples.

 

31. What term best describes the role of certain metal ions and coenzymes in metabolic processes?​

a. ​reactants
b. ​intermediates
c. ​cofactors
d. ​products
e. catalysts​

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.6 Cofactors in Metabolic Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.9 – Examine the unique characteristics of different types of cofactors using examples.

 

32. The mosaic of the fluid mosaic model refers to ____.​

a. specific proteins in membranes​
b. ​the liquid inside a cell
c. ​the phospholipids in membranes
d. ​the passage of materials into cells
e. the diverse molecules making up membranes​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.7 A Closer Look at Cell Membranes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.10 – Outline the components of a cell membrane and examine their features.

 

33. ​What affects the rate of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane?

I. concentration gradient
II. temperature
III. molecular size

 

a. ​I only
b. ​II only
c. ​I and II
d. ​II and III
e. I, II, and III​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   5.8 Diffusion and Membranes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.11 – Examine the five factors that affect the rate of diffusion.

 

34. The rate of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane will be lowest when ____.

I. concentration gradients are steep
II. temperatures are low
III. solutes are small molecules​

 

a. ​I only
b. ​II only
c. ​I and III
d. ​II and III
e. I, II, and III​

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Evaluate
REFERENCES:   5.8 Diffusion and Membranes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.11 – Examine the five factors that affect the rate of diffusion.

 

35. What method of movement requires the expenditure of ATP molecules?​

a. ​simple diffusion
b. ​facilitated diffusion
c. ​osmosis
d. ​active transport
e. bulk flow​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.9 Membrane Transport Mechanisms
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.12 – Examine the different mechanisms of transporting material across cell membranes.

 

36. Which of the following is a form of active transport?​

a. ​osmosis
b. facilitated diffusion​
c. ​simple diffusion
d. ​exocytosis
e. glucose transport​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Analyze
REFERENCES:   5.10 Membrane Trafficking
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.13 – Differentiate between endocytosis and exocytosis using diagrams.

 

37. The action of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is known as ____.​

a. ​pinocytosis only
b. ​phagocytosis only
c. ​exocytosis and phagocytosis
d. ​endocytosis and pinocytosis
e. phagocytosis and endocytosis​

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.10 Membrane Trafficking
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.13 – Differentiate between endocytosis and exocytosis using diagrams.

 

38. During receptor-mediated endocytosis, ____.​

a. ​plasma membrane receptors bind molecules to be expelled
b. ​a small channel forms beneath the receptors
c. ​a pit opens inside a cell
d. ​a vesicle forms
e. a vesicle is destroyed​

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.10 Membrane Trafficking
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.13 – Differentiate between endocytosis and exocytosis using diagrams.

 

Matching

 

​Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. ​amount of energy to start a reaction
b. ​coenzyme that carries electrons
c. ​attachment of a phosphate group by a high-energy bond
d. ​an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway
e. ​part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
f. ​by binding a regulatory molecule, it changes the activity of a metabolic pathway
g. ​affects rates of chemical reactions by reducing activation energy
h. ​important energy currency in metabolism
i. ​enzyme that participates in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide
j. ​a measure of the degree of energy change after a concentrated form of energy has been dispersed

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.4 How Enzymes Work
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.6 – Examine the role played by enzymes in reactions.

 

39. ​active site

ANSWER:   e

 

40. ​enzyme

ANSWER:   g

 

​Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. ​amount of energy to start a reaction
b. ​coenzyme that carries electrons
c. ​attachment of a phosphate group by a high-energy bond
d. ​an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway
e. ​part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
f. ​by binding a regulatory molecule, it changes the activity of a metabolic pathway
g. ​affects rates of chemical reactions by reducing activation energy
h. ​important energy currency in metabolism
i. ​enzyme that ​participates in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide
j. ​a measure of the degree of energy change after a concentrated form of energy has been dispersed

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

41. allosteric enzyme​​

ANSWER:   f

 

42. ​feedback inhibition​

ANSWER:   d

 

​Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. ​amount of energy to start a reaction
b. ​coenzyme that carries electrons
c. ​attachment of a phosphate group by a high-energy bond
d. ​an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway
e. ​part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
f. ​by binding a regulatory molecule, it changes the activity of a metabolic pathway
g. ​affects rates of chemical reactions by reducing activation energy
h. ​important energy currency in metabolism
i. ​enzyme that participates in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide
j. ​a measure of the degree of energy change after a concentrated form of energy has been dispersed

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.6 Cofactors in Metabolic Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.9 – Examine the unique characteristics of different types of cofactors using examples.

 

43. ​adenosine triphosphate​

ANSWER:   h

 

44.  NADP+​​

ANSWER:   b

 

45. ​ catalase​

ANSWER:   i

 

46. ​phosphorylation​

ANSWER:   c

 

​Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. ​amount of energy to start a reaction
b. ​coenzyme that carriers electrons
c. ​attachment of a phosphate group by a high-energy bond
d. ​an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway
e. ​part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
f. ​by binding a regulatory molecule, it changes the activity of a metabolic pathway
g. ​affects rates of chemical reactions by reducing activation energy
h. ​important energy currency in metabolism
i. ​enzyme that participates in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide
j. ​a measure of the degree of energy change after a concentrated form of energy has been dispersed

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

47. ​entropy​

ANSWER:   j

 

​Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. ​amount of energy to start a reaction
b. ​coenzyme that carries electrons
c. ​attachment of a phosphate group by a high-energy bond
d. ​an excess of end-product molecules alters the shape of the first enzyme in the pathway and shuts off that metabolic pathway
e. ​part of an enzyme that binds to the substrate
f. ​by binding a regulatory molecule, it changes the activity of a metabolic pathway
g. ​affects rates of chemical reactions by reducing activation energy
h. ​important energy currency in metabolism
i. ​​enzyme that participates in the neutralization of hydrogen peroxide
j. ​a measure of the degree of energy change after a concentrated form of energy has been dispersed

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.4 – Examine the significance of chemical bond energy and entropy.

 

48. activation energy​​

ANSWER:   a

 

Classification. The items below are processes that occur during different cellular reaction or metabolic pathways. Answer the following questions by selecting the correct term.

a. ​oxidation
b. ​reduction
c. ​phosphorylation
d. ​electron transport chain

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

49. ​This process leads to the formation of ATP from ADP plus inorganic phosphate.

ANSWER:   c

 

50. ​This process occurs when an electron is received by an electron acceptor molecule, such as NADP+.

ANSWER:   b

 

51. ​This process involves a series of enzymes and requires membranes.

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ​This process occurs when an electron transport molecule gives up an electron.

ANSWER:   a

 

Classification. The terms below relate to the movement of materials and membranes. Answer the following questions by selecting the correct term.

a. ​diffusion
b. ​hypertonic
c. ​hypotonic
d. ​isotonic
e. ​osmosis
f. ​osmotic pressure
g. ​turgor

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.8 Diffusion and Membranes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.11 – Examine the five factors that affect the rate of diffusion.

 

53. ​pressure from a fluid against a boundary

ANSWER:   g

 

54. ​pressure that prevents the movement of water

ANSWER:   f

 

55. ​fluid with a high solute concentration relative to another fluid

ANSWER:   b

 

56. ​movement of molecules across a membrane would be equal

ANSWER:   d

 

57. ​movement of water molecules across a membrane

ANSWER:   e

 

58. ​movement of molecules would be into this fluid

ANSWER:   c

 

59. ​fluid with a low solute concentration relative to another fluid

ANSWER:   c

 

60. ​movement of molecules would be out of this fluid​

ANSWER:   b

 

61. ​fluid with the same solute concentration relative to another fluid

ANSWER:   d

 

62. ​spontaneous movement of molecules

ANSWER:   a

 

Completion

 

63. A chemical interaction in which the products contain less free energy than the reactants is called a(n) ____________________ reaction.​

ANSWER:   exergonic​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.5 – Examine endergonic and exergonic reactions.

 

64. ____________________  enzymes are controlled by having regulatory molecules bind outside the active site and result in a change in their overall structure.​

ANSWER:   Allosteric​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

65. The loss of an electron by a molecule is called ____________________.​

ANSWER:   oxidation​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.5 Metabolism—Organized, Enzyme-Mediated Reactions
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.8 – Examine the different types of metabolism mechanisms using diagrams.

 

66. The enzyme that works in conjunction with ATP to produce bioluminescence is called ____________________.​

ANSWER:   luciferase
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.6 Cofactors in Metabolic Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.9 – Examine the unique characteristics of different types of cofactors using examples.

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

67. Describe how the laws of thermodynamics would impact the Earth were the sun’s light suddenly blocked.​

ANSWER:   According to the first law of thermodynamics, the absence of incoming energy would limit life on Earth to the energy already available. Photosynthesizers would die rapidly, while consumers would last longer. However, the second law of thermodynamics tells us that energy would be lost with each transformation (one organism eating another), so eventually there would be insufficient amounts of energy on Earth to support life
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Apply
REFERENCES:   5.2 Energy in the World of Life
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.2 – Examine the laws of thermodynamics.

 

68. Discuss the role of turgor in the crisp lettuce purchased at the grocery store looking much limper by the time it gets home.​

ANSWER:   At the grocery store, they mist the vegetables with water. The water enters the lettuce cells generating turgor which keeps the leaves full and crisp. Once you buy the lettuce and the mist is lost (possibly combined with a ride in a hot trunk), the water leaves the leaf cells reducing the turgor and causing the lettuce to wilt.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   5.8 Diffusion and Membranes
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.11 – Examine the five factors that affect the rate of diffusion.

 

69. Compare and contrast facilitated and active transport.​

ANSWER:   Both of these have in common that they move substances across cell membranes via transmembrane proteins. However, facilitated transport can only move substances down their concentration gradient and does not require an input of energy.  On the other hand, active transport requires energy. and moves substances against their concentration gradients.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   5.9 Membrane Transport Mechanisms
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.5.12 – Examine the different mechanisms of transporting material across cell membranes.

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

1. Whales and elephants use sound to communicate with which kind of receptor?​

a. ​photoreceptors
b. ​nociceptors
c. ​thermoreceptors
d. ​chemoreceptors
e. ​mechanoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

2. When the brain assigns meaning to a sensory signal, we say that _____ has taken place.

a. ​sensory adaptation
b. ​sensory perception
c. ​semantic perception
d. ​sensory action
e. ​sensory activation

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

3. The processing of sensory input in animals leads to ____.​

a. ​an adaptation
b. ​a sensation
c. ​an action
d. ​feeling exactly what is happening at the site
e. ​responding to the stimulus

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

4. The major function of a receptor is to _____.​

a. ​control the autonomic functions of the body
b. ​stabilize the internal environment to achieve homeostasis
c. ​produce responses to the various stimuli the body receives
d. ​give organisms or cells awareness of and sensitivity to their environment
e. ​control the visceral functions of the body

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

5. Which analgesic relieves pain by mimicking the action of endorphins?​

a. ​aspirin
b. ​ziconotide
c. ​NSAIDS
d. ​morphine
e. ​acetaminophen

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

6. A diminishing response by receptors to a constant stimulus is known as ____.​

a. ​an action potential
b. ​neural transduction
c. ​sensory adaptation
d. ​referred pain
e. ​a sensation

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

7. The somatosensory cortex _____​.

a. ​maps the distribution of somatic receptors on the body
b. ​consists of gray matter
c. ​involves only the spinal cord
d. ​responds to all signals equally
e. ​is not responsive to mechanoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

8. The somatic senses include four of the following sensations. Which one is the exception?​

a. ​balance
b. ​pain near the body surface
c. ​temperature
d. ​touch
e. ​pressure

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom | Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

 

Figure 33.6​

 

9. The accompanying figure shows areas of referred pain that indicate an internal organ is damaged. Which letter corresponds to heart damage?​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.6
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

10. The Pacinian corpuscle is used in detecting ____.​

a. ​sound
b. ​hard pressure
c. ​chemicals
d. ​light touch
e. ​chemical differences

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

11. ​A stretch receptor is classified as a ____.

a. ​chemoreceptor
b. ​mechanoreceptor
c. ​photoreceptor
d. ​thermoreceptor
e. ​nociceptor

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

12. The pain produced in an internal organ may be perceived as occurring somewhere else. This phenomenon is called ____.​

a. ​mixed nerve messages
b. ​referred pain
c. ​phantom pain
d. ​psychosomatic pain
e. ​hypochondria

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

13. Sensory pathways of smell and taste ____.​

a. ​begin with chemoreceptors
b. ​begin in the somatosensory cortex
c. ​are not involved in communication
d. ​are integrated with the advanced vomeronasal organ that humans possess
e. ​are completely separated from one another

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

14. Humans have ____.​

a. ​more taste receptors than olfactory receptors
b. ​more olfactory receptors than taste receptors
c. ​a high degree of dependency on pheromones
d. ​approximately six types of olfactory receptors
e. ​an advanced vomeronasal organ

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

 

Figure 33.8

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following question.

 

15. ​What letter indicates a taste bud?

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​A and B
e. ​none of these, because they are olfactory receptors

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

16. Eyes contain ____ ​

a. ​chemoreceptors
b. ​mechanoreceptors
c. ​photoreceptors
d. ​nociceptors
e. ​thermoreceptors

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

17. Insects have ____.​

a. ​simple eyes
b. ​ocelli
c. ​ciliary eyes
d. ​compound eyes
e. ​”camera” eyes

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.8
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

 

Figure 33.12

 

18. ​Refer to the accompanying photograph. Which statement best explains why the owl has its head almost upside down?

a. ​Photoreceptors are concentrated near the bottom of the eye.
b. ​Photoreceptors are concentrated near the top of the eye.
c. ​Loud music from a passing car has caused damage to the sense of balance.
d. ​An obstruction in its ear has caused this instinctual behavior.
e. ​The presence of prey above has caused this physical alert.

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.12
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

19. The portion of the eye where photoreceptors are located is the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​fovea
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

20. The adjustable ring of contractile and connective tissues that controls the amount of light entering the eye is the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​iris
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

21. ​The dark middle layer of the eye that prevents the scattering of light is the ____.

a. ​fovea
b. ​retina
c. ​sclera
d. ​choroid
e. ​cornea

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

 

Figure 33.14​

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following two questions.

 

22. The retina is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.14
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

23. The structure that protects the eyeball is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.14
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

24. Visual accommodation involves the ability to ____.​

a. ​change the sensitivity of the rods and cones by means of neurotransmitters
b. ​change the position of the retina
c. ​change the thickness of the lens by contracting or relaxing certain muscles
d. ​protect the eyeball from foreign matter
e. ​prevent eye strain

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

25. Rods and cones are located in the ____.​

a. ​lens
b. ​cornea
c. ​pupil
d. ​iris
e. ​retina

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

26. The area on the retina that has the greatest density of cone cells is called the ____.​

a. ​fovea
b. ​visual ganglion
c. ​lateral geniculate nucleus
d. ​visual cortex
e. ​blind spot

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

27. When light rays converge behind the retina, it is known as ____.​

a. ​astigmatism
b. ​color blindness
c. ​nearsightedness
d. ​macular degeneration
e. ​farsightedness

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.

 

Figure 33.17C

 

28. The letter “C” in the above figure represents the ____.​

a. ​cortex
b. ​cornea
c. ​fovea
d. ​blood vessels
e. ​optic nerve

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.7 Light reception and Visual Processing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.17C
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.7 – Discuss how humans process visual information using diagrams.

 

29. Nearsightedness is caused by a(n) _____​

a. ​eye structure that focuses an image in front of the retina
b. ​eye structure that focuses an image behind the retina
c. ​eyeball that is too short
d. ​recessive trait on the Y chromosome
e. ​recessive trait on the X chromosome

 

ANSWER:   a
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.

 

30. The color of the eye is predicated on the amount of ____ present.​

a. ​enzyme
b. ​protein
c. ​melanin
d. ​salts
e. ​lipids

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

31. Which statement accurately describes the properties of sound?​

a. ​The frequency of a sound determines the loudness.
b. ​The amplitude of a sound determines its pitch.
c. ​The amplitude of a sound is the number of waves per second.
d. ​A soft sound has a greater amplitude than a loud sound.
e. ​A high note and a low note with the same amplitude are equally loud.

 

ANSWER:   e
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

32. The organ of Corti ____.​

a. ​is integral to balance
b. ​controls the sense of depth perception
c. ​has hair cells that fire and sends signals to the brain
d. ​is involved in visual acuity
e. ​detects light energy

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

Figure 33.21 (part 2)

Use the accompanying figure to answer the following two questions.

 

33. The bones that amplify sound reaching the eardrum are indicated by the letters ____.​

a. ​A and B
b. ​A, B, and C
c. ​B and C
d. ​C and D
e. ​C, D, and F

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.21
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

34. The oval window is indicated by the letter ____.​

a. ​A
b. ​B
c. ​C
d. ​D
e. ​E

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
PREFACE NAME:   Figure 33.21
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

35. In humans, and some other vertebrates, the organ that collects sound is called the ____.​

a. ​auditory nerve
b. ​cochlea
c. ​eardrum
d. ​pinna
e. ​round window

 

ANSWER:   d
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

36. Equilibrium is sensed by ____.​

a. ​chemoreceptors
b. ​mechanoreceptors
c. ​photoreceptors
d. ​thermoreceptors
e. ​nociceptors

 

ANSWER:   b
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

37. Failure of the organs in the vestibular apparatus to function correctly can cause ____.​

a. ​lack of sensation on the skin
b. ​loss of hearing
c. ​motion sickness
d. ​inability to smell
e. ​night blindness

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

38. The utricle and saccule ____.​

a. ​each contain an organ of dynamic equilibrium
b. ​detect rotation of the head
c. ​detect how the head is oriented relative to the ground
d. ​are semicircular canals
e. ​use the auditory nerve to send information to the brain

 

ANSWER:   c
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.

 

Matching

 

Choose the one most appropriate answer for each.

a. relays action potentials from the ear to the brain
b. ​contains the organ of Corti
c. ​separates the outer and middle ears
d. ​membrane-covered gateway to inner ear
e. ​consists of tissue containing rods and cones
f. ​bone in middle ear
g. ​defined by peak height and valley depth of sound waves
h. helps maintain balance and position; detects acceleration
i. ​depends on the number of wave cycles per second
j. ​a substance that elicits a response in members of the same species
k. ​regulates size of pupil and amount of incoming light

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
33.10 Organs of Equilibrium
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.11 – Examine how the organs of equilibrium help in maintaining the sense of balance.
UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.
UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.
UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

39. ​amplitude

ANSWER:   g

 

40. ​cochlea

ANSWER:   b

 

41. ​eardrum

ANSWER:   c

 

42. ​iris

ANSWER:   k

 

43. ​oval window

ANSWER:   d

 

44. ​pheromone

ANSWER:   j

 

45. ​hammer

ANSWER:   f

 

46. ​pitch

ANSWER:   i

 

47. ​retina

ANSWER:   e

 

48. ​auditory nerve

ANSWER:   a

 

49. ​saccule

ANSWER:   h

 

Classification. Respond to the following statements in reference to the four kinds of receptors listed below.​

a. ​chemical
b. ​mechanical
c. ​thermal
d. ​nociceptor

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

50. ​Receptors on the tongue detect variations in this kind of signal.

ANSWER:   a

 

51. ​Receptors that detect pain.

ANSWER:   d

 

52. ​Ears detect this kind of energy.

ANSWER:   b

 

53. ​The warmth you feel from a campfire is a result of detecting this kind of energy.

ANSWER:   c

 

Answer the following questions in reference to the five eye structures listed below.​

a. ​cornea
b. ​lens
c. ​retina
d. ​ommatidium
e. ​vitreous body

 

DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

54. ​This structure is found in the compound eyes of insects but not in the eyes of vertebrates.

ANSWER:   d

 

55. ​This structure forms the transparent front of the eye.

ANSWER:   a

 

56. ​This structure primarily acts to focus light waves.

ANSWER:   b

 

57. ​This structure contains rods and cones in vertebrates.

ANSWER:   c

 

58. ​This structure acts to maintain the shape of the eye and to transmit light to other structures.

ANSWER:   e

 

Completion

 

59. __________ respond to mechanical energy such as touch.​

ANSWER:   Mechanoreceptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Understand
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

60. __________ sense pain.​

ANSWER:   Nociceptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

61. Continued stimulation of a receptor may lead to a diminished response and is called __________.​

ANSWER:   sensory adaptation
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

62. The __________ sensations arise from sensory receptors located in skin, or near muscles or joints.​

ANSWER:   somatic​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

63. __________ sensations arise from receptors near organs in body cavities.

ANSWER:   Visceral​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

64. __________ line human nasal passages.​

ANSWER:   Olfactory receptors​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

65. The __________ is a system of fluid-filled sacs and canals in the inner ear.​

ANSWER:   vestibular apparatus​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

66. The cochlea is a coiled structure with fluid-filled ducts that holds the mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing in its __________.​

ANSWER:   organ of Corti​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.9 Vertebrate Hearing
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.9 – Outline the process of hearing.

 

67. Insects have a(n) __________ eye, with many individual units.​

ANSWER:   compound​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.5 Diversity of Visual Systems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.5 – Examine how the visual systems in different organisms vary.

 

68. Light enters the eye’s interior through the __________, an adjustable opening in the center of the muscular, doughnut-shaped iris.​

ANSWER:   pupil​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s: Remember
REFERENCES:   33.6 A Closer Look at the Human Eye
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.6 – Examine the structure and functions of each component of the human eye using a diagram.

 

Subjective Short Answer

 

69. What would be the danger in lacking nociceptors?​

ANSWER:   Nociceptors are responsible for sensing pain, so in their absence an individual’s ability to sense and respond to pain would be greatly reduced. Directly, this could impact reflex actions in which rapid response minimizes the damage done to the body. From a bigger perspective, the individual would be less able to detect the pain caused by specific actions and thus may not learn to avoid them.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.2 – Discuss the characteristic of the six types of sensory receptors found in animals.

 

70. An individual reports to the doctor that they are experiencing pain in their left arm. What would the doctor think may be wrong?​

ANSWER:   Due to referred pain, there is the distinct possibility that the pain in the left arm could be indicative of damage to the heart. Thus, it would be prudent for the doctor to check the heart health of the client.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.3 Somatic and Visceral Sensations
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.3 – Differentiate between somatic sensations and visceral sensations.

 

71. People tend to crave sweet and salty foods, but dislike bitter foods. What is the evolutionary explanation for this?​

ANSWER:   During our evolution, obtaining basic dietary needs was a struggle so craving foods that would benefit us was valuable.  Sweet foods are rich in simple sugars and represent a valuable source of energy.  Salty foods contain sodium chloride, and sodium was historically difficult to obtain.  Conversely, foods that are bitter commonly contain plant toxins and the taste served as a warning not to eat that particular plant.​
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.4 Chemical Senses
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.4 – Determine how chemoreceptors help organisms smell and taste substances.

 

72. Why is color blindness more common in males?​

ANSWER:   Color blindness is an X-linked trait, which means the gene controlling color vision is on the X chromosome.  You will recall from earlier chapters that human females have two X chromosomes while human males have only one.  As a result, if the male receives the X chromosome with the faulty allele, he will express the trait, but a female who receives one faulty allele will not show the trait if her second X chromosome has the normal allele.
DIFFICULTY:   Bloom’s Analyze
REFERENCES:   33.8 Visual Disorders
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:   UDOL.STES.16.33.8 – Examine the causes of any three common visual disorders.

 

 

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