Biology The Essentials 3rd Edition By Hoefnagels – Test Bank

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Biology: The Essentials, 3e (Hoefnagels)

Chapter 5   Photosynthesis

 

1) Of the following organisms, which one does not use photosynthesis to convert CO2 and water into glucose?

  1. A) algae
  2. B) oak trees
  3. C) humans
  4. D) some bacteria
  5. E) a flowering plant

 

2) Photosynthesis

  1. A) is not dependent on chlorophyll.
  2. B) does not involve oxidation-reduction reactions.
  3. C) produces water and carbon dioxide.
  4. D) produces glucose and oxygen.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

3) The reactions of photosynthesis are summarized as

  1. A) 6CO2+ 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6O2.
  2. B) 6CO + 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6H2
  3. C) 12CO2+ 6H2O C12H12O6+ 6H2
  4. D) 6CO + 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6O2.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

4) Reactants in a chemical reaction are the molecules that are assembled together or broken down to form products. The reactants in photosynthesis are

  1. A) oxygen and glucose.
  2. B) water and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) chlorophyll and oxygen.
  4. D) glucose and water.
  5. E) glucose and oxygen.

 

5) The main product of photosynthesis used by plants for food is

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) oxygen.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) chlorophyll.
  5. E) sunlight.

6) Photosynthesis provides ________ in the atmosphere that support(s) much of the life on earth.

  1. A) organic compounds
  2. B) carbon dioxide
  3. C) chlorophyll
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) sunlight

7) The primary pigment molecule needed for photosynthesis is

  1. A) sunlight.
  2. B) oxygen.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) glucose.
  5. E) chlorophyll a.

 

8) The energy source for photosynthesis is

  1. A) oxygen.
  2. B) sunlight.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) chlorophyll.
  5. E) glucose.

 

9) Which does not usually increase in overall abundance as a result of photosynthesis?

  1. A) nitrogen
  2. B) glucose
  3. C) sunlight
  4. D) ATP
  5. E) oxygen

 

10) Organisms that gain energy by consuming preexisting organic molecules are called

  1. A) heterotrophs.
  2. B) autotrophs.
  3. C) animorphs.
  4. D) plants.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

11) Organisms that make their own organic compounds from inorganic substances are called

  1. A) animals.
  2. B) animorphs.
  3. C) heterotrophs.
  4. D) autotrophs.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

12) If you were asked to sort cards into drawers, a drawer marked “Packets of Light” would receive cards referring to

  1. A) photons.
  2. B) protons.
  3. C) electrons.
  4. D) lasers.
  5. E) grana.

 

 

 

13) In algae and plants, photosynthesis takes place in the

  1. A) chloroplast.
  2. B) mitochondrion.
  3. C) ribosome.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) lysosome.

 

14) The ________, in the chloroplast, contains photosynthetic pigments in its membrane.

  1. A) granum
  2. B) mesophyll
  3. C) chlorophyll
  4. D) thylakoid
  5. E) stroma

 

15) What is the gelatinous matrix inside chloroplasts that contains ribosomes, DNA, and enzymes?

  1. A) granum
  2. B) chlorophyll
  3. C) thylakoid
  4. D) stroma
  5. E) mitochondria

 

16) Examples of photosynthetic accessory pigments are

  1. A) chlorophyll b and carotenoids.
  2. B) chlorophyll a and carotenoids.
  3. C) chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.
  4. D) carotenoids and DNA.
  5. E) chlorophyll b and DNA.

17) Leaves of many plants change colors in the fall because

  1. A) the cooler weather causes plants to produce more of the photosynthetic accessory pigments.
  2. B) chlorophyll in the leaves degrades with shorter days and cooler temperatures.
  3. C) the decrease in daylight hours causes the plant to produce more of the photosynthetic accessory pigments.
  4. D) the plants produce more chlorophyll.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

18) Sunlight is the energy source for the light reactions. The energy sources for the carbon reactions are

  1. A) ATP and carbon dioxide.
  2. B) NADPH and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) NADPH and ATP.
  4. D) ATP and oxygen.
  5. E) NADPH and oxygen.

 

 

 

19) What is released at each step of an electron transport chain?

  1. A) ultraviolet wavelengths
  2. B) electrons
  3. C) photons
  4. D) energy
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

20) Electrons excited in photosystem II help the chloroplast produce

  1. A) water.
  2. B) NADPH.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) NADH.
  5. E) ATP.

 

21) The product of photosystem I is

  1. A) NADPH.
  2. B) ATP.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) water.
  5. E) NADH.

 

22) Photosystem I and photosystem II are part of

  1. A) the light reactions and the carbon reactions.
  2. B) the light reactions only.
  3. C) the light reactions and respiration.
  4. D) the carbon reactions only.
  5. E) respiration.

23) Herbicides may kill plants by

  1. A) blocking carotenoid synthesis.
  2. B) blocking electron flow in photosystem II.
  3. C) diverting electrons away from photosystem I.
  4. D) interfering with amino acid synthesis.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

24) The main product of the carbon reactions is

  1. A) oxygen.
  2. B) NADPH.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) a carbohydrate.
  5. E) ATP.

 

 

 

25) Tiny openings in the epidermis of the leaf that allow plants to exchange gases with the atmosphere are called

  1. A) thylakoids.
  2. B) pigments.
  3. C) stomata (singular: stoma).
  4. D) grana (singular: granum).
  5. E) thylakoid spaces.

 

26) If you were placing orders for experiments with rubisco, you would need ribulose bisphosphate and what other molecule to conduct the experiments?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) ATP
  3. C) carbon monoxide
  4. D) organic compounds
  5. E) carbon dioxide

 

27) The Calvin cycle is a

  1. A) cyclic pathway that produces three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.
  2. B) linear pathway that produces three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.
  3. C) cyclic pathway that produces ATP and NADPH.
  4. D) linear pathway that produces ATP and NADPH.
  5. E) cyclic pathway that produces ATP and three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.

 

28) If you were conducting research on the functioning of a stoma (plural: stomata) to suit your awake-at-night personality, with which plants would you choose to work?

  1. A) CAM
  2. B) C3
  3. C) C4
  4. D) CAM or C3
  5. E) C3or C4

29) Which plants are best suited to cool, wet conditions?

  1. A) C4
  2. B) C3
  3. C) CAM
  4. D) All types are equally suited.

 

30) In photosynthesis, the carbon in CO2 is ________ to form glucose.

  1. A) respired
  2. B) oxidized
  3. C) reduced
  4. D) energized
  5. E) broken down

 

31) In photosynthesis, the oxygen atoms in H2O are

  1. A) energized.
  2. B) reduced.
  3. C) reformed into other elements.
  4. D) oxidized.
  5. E) broken down.

 

32) The carbon atoms in the cellulose of a wood log originally came from ________ absorbed by the plant.

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) carbon dioxide
  3. C) nutrients in the soil
  4. D) water
  5. E) oxygen

 

33) Burning wood is a reverse reaction of photosynthesis. Knowing this, what products would be formed?

  1. A) carbon dioxide and water
  2. B) glucose and oxygen
  3. C) oxygen and carbon dioxide
  4. D) oxygen and water
  5. E) carbon dioxide and glucose

 

34) The light reactions produce ATP, while the carbon reactions consume it.

 

35) The carbon reactions produce NADPH, while the light reactions consume it.

36) How do C4 plants minimize photorespiration?

  1. A) Stomata are open only at night and oxygen is stored in a four-carbon compound.
  2. B) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so CO2does not come into contact with rubisco.
  3. C) Stomata are open only at night and CO2is stored in a four-carbon compound.
  4. D) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so that high levels of CO2are always around rubisco.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

37) How do CAM plants minimize photorespiration?

  1. A) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so carbon dioxide does not come into contact with rubisco.
  2. B) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so oxygen does not come into contact with rubisco.
  3. C) Stomata are open only at night and oxygen is stored in a four-carbon compound. During the day the carbon dioxide is released for photosynthesis.
  4. D) Stomata are open only at night and carbon dioxide is stored in a four-carbon compound. During the day the carbon dioxide is released for photosynthesis.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

38) The light reactions provide energy to fuel the carbon reactions to produce carbohydrates.

 

39) The carbon reactions can run on their own without the products of the light reactions.

 

40) Which of the following occurs as a result of splitting a water molecule in photosystem II?

  1. A) O2 is produced that can be released by the cell.
  2. B) O2is produced that can be used by the plant in respiration.
  3. C) Protons are released to assist in the electron transport chain.
  4. D) Electrons are released to assist in the electron transport chain.
  5. E) All answer choices are correct.

 

41) Most biologists agree that the light reactions are less important than the carbon reactions.

 

42) If oxygen could be traced, the oxygen in the water in a leaf would end up in carbohydrates after photosynthesis.

 

43) Plants need water to fill their cells and to perform the light reactions.

 

44) Water interacts with the machinery in photosystem II during the photosynthesis.

45) Electrons from water are used to replenish those removed from chlorophyll during the light reactions.

 

46) The carbon reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

 

47) For many plants to grow well in hot, dry weather, they must be watered so their stomata will remain open for longer periods of time to let in oxygen.

 

48) How would Earth be different without photosynthesis?

  1. A) The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere would be lower.
  2. B) Heterotrophs would have fewer food sources.
  3. C) There would be destruction to the food web.
  4. D) More sunlight would be absorbed and converted to environmental heat.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

49) Green and yellow wavelengths of light are used to power photosynthesis.

 

50) If you were planning to extract chlorophyll from an oak tree, what would be the best starting material?

  1. A) leaves
  2. B) bark
  3. C) roots
  4. D) stems
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

 

 

51) Why are accessory pigments necessary in photosystems?

  1. A) They capture a wider spectrum of wavelengths of light.
  2. B) They donate electrons to the reaction center.
  3. C) They split water into hydrogen ions and oxygen.
  4. D) They conduct the carbon reactions of photosynthesis.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

52) Biologists consider photosynthesis to be the most important metabolic process because without it, there would be no CO2 in the atmosphere.

 

53) Without photosynthesis, autotrophs would be more abundant.

 

54) The light reactions harvest _____, while the carbon reactions produce ________.

  1. A) energy; carbohydrates
  2. B) energy; phosphate
  3. C) phosphate; carbohydrates
  4. D) energy; nucleic acids
  5. E) lipids; nucleic acids

55) What is produced in the light reactions that is used in the carbon reactions of photosynthesis?

  1. A) ATP and NADPH
  2. B) ADP and NADP+
  3. C) carbon dioxide and oxygen
  4. D) water and glucose
  5. E) oxygen and glucose

 

 

 

Match the reactants of photosynthesis with the correct sources.

 

  1. A) captured from wavelengths of light
  2. B) absorption through roots
  3. C) gas exchange through stomata

 

56) carbon dioxide

 

57) water

 

58) energy

 

 

 

 

Match the steps of photosynthesis with the correct descriptions.

 

  1. A) incorporates carbon into organic molecule that serves as food
  2. B) releases energy that is used to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space
  3. C) produces the electron carrier to reduce carbon dioxide
  4. D) splits water and produces oxygen gas and protons

 

59) photosystem II

 

60) photosystem I

 

61) electron transport chain

 

62) Calvin cycle

 

 

 

 

 

63) Place the steps of the light reactions in the order in which they occur.

 

________ Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing NADPH.

________ Photosystem II captures a photon of light.

________ A pair of electrons is excited in the reaction center of photosystem II.

________ Energy is passed to the reaction center of photosystem II.

________ Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing ATP.

 

64) Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of CO2 with ribulose bisphosphate in the first step of the Calvin cycle.

 

 

 

Biology: The Essentials, 3e (Hoefnagels)

Chapter 5   Photosynthesis

 

1) Of the following organisms, which one does not use photosynthesis to convert CO2 and water into glucose?

  1. A) algae
  2. B) oak trees
  3. C) humans
  4. D) some bacteria
  5. E) a flowering plant

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.; 05.00.01 Explain how photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

2) Photosynthesis

  1. A) is not dependent on chlorophyll.
  2. B) does not involve oxidation-reduction reactions.
  3. C) produces water and carbon dioxide.
  4. D) produces glucose and oxygen.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Photosynthesis uses water and carbon dioxide to produce oxygen gas and glucose. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.01.02 Draw and describe the net reaction in photosynthesis.; 05.00.01 Explain how photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

3) The reactions of photosynthesis are summarized as

  1. A) 6CO2+ 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6O2.
  2. B) 6CO + 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6H2
  3. C) 12CO2+ 6H2O C12H12O6+ 6H2
  4. D) 6CO + 6H2O C6H12O6+ 6O2.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Many water molecules and carbon dioxide molecules are needed to produce one glucose. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.01.02 Draw and describe the net reaction in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

4) Reactants in a chemical reaction are the molecules that are assembled together or broken down to form products. The reactants in photosynthesis are

  1. A) oxygen and glucose.
  2. B) water and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) chlorophyll and oxygen.
  4. D) glucose and water.
  5. E) glucose and oxygen.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Carbon dioxide and water are the starting chemicals in photosynthesis. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.02 Draw and describe the net reaction in photosynthesis.; 05.00.01 Explain how photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

5) The main product of photosynthesis used by plants for food is

  1. A) glucose.
  2. B) oxygen.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) chlorophyll.
  5. E) sunlight.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.02 Draw and describe the net reaction in photosynthesis.; 05.00.01 Explain how photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

6) Photosynthesis provides ________ in the atmosphere that support(s) much of the life on earth.

  1. A) organic compounds
  2. B) carbon dioxide
  3. C) chlorophyll
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) sunlight

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Most living things need oxygen to survive, and that oxygen is derived from photosynthesis. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.02 Draw and describe the net reaction in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

7) The primary pigment molecule needed for photosynthesis is

  1. A) sunlight.
  2. B) oxygen.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) glucose.
  5. E) chlorophyll a.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Chlorophyll a is a green pigment which colors leaves. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

8) The energy source for photosynthesis is

  1. A) oxygen.
  2. B) sunlight.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) chlorophyll.
  5. E) glucose.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The light that drives photosynthesis comes naturally from the sun. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.; 05.00.01 Explain how photosynthetic organisms convert light energy to chemical energy.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

9) Which does not usually increase in overall abundance as a result of photosynthesis?

  1. A) nitrogen
  2. B) glucose
  3. C) sunlight
  4. D) ATP
  5. E) oxygen

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  ATP is involved in photosynthesis, but all that is made as a result of the light reactions is usually used up during the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  4. Analyze

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

10) Organisms that gain energy by consuming preexisting organic molecules are called

  1. A) heterotrophs.
  2. B) autotrophs.
  3. C) animorphs.
  4. D) plants.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Heterotrophs cannot use the energy of sunlight to reduce carbon for themselves and must consume what ultimately came from a photosynthetic organism. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

11) Organisms that make their own organic compounds from inorganic substances are called

  1. A) animals.
  2. B) animorphs.
  3. C) heterotrophs.
  4. D) autotrophs.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Photosynthetic organisms produce their own organic compounds from carbon dioxide. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

12) If you were asked to sort cards into drawers, a drawer marked “Packets of Light” would receive cards referring to

  1. A) photons.
  2. B) protons.
  3. C) electrons.
  4. D) lasers.
  5. E) grana.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Light arrives for photosynthesis in discrete packets called photons. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

13) In algae and plants, photosynthesis takes place in the

  1. A) chloroplast.
  2. B) mitochondrion.
  3. C) ribosome.
  4. D) nucleus.
  5. E) lysosome.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in the chloroplasts. Please see section 5.3 for more information.

Section:  05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Chloroplasts

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

14) The ________, in the chloroplast, contains photosynthetic pigments in its membrane.

  1. A) granum
  2. B) mesophyll
  3. C) chlorophyll
  4. D) thylakoid
  5. E) stroma

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Pigments such as carotenoid and chlorophyll are inserted into the thylakoid membrane. Please see section 5.3 for more information.

Section:  05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Chloroplasts; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

15) What is the gelatinous matrix inside chloroplasts that contains ribosomes, DNA, and enzymes?

  1. A) granum
  2. B) chlorophyll
  3. C) thylakoid
  4. D) stroma
  5. E) mitochondria

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The stroma is the chloroplast’s inner fluid region. Please see section 5.3 for more information.

Section:  05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Chloroplasts

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

16) Examples of photosynthetic accessory pigments are

  1. A) chlorophyll b and carotenoids.
  2. B) chlorophyll a and carotenoids.
  3. C) chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.
  4. D) carotenoids and DNA.
  5. E) chlorophyll b and DNA.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Accessory pigments help the main photosynthetic pigment by capturing more photons of light and passing their energy along. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Chloroplasts

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

17) Leaves of many plants change colors in the fall because

  1. A) the cooler weather causes plants to produce more of the photosynthetic accessory pigments.
  2. B) chlorophyll in the leaves degrades with shorter days and cooler temperatures.
  3. C) the decrease in daylight hours causes the plant to produce more of the photosynthetic accessory pigments.
  4. D) the plants produce more chlorophyll.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  When chlorophyll disappears from leaves, the accessory pigments are left behind. Please see Burning Question 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.02; 05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

18) Sunlight is the energy source for the light reactions. The energy sources for the carbon reactions are

  1. A) ATP and carbon dioxide.
  2. B) NADPH and carbon dioxide.
  3. C) NADPH and ATP.
  4. D) ATP and oxygen.
  5. E) NADPH and oxygen.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  The light reactions turn sunlight into the chemical energy in ATP, which is then used to power the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

19) What is released at each step of an electron transport chain?

  1. A) ultraviolet wavelengths
  2. B) electrons
  3. C) photons
  4. D) energy
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The electron transport chain extracts energy in a stepwise fashion. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

20) Electrons excited in photosystem II help the chloroplast produce

  1. A) water.
  2. B) NADPH.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) NADH.
  5. E) ATP.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The energy of light captured by photosytem II is transformed into the chemical energy of ATP via ATP synthase. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

21) The product of photosystem I is

  1. A) NADPH.
  2. B) ATP.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) water.
  5. E) NADH.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  NADPH is used for powering the carbon reactions just like ATP from photosystem II. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

22) Photosystem I and photosystem II are part of

  1. A) the light reactions and the carbon reactions.
  2. B) the light reactions only.
  3. C) the light reactions and respiration.
  4. D) the carbon reactions only.
  5. E) respiration.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The photosystems are only involved in the capture and conversion of light energy, not in the production of organic compounds. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

23) Herbicides may kill plants by

  1. A) blocking carotenoid synthesis.
  2. B) blocking electron flow in photosystem II.
  3. C) diverting electrons away from photosystem I.
  4. D) interfering with amino acid synthesis.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Herbicides target a range of important biochemical processes, but some of the most commonly targeted are parts of photosynthesis. Please see Why We Care 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

24) The main product of the carbon reactions is

  1. A) oxygen.
  2. B) NADPH.
  3. C) carbon dioxide.
  4. D) a carbohydrate.
  5. E) ATP.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The carbon reactions produce organic compounds, particularly carbohydrates. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

25) Tiny openings in the epidermis of the leaf that allow plants to exchange gases with the atmosphere are called

  1. A) thylakoids.
  2. B) pigments.
  3. C) stomata (singular: stoma).
  4. D) grana (singular: granum).
  5. E) thylakoid spaces.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Stomata control loss of water and uptake of carbon dioxide. Please see section 5.3 and figure 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

26) If you were placing orders for experiments with rubisco, you would need ribulose bisphosphate and what other molecule to conduct the experiments?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) ATP
  3. C) carbon monoxide
  4. D) organic compounds
  5. E) carbon dioxide

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Rubisco catalyzes the addition of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

27) The Calvin cycle is a

  1. A) cyclic pathway that produces three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.
  2. B) linear pathway that produces three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.
  3. C) cyclic pathway that produces ATP and NADPH.
  4. D) linear pathway that produces ATP and NADPH.
  5. E) cyclic pathway that produces ATP and three-carbon carbohydrates from CO2.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The Calvin cycle is where oxidized carbon dioxide is reduced into carbohydrates. Please see section 5.6 and figure 5.8 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

28) If you were conducting research on the functioning of a stoma (plural: stomata) to suit your awake-at-night personality, with which plants would you choose to work?

  1. A) CAM
  2. B) C3
  3. C) C4
  4. D) CAM or C3
  5. E) C3or C4

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Nighttime work would be best with plants that only open their stomata at night−CAM plants. Please see section 5.7 for more information.

Section:  05.07

Topic:  Photosynthesis; C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  4. Analyze

Learning Outcome:  05.07.01 Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

29) Which plants are best suited to cool, wet conditions?

  1. A) C4
  2. B) C3
  3. C) CAM
  4. D) All types are equally suited.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  If water is abundant, C3 photosynthesis is the most efficient pathway. Please see section 5.7 for more information.

Section:  05.07

Topic:  C3, C4, and CAM Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.07.01 Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

30) In photosynthesis, the carbon in CO2 is ________ to form glucose.

  1. A) respired
  2. B) oxidized
  3. C) reduced
  4. D) energized
  5. E) broken down

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Reduction involves the addition of electrons, which is done when carbon dioxide is added to an existing carbohydrate. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

31) In photosynthesis, the oxygen atoms in H2O are

  1. A) energized.
  2. B) reduced.
  3. C) reformed into other elements.
  4. D) oxidized.
  5. E) broken down.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Oxygen atoms removed from water and turned into oxygen gas are oxidized. When that happens, they lose electrons. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

32) The carbon atoms in the cellulose of a wood log originally came from ________ absorbed by the plant.

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) carbon dioxide
  3. C) nutrients in the soil
  4. D) water
  5. E) oxygen

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Carbon atoms originate in the atmosphere and return there when organisms die and are broken down. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

33) Burning wood is a reverse reaction of photosynthesis. Knowing this, what products would be formed?

  1. A) carbon dioxide and water
  2. B) glucose and oxygen
  3. C) oxygen and carbon dioxide
  4. D) oxygen and water
  5. E) carbon dioxide and glucose

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Carbon dioxide and water are both the starting material for photosynthesis and the end products of burning material from photosynthetic organisms. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

34) The light reactions produce ATP, while the carbon reactions consume it.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The light reactions produce ATP at photosystem II, while this is used in the carbon reactions for fixing and reducing carbon. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

35) The carbon reactions produce NADPH, while the light reactions consume it.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The light reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are both used in the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

36) How do C4 plants minimize photorespiration?

  1. A) Stomata are open only at night and oxygen is stored in a four-carbon compound.
  2. B) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so CO2does not come into contact with rubisco.
  3. C) Stomata are open only at night and CO2is stored in a four-carbon compound.
  4. D) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so that high levels of CO2are always around rubisco.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  C4 plants separate parts of the carbon reactions in space to achieve greater efficiency in the use of water. Please see section 5.7 for more information.

Section:  05.07

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.07.01 Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

37) How do CAM plants minimize photorespiration?

  1. A) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so carbon dioxide does not come into contact with rubisco.
  2. B) The light reactions and the carbon reactions occur in different cells, so oxygen does not come into contact with rubisco.
  3. C) Stomata are open only at night and oxygen is stored in a four-carbon compound. During the day the carbon dioxide is released for photosynthesis.
  4. D) Stomata are open only at night and carbon dioxide is stored in a four-carbon compound. During the day the carbon dioxide is released for photosynthesis.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  By opening stomata at night, CAM plants reduce water loss since it is cooler at night with less thermal energy to drive evaporation. Refer to the discussion of CAM plants in section 5.7.

Section:  05.07

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.07.01 Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

38) The light reactions provide energy to fuel the carbon reactions to produce carbohydrates.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  The light reactions power the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.06.02 Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of the light and carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

39) The carbon reactions can run on their own without the products of the light reactions.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The light reactions power the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.06.02 Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of the light and carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

40) Which of the following occurs as a result of splitting a water molecule in photosystem II?

  1. A) O2 is produced that can be released by the cell.
  2. B) O2is produced that can be used by the plant in respiration.
  3. C) Protons are released to assist in the electron transport chain.
  4. D) Electrons are released to assist in the electron transport chain.
  5. E) All answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The splitting of water in photosystem II provides electrons, protons, and a release of oxygen. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.05.02 Explain the role of water in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

41) Most biologists agree that the light reactions are less important than the carbon reactions.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The light reactions and the carbon reactions are both critical for life on Earth for the oxygen and organic compounds provided. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

42) If oxygen could be traced, the oxygen in the water in a leaf would end up in carbohydrates after photosynthesis.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The oxygen in water ends up as oxygen gas in the atmosphere after the light reactions. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.05.02 Explain the role of water in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

43) Plants need water to fill their cells and to perform the light reactions.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Plant cells are full of water, like other cells, but they also use water as a raw material in the light reactions. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

44) Water interacts with the machinery in photosystem II during the photosynthesis.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Photosystem II breaks down water to produce oxygen. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.05.02 Explain the role of water in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

45) Electrons from water are used to replenish those removed from chlorophyll during the light reactions.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Photosystem II breaks down water to produce oxygen. Please see section 5.5 for more information.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.05.02 Explain the role of water in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

46) The carbon reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

47) For many plants to grow well in hot, dry weather, they must be watered so their stomata will remain open for longer periods of time to let in oxygen.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Please see section 5.7 to learn more about the role of the stoma.

Section:  05.07

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.07.01 Compare and contrast C3, C4, and CAM plants.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

48) How would Earth be different without photosynthesis?

  1. A) The amount of oxygen in the atmosphere would be lower.
  2. B) Heterotrophs would have fewer food sources.
  3. C) There would be destruction to the food web.
  4. D) More sunlight would be absorbed and converted to environmental heat.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Without photosynthesis, many of the nonliving parts of Earth would change, and most living things would not exist for lack of oxygen. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

49) Green and yellow wavelengths of light are used to power photosynthesis.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The wavelengths of light used for photosynthesis fall in the blue and red parts of the spectrum. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

50) If you were planning to extract chlorophyll from an oak tree, what would be the best starting material?

  1. A) leaves
  2. B) bark
  3. C) roots
  4. D) stems
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Leaves contain large numbers of chloroplasts with large concentrations of chlorophyll. Please see section 5.3 for more information.

Section:  05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Chloroplasts

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

51) Why are accessory pigments necessary in photosystems?

  1. A) They capture a wider spectrum of wavelengths of light.
  2. B) They donate electrons to the reaction center.
  3. C) They split water into hydrogen ions and oxygen.
  4. D) They conduct the carbon reactions of photosynthesis.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Accessory pigments allow wavelengths of light other than the red and blue absorbed by chlorophyll to power photosynthesis. Please see section 5.2 for more information.

Section:  05.02

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

52) Biologists consider photosynthesis to be the most important metabolic process because without it, there would be no CO2 in the atmosphere.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Remember what photosynthesis provides to all living organisms. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

53) Without photosynthesis, autotrophs would be more abundant.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Photosynthesis powers most of Earth’s autotrophs. Without it, they would disappear. Please see section 5.1 for more information.

Section:  05.01

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.01.01 Explain the importance of photosynthesis in ecosystems.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

54) The light reactions harvest _____, while the carbon reactions produce ________.

  1. A) energy; carbohydrates
  2. B) energy; phosphate
  3. C) phosphate; carbohydrates
  4. D) energy; nucleic acids
  5. E) lipids; nucleic acids

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The light reactions absorb energy from the sun, while the carbon reactions use that energy to make carbohydrates. Please see section 5.4 for more information.

Section:  05.04

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

55) What is produced in the light reactions that is used in the carbon reactions of photosynthesis?

  1. A) ATP and NADPH
  2. B) ADP and NADP+
  3. C) carbon dioxide and oxygen
  4. D) water and glucose
  5. E) oxygen and glucose

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The light reactions produce ATP and NADPH, from different photosystems, which are used for carbon reduction in the carbon reactions. Please see section 5.6 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Light Reactions; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.06.02 Explain the relationship between the products and reactants of the light and carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

Match the reactants of photosynthesis with the correct sources.

 

  1. A) captured from wavelengths of light
  2. B) absorption through roots
  3. C) gas exchange through stomata

 

56) carbon dioxide

Section:  05.02; 05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.; 05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

57) water

Section:  05.02; 05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.; 05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

58) energy

Section:  05.02; 05.03

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.02.01 Explain how light interacts with pigments.; 05.03.01 Describe the structures in a leaf that are involved in photosynthesis.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

Answers: 56) C 57) B 58) A

 

 

 

Match the steps of photosynthesis with the correct descriptions.

 

  1. A) incorporates carbon into organic molecule that serves as food
  2. B) releases energy that is used to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space
  3. C) produces the electron carrier to reduce carbon dioxide
  4. D) splits water and produces oxygen gas and protons

 

59) photosystem II

Section:  05.04; 05.05; 05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.; 05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.; 05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

60) photosystem I

Section:  05.04; 05.05; 05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.; 05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.; 05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

61) electron transport chain

Section:  05.04; 05.05; 05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.; 05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.; 05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

62) Calvin cycle

Section:  05.04; 05.05; 05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.04.01 Compare and contrast the light and carbon reactions of photosynthesis.; 05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.; 05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

Answers: 59) D 60) C 61) B 62) A

 

 

63) Place the steps of the light reactions in the order in which they occur.

 

________ Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing NADPH.

________ Photosystem II captures a photon of light.

________ A pair of electrons is excited in the reaction center of photosystem II.

________ Energy is passed to the reaction center of photosystem II.

________ Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing ATP.

 

Answer:

5    Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing NADPH.

1    Photosystem II captures a photon of light.

3    A pair of electrons is excited in the reaction center of photosystem II.

2    Energy is passed to the reaction center of photosystem II.

4    Excited electrons are passed through electron transport chain, producing ATP.

Explanation:  Please see section 5.5 to review the steps in the light reactions.

Section:  05.05

Topic:  Photosynthesis

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  05.05.01 Describe how the light reactions produce ATP and NADPH.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

64) Rubisco catalyzes the fixation of CO2 with ribulose bisphosphate in the first step of the Calvin cycle.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Please see section 5.6 and figure 5.8 for more information.

Section:  05.06

Topic:  Photosynthesis; Carbon Reactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  05.06.01 Identify the products and reactants in the carbon reactions.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

 

Biology: The Essentials, 3e (Hoefnagels)

Chapter 19   Communities and Ecosystems

 

1) A species that is so important to its community that its removal can dismantle a food web is termed a

  1. A) capstone species.
  2. B) flagstone species.
  3. C) cobblestone species.
  4. D) cornerstone species.
  5. E) keystone species.

 

2) All the organisms plus the nonliving components of a defined area is a(n)

  1. A) population.
  2. B) community.
  3. C) ecosystem.
  4. D) habitat.
  5. E) niche.

 

3) Abiotic components of an ecosystem include

  1. A) living components only.
  2. B) both nonliving and living components.
  3. C) only plant life.
  4. D) nonliving components only.
  5. E) only animal life.

 

4) A genetic change in one species that selects for a subsequent change in a different species is termed

  1. A) coevolution.
  2. B) genetic dispersion.
  3. C) gene dynamics.
  4. D) competitive exclusion.
  5. E) evolutionary dynamics.

 

5) The physical place where members of a population live is termed a

  1. A) competitive zone.
  2. B) community.
  3. C) habitat.
  4. D) symbiont.
  5. E) niche.

 

 

6) The total of all the resources, both biotic and abiotic, that a species exploits for its survival, growth, and reproduction is its

  1. A) competitive zone.
  2. B) habitat.
  3. C) food web.
  4. D) niche.
  5. E) biosphere.

 

7) When two or more species vie for the same limited resource, ________ occurs.

  1. A) succession
  2. B) symbiosis
  3. C) coevolution
  4. D) stotting
  5. E) competition

 

8) In ________, multiple species use the same resource in a slightly different way or at a different time.

  1. A) symbiotic inclusion
  2. B) resource partitioning
  3. C) mutualism
  4. D) intraspecific competition
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

9) A relationship between different species in which one species lives in or on another is

  1. A) resource partitioning.
  2. B) coevolution.
  3. C) symbiosis.
  4. D) predation.
  5. E) niche sharing.

 

10) The ________ states that two species cannot coexist indefinitely in the same niche.

  1. A) endosymbiotic theory
  2. B) zonal exclusion theory
  3. C) co-inclusion principle
  4. D) second law of thermodynamics
  5. E) competitive exclusion principle

11) You observe a situation in which a worm and a species of mustard grow better when both are present in an ecosystem, helping one another exploit resources. You are observing

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) parasitism.
  3. C) mutualism.
  4. D) commensalism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

 

 

12) A type of symbiosis in which one member of the relationship benefits with no effect on the other is

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) mutualism.
  3. C) commensalism.
  4. D) parasitism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

13) When a tapeworm steals nutrients from the gut of a mammalian host, that symbiosis is called

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) mutualism.
  3. C) commensalism.
  4. D) parasitism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

14) Which of the following is not a type of symbiosis?

  1. A) parasitism
  2. B) mutualism
  3. C) commensalism
  4. D) predation
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

15) If a species makes up a small portion of the community by weight, yet exerts a disproportionate influence on community diversity, it is recognized as a ________ species.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) cornerstone
  3. C) capstone
  4. D) flagstone
  5. E) No answer is correct.

16) A gradual change in a community’s species composition, occurring as competing organisms respond to and modify the physical environment, is referred to as ecological

  1. A) completion.
  2. B) conversion.
  3. C) climax.
  4. D) magnification.
  5. E) succession.

 

17) In ecology, a ________ community is one that remains fairly constant over time.

  1. A) punctuated
  2. B) climax
  3. C) keystone
  4. D) primary
  5. E) tertiary

 

18) The type of succession that occurs in an area where no community previously existed is ________ succession.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) tertiary
  3. C) secondary
  4. D) climax
  5. E) primary

 

19) Species that are the first to colonize an area are termed ________ species.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) primary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) pioneer
  5. E) secondary

 

20) A food chain is a series of organisms that

  1. A) transfer energy through feeding relationships.
  2. B) compete for the same food source.
  3. C) exhibit mutualism with each other.
  4. D) exhibit parasitism with each other.
  5. E) succeed one another as a climax community develops.

 

21) An organism’s ________ is its position in the food chain relative to the ecosystem’s energy source.

  1. A) habitat
  2. B) niche
  3. C) climax level
  4. D) trophic level
  5. E) keystone level

22) An organism that can use solar energy and inorganic substances to produce all the organic material it requires is a(n)

  1. A) primary producer and heterotroph.
  2. B) heterotroph.
  3. C) autotroph and primary producer.
  4. D) autotroph.
  5. E) primary producer.

 

23) In the pyramid of energy, organisms that obtain their energy from only eating primary producers are called

  1. A) secondary producers.
  2. B) tertiary consumers.
  3. C) secondary consumers.
  4. D) tertiary producers.
  5. E) primary consumers.

 

24) Decomposers

  1. A) obtain nutrients from detritus.
  2. B) return organic molecules to their inorganic form.
  3. C) include bacteria.
  4. D) include fungi.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

25) The remaining energy in the producer level that is available for consumers is the

  1. A) net primary consumption.
  2. B) gross primary production.
  3. C) gross primary consumption.
  4. D) net primary production.
  5. E) net energy fixation.

 

26) “Net primary productivity” is the amount of energy

  1. A) used in metabolism by producers.
  2. B) given off as heat by producers.
  3. C) trapped by the autotrophs of an ecosystem.
  4. D) available for consumers.
  5. E) used in metabolism by consumers.

 

27) Which ecosystem would have the highest net primary production?

  1. A) desert
  2. B) tropical rain forest
  3. C) temperate forest
  4. D) boreal forest
  5. E) tundra

28) As an overall average, about ________ of the energy at one trophic level is generally available to the next highest rank in the food chain.

  1. A) 2%
  2. B) 10%
  3. C) 4%
  4. D) 7%
  5. E) 20%

 

29) Biomagnification occurs with chemicals that

  1. A) dissolve in only acidic solvents.
  2. B) dissolve in water.
  3. C) are not readily degraded and dissolve in fat.
  4. D) are not readily degraded and dissolve in water.
  5. E) dissolve in only basic solvents.

 

 

 

30) Which is not an important biogeochemical cycle on Earth?

  1. A) ATP cycle
  2. B) water cycle
  3. C) carbon cycle
  4. D) phosphorus cycle
  5. E) nitrogen cycle

 

31) In the water cycle, animals return water to the environment by

  1. A) both transpiration and excretion.
  2. B) excretion only.
  3. C) transpiration only.
  4. D) both respiration and excretion.

 

32) If you were to shine a lightbulb on a puddle, and the water in the puddle disappeared, you would say that you had added energy to the puddle and had seen

  1. A) sublimation.
  2. B) condensation.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) evaporation.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

33) Carbon returns to the atmosphere

  1. A) as carbon dioxide.
  2. B) from respiration of plants.
  3. C) by the burning of fossil fuels.
  4. D) from respiration of animals.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

34) If you gave N2 to a culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, you would expect to detect

  1. A) nitrates.
  2. B) ammonium ions.
  3. C) nitrites.
  4. D) carbon dioxide.
  5. E) methane.

 

35) ________ bacteria return nitrogen to the atmosphere by converting nitrates to N2.

  1. A) Nitrogen-fixing
  2. B) In nitrification,
  3. C) In denitrification,
  4. D) In transpiration,
  5. E) In respiration,

 

 

 

You go on a canoe trip to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Northern Minnesota. This ecosystem is cold most of the year and receives plenty of rainfall. It has many lakes that are full of walleye pike fish. You know that walleye like to eat minnows. In turn, the minnows feed on scuds (zooplankton) which eat algae (phytoplankton).

 

36) Walleye pike fish are what?

  1. A) secondary consumers
  2. B) tertiary consumers
  3. C) primary consumers
  4. D) producers
  5. E) decomposers

 

37) In this system, the zooplankton are the

  1. A) tertiary consumers.
  2. B) secondary consumers.
  3. C) producers.
  4. D) decomposers.
  5. E) primary consumers.

 

38) In this system, mercury released from coal-burning power plants would be at the highest concentration in

  1. A) the phytoplankton.
  2. B) the zooplankton.
  3. C) the minnows.
  4. D) the walleye pike fish.
  5. E) The amount of mercury would be the same in all organisms.

39) If a person takes an antibiotic for a bacterial infection, this can reduce the amount of bacteria in their normal microbiota and allow yeast in their genitourinary tract to flourish, which could result in a yeast infection. This is an example of

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) symbiosis.
  3. C) the competitive exclusion principle.
  4. D) the co-inclusion principle.
  5. E) endosymbiosis.

 

40) Based on the 10% rule, if there are 10,000 calories of net primary productivity in an ecosystem, how much energy will be generally available to a primary consumer?

  1. A) 100 calories
  2. B) 10,000 calories
  3. C) 10 calories
  4. D) 1,000 calories
  5. E) 1 calorie

 

 

 

41) Based on the 10% rule, if there are 10,000 calories of net primary productivity in an ecosystem, how much energy will be generally available to a secondary consumer?

  1. A) 1,000 calories
  2. B) 100 calories
  3. C) 10,000 calories
  4. D) 10 calories
  5. E) 1 calorie

 

42) Mycorrhizal fungi contribute to nutrient cycles by aiding in the absorption of minerals, which they share with plants in return for carbohydrates. This shows that nutrient cycling can be an example of

  1. A) commensalism.
  2. B) parasitism.
  3. C) mutualism.
  4. D) predation.
  5. E) herbivory.

 

43) The concentration of the pesticide DDT is likely highest in which organism?

  1. A) a minnow
  2. B) a mosquito larva
  3. C) a seagull
  4. D) plankton
  5. E) algae

44) The concentration of the pesticide DDT is likely lowest in which organism?

  1. A) a seagull
  2. B) a minnow
  3. C) a mosquito larvae
  4. D) algae
  5. E) plankton

 

45) Some scientists predict that as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, plant growth will also increase. What is the best explanation for this hypothesis?

  1. A) Plants consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
  2. B) Plants release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
  3. C) Plants consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during respiration.
  4. D) Plants release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during respiration.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

 

 

46) Some scientists predict that as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, the pH of the oceans will drop, threatening coral and organisms with shells. What is the best explanation for this hypothesis?

  1. A) Carbon dioxide combines with water to form a base.
  2. B) Carbon dioxide combines with water to form an acid.
  3. C) As the pH of the ocean decreases, more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  4. D) As the pH of the ocean increases, more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  5. E) As the oceans warm, more water is evaporated, lowering the pH of the remaining water.

 

47) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the roots of soybeans help provide a source of nitrogen to the plants, and in exchange, the bacteria obtain food from the plants. Which type of interaction is this?

  1. A) mutualism
  2. B) commensalism
  3. C) parasitism
  4. D) predation
  5. E) herbivory

 

48) The term abiotic means nonliving.

 

49) The reliance of a plant on one type of insect for pollination and that insect having only the nectar of that plant as its food source is an example of coevolution.

 

50) Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which neither member of the relationship benefits.

51) An example of a keystone species is a root-associated fungus that conifer trees need in order to survive and also supplies food for rodents.

 

52) If you found a durable organism growing on bare rock and breaking it down into small particles of soil, it would be considered a pioneer species.

 

53) The species that appear in a climax community usually are short-lived, early-maturing, r-selected species that are strong competitors in a stable environment.

 

54) Energy can be depleted within an ecosystem.

 

55) If asked to put an arrow in a diagram showing energy flow through an ecosystem, you would use a single-headed arrow.

 

56) A network of interconnected food chains is a food web.

 

57) Raw sewage affects nutrient flow through an ecosystem more than energy flow.

 

 

 

58) The major types of ecosystems are termed

  1. A) habitats.
  2. B) niches.
  3. C) biospheres.
  4. D) terrestrial zones.
  5. E) biomes.

 

59) Which of the following is NOT an abiotic component or condition of an ecosystem?

  1. A) water
  2. B) archaea
  3. C) rock
  4. D) salinity
  5. E) temperature

 

60) On Earth, solar energy is most intense at

  1. A) the South Pole.
  2. B) the North Pole.
  3. C) 60°N latitude.
  4. D) the equator.
  5. E) 60°S latitude.

 

61) The different seasons of the year are caused by the

  1. A) tilt of the Earth’s axis as the Earth travels around the Sun.
  2. B) rotation of the Earth around the Sun.
  3. C) rotation of the Earth on its axis.
  4. D) rotation of the moon around the Earth.
  5. E) gravitational pull of the moon as it travels around the Earth.

62) The Earth has a constant tilt of ________ on its axis from its plane of orbit.

  1. A) 12.5 degrees
  2. B) 23.5 degrees
  3. C) 30 degrees
  4. D) 9 degrees
  5. E) 5.5 degrees

 

63) Which item helps compose a living thing rather then being a major component of soil?

  1. A) rock fragments
  2. B) organic matter
  3. C) microbes
  4. D) bacteria
  5. E) chloroplasts

 

 

 

64) Which of the following is not a major terrestrial biome of Earth?

  1. A) the temperate grasslands
  2. B) the tundra
  3. C) the taiga
  4. D) the Antarctic
  5. E) the tropical rain forest

 

65) Tropical rain forest soils are usually

  1. A) nutrient-rich.
  2. B) low in organic matter.
  3. C) nutrient-poor and low in organic matter.
  4. D) nutrient-rich and low in organic matter.
  5. E) nutrient-poor.

 

66) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the tropical rain forest biome?

  1. A) warm climate
  2. B) nutrient-rich soil
  3. C) a year-round growing season for plants
  4. D) a tremendous diversity of animal life
  5. E) a location near the equator

 

67) Trees that lose only a few leaves at a time are

  1. A) deciduous trees.
  2. B) carnivorous trees.
  3. C) maple trees.
  4. D) hickory trees.
  5. E) coniferous trees.

68) The taiga

  1. A) consists of mostly coniferous trees.
  2. B) has nutrient-rich soil.
  3. C) has a long growing season.
  4. D) is warm and dry.
  5. E) consists of mosses and lichens.

 

69) A grassland biome

  1. A) consists of mostly coniferous trees.
  2. B) has nutrient-rich soil.
  3. C) has many self-pollinating flowering plants.
  4. D) is warm and dry.
  5. E) consists of mosses and lichens.

 

 

 

70) The yearly rainfall of a desert biome is

  1. A) 150 to 200 centimeters per year.
  2. B) more than 300 centimeters per year.
  3. C) less than 20 centimeters per year.
  4. D) more than 200 centimeters per year.
  5. E) 50 to 100 centimeters per year.

 

71) Water covers about ________ of the Earth’s surface.

  1. A) 33%
  2. B) 40%
  3. C) 50%
  4. D) 70%
  5. E) 80%

 

72) Which of the following eats free-floating photosynthetic organisms found in lakes?

  1. A) phytoplankton
  2. B) green algae
  3. C) zooplankton
  4. D) cyanobacteria
  5. E) diatom

 

73) The area where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean is a(n)

  1. A) intertidal zone.
  2. B) continental shelf.
  3. C) hydrothermal vent.
  4. D) open ocean.
  5. E) estuary.

74) Along coastlines, the area between high tide and low tide is the

  1. A) open ocean.
  2. B) hydrothermal vent.
  3. C) intertidal zone.
  4. D) estuary.
  5. E) continental shelf.

 

 

 

You are hiking in the Colorado Rockies in the summer. You start hiking at 6,000 feet in a warm grassland full of elk. As you climb the mountain, you pass through forests from 8,000–10,000 feet with lots of deer. Above 10,000 feet, you are in an alpine tundra with furry marmots.

 

75) Which two parameters most influence the location of biomes?

  1. A) altitude and latitude
  2. B) latitude and temperature
  3. C) temperature and precipitation
  4. D) precipitation and altitude
  5. E) precipitation and latitude

 

76) As you climb the mountain, why are the biomes changing?

  1. A) The air is thinner.
  2. B) The latitude is changing.
  3. C) More rain falls in a rain shadow.
  4. D) Some animals live better at higher elevations.
  5. E) It is colder.

 

77) What types of plants would you expect to find in an alpine tundra?

  1. A) tall trees
  2. B) aquatic plants
  3. C) lichens and mosses
  4. D) tall grasses
  5. E) cactus

 

You go to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Northern Minnesota. This ecosystem contains mostly coniferous and a few deciduous trees. It has mild winters and cool summers. It also receives plenty of rainfall.

 

78) The Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) is an example of which biome?

  1. A) temperate coniferous forest
  2. B) tropical rainforest
  3. C) short grass prairie
  4. D) tundra
  5. E) temperate rainforest

79) If global temperatures increase, which biome will the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) turn into?

  1. A) tropical rainforest
  2. B) deciduous forest
  3. C) boreal forest
  4. D) short grass prairie
  5. E) tundra

 

 

 

80) At the equator, the Earth receives the

  1. A) maximum amount of solar radiation per unit area.
  2. B) minimum amount of solar radiation per unit area.
  3. C) maximum amount of solar radiation only over the ocean.
  4. D) maximum amount of solar radiation only over the land mass.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

81) Within convection cells, warm moist air rises from the equator and descends at 20–30 degrees from the equator. Convection cells are partially responsible for the distribution of which two biomes?

  1. A) tropical rain forests and temperate grasslands
  2. B) boreal forests and subtropical deserts
  3. C) tropical rain forests and subtropical deserts
  4. D) tropical rain forests and arctic tundra
  5. E) boreal forests and temperate forests

82) As temperatures in an African savanna increase and rainfall decreases, it would most likely change into

  1. A) taiga.
  2. B) desert.
  3. C) tropical rainforest.
  4. D) temperate forest.
  5. E) tundra.

 

 

 

83) Scientists observed that over the past 40 years, marmots, a type of ground squirrel, are located at increasing elevations on mountains. What is the best explanation for this observation?

  1. A) The marmots are adapting to the cold temperatures.
  2. B) Other species are competing with the marmots for their normal habitat.
  3. C) More snow and rain is falling at the top of the mountains.
  4. D) It is becoming colder at the top of the mountains.
  5. E) It is becoming warmer at the top of the mountains.

 

84) As temperatures in the Arctic rise, which of the following changes may occur?

  1. A) Tundra will be replaced by taiga.
  2. B) Taiga will be replaced by tundra.
  3. C) Temperate forest will be replaced by taiga.
  4. D) Tundra will be replaced by desert.
  5. E) Taiga will be replaced by temperate rain forest.

 

85) If you went diving in a freshwater lake, you would see very few rooted aquatic plants after a certain depth. What limits plant growth in deeper water?

  1. A) cold temperatures
  2. B) a lack of nutrients
  3. C) a lack of light
  4. D) too many herbivores
  5. E) a lack of oxygen

 

86) What is a challenge that organisms living in an intertidal zone face that other aquatic organisms normally do not face?

  1. A) damage from pollution
  2. B) changes in temperature at different depths
  3. C) movement of water
  4. D) light penetrating only through the photic zone
  5. E) daily changes in water depth

87) Why are estuaries and coral reefs more productive than deeper regions of the ocean?

  1. A) They have more access to light and nutrients.
  2. B) They have more access to light and lower salt concentrations in the water.
  3. C) They have more access to light.
  4. D) They have more access to nutrients and lower salt concentrations in the water.
  5. E) They have lower salt concentrations in the water.

 

88) A coral reef is a complex ________ of calcium carbonate shells that are home to microbes, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, and its high productivity helps provide great species richness.

  1. A) abiotic structure
  2. B) community
  3. C) biome
  4. D) population
  5. E) niche

 

89) Coral obtains energy

  1. A) by capturing and digesting small animals and through symbiosis with photosynthetic algae.
  2. B) by capturing and digesting small animals.
  3. C) through symbiosis with photosynthetic algae.
  4. D) by performing photosynthesis.
  5. E) by performing photosynthesis and capturing and digesting small animals.

 

90) Examples of terrestrial biomes are grasslands, forests, lakes, and deserts.

 

91) Streams lead to rivers that carry water and sediment toward the ocean or an interior basin.

 

92) The diversity in a kelp forest community can be measured by the number of

  1. A) kelp living in the community.
  2. B) fishes living in the community.
  3. C) abiotic resources utilized by the community.
  4. D) niches in the community.
  5. E) different species of living organisms in the community.

 

93) Species richness is an important measure of diversity in an ecosystem.

 

94) Species evenness is an important measure of diversity in an ecosystem.

 

95) A flowering plant and a bird which occasionally perches on its branches are not likely to coevolve.

 

96) Competitive exclusion says that two species trying to occupy the same niche in the same ecosystem will not be able to do so indefinitely, one species ultimately outcompeting the other.

97) The chaparral has cool summers with constant rainfall.

 

98) The photic zone

  1. A) has the most nutrients closer to land.
  2. B) is an area with sufficient light for photosynthesis.
  3. C) has an abundance of photosynthetic organisms.
  4. D) is very shallow.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

99) A pyramid of energy represents each trophic level as a block whose size is directly proportional to the energy used in that level.

 

100) Which of the following is not a characteristic of eutrophication?

  1. A) It is caused by sewage entering into waterways.
  2. B) It is caused by fertilizers entering into waterways
  3. C) It can result in massive fish kills.
  4. D) It can result in algae blooms.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are characteristics of eutrophication.

 

 

 

Biology: The Essentials, 3e (Hoefnagels)

Chapter 19   Communities and Ecosystems

 

1) A species that is so important to its community that its removal can dismantle a food web is termed a

  1. A) capstone species.
  2. B) flagstone species.
  3. C) cobblestone species.
  4. D) cornerstone species.
  5. E) keystone species.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  A keystone species holds a food web together in the same way that a keystone holds an arch together. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.04 Describe and give examples of the importance of a keystone species.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

2) All the organisms plus the nonliving components of a defined area is a(n)

  1. A) population.
  2. B) community.
  3. C) ecosystem.
  4. D) habitat.
  5. E) niche.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Ecosystems include both living and nonliving things. Please see section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Community Ecology; Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.00.01 Explain the interactions in communities and ecosystems.; 19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

3) Abiotic components of an ecosystem include

  1. A) living components only.
  2. B) both nonliving and living components.
  3. C) only plant life.
  4. D) nonliving components only.
  5. E) only animal life.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  “Abiotic” means “without life.” Please see section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Community Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

4) A genetic change in one species that selects for a subsequent change in a different species is termed

  1. A) coevolution.
  2. B) genetic dispersion.
  3. C) gene dynamics.
  4. D) competitive exclusion.
  5. E) evolutionary dynamics.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Coevolution occurs when evolution of one species creates a selection pressure for a concomitant evolutionary change in another. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.03 Explain how species interactions can lead to coevolution.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

5) The physical place where members of a population live is termed a

  1. A) competitive zone.
  2. B) community.
  3. C) habitat.
  4. D) symbiont.
  5. E) niche.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Organisms are usually well-adapted to their natural habitats. Please see section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.00.01 Explain the interactions in communities and ecosystems.; 19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

6) The total of all the resources, both biotic and abiotic, that a species exploits for its survival, growth, and reproduction is its

  1. A) competitive zone.
  2. B) habitat.
  3. C) food web.
  4. D) niche.
  5. E) biosphere.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  An organism’s niche includes things like habitat, food sources, water sources, and other resources. Please see section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

7) When two or more species vie for the same limited resource, ________ occurs.

  1. A) succession
  2. B) symbiosis
  3. C) coevolution
  4. D) stotting
  5. E) competition

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Species compete when they want the same resource, and usually only one species can remain in a given ecosystem once the competition is done. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

8) In ________, multiple species use the same resource in a slightly different way or at a different time.

  1. A) symbiotic inclusion
  2. B) resource partitioning
  3. C) mutualism
  4. D) intraspecific competition
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Resource partitioning occurs when two species do not go to competitive exclusion over some resource of common interest. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

9) A relationship between different species in which one species lives in or on another is

  1. A) resource partitioning.
  2. B) coevolution.
  3. C) symbiosis.
  4. D) predation.
  5. E) niche sharing.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  “Symbiosis” literally means “living together.” Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

10) The ________ states that two species cannot coexist indefinitely in the same niche.

  1. A) endosymbiotic theory
  2. B) zonal exclusion theory
  3. C) co-inclusion principle
  4. D) second law of thermodynamics
  5. E) competitive exclusion principle

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Competitive exclusion means that if two species try to live with the same ecological niche, only one will remain in the end. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.02 Describe competitive exclusion.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

11) You observe a situation in which a worm and a species of mustard grow better when both are present in an ecosystem, helping one another exploit resources. You are observing

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) parasitism.
  3. C) mutualism.
  4. D) commensalism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Mutualism is a kind of symbiosis in which both partners derive a benefit. Thus, the benefit is mutual. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

12) A type of symbiosis in which one member of the relationship benefits with no effect on the other is

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) mutualism.
  3. C) commensalism.
  4. D) parasitism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Lichens do not benefit trees on which they live but derive benefit from the habitat provided. That makes the symbiosis a commensalism. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

13) When a tapeworm steals nutrients from the gut of a mammalian host, that symbiosis is called

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) mutualism.
  3. C) commensalism.
  4. D) parasitism.
  5. E) intraspecific competition.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Parasitism is a kind of symbiosis in which one partner gains while the other is harmed. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

14) Which of the following is not a type of symbiosis?

  1. A) parasitism
  2. B) mutualism
  3. C) commensalism
  4. D) predation
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Predation does not involve animals which live together. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

15) If a species makes up a small portion of the community by weight, yet exerts a disproportionate influence on community diversity, it is recognized as a ________ species.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) cornerstone
  3. C) capstone
  4. D) flagstone
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.04.04 Describe and give examples of the importance of a keystone species.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

16) A gradual change in a community’s species composition, occurring as competing organisms respond to and modify the physical environment, is referred to as ecological

  1. A) completion.
  2. B) conversion.
  3. C) climax.
  4. D) magnification.
  5. E) succession.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Among plants, succession usually involves taller plants replacing shorter ones by overtopping and shading their predecessors. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecological Succession

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

17) In ecology, a ________ community is one that remains fairly constant over time.

  1. A) punctuated
  2. B) climax
  3. C) keystone
  4. D) primary
  5. E) tertiary

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  A climax community on land usually involves the tallest trees which the area will support or other plants which are large enough and vigorous enough to exclude competitors. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Community Ecology; Ecological Succession

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

18) The type of succession that occurs in an area where no community previously existed is ________ succession.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) tertiary
  3. C) secondary
  4. D) climax
  5. E) primary

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  An example of primary succession is when a community grows after even the topsoil has been removed by glaciation. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecological Succession

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

19) Species that are the first to colonize an area are termed ________ species.

  1. A) keystone
  2. B) primary
  3. C) tertiary
  4. D) pioneer
  5. E) secondary

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Pioneer species, the first to enter a new area and start the process of succession, are exemplified by the lichens which begin to break down rock and turn it into soil. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecological Succession

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

20) A food chain is a series of organisms that

  1. A) transfer energy through feeding relationships.
  2. B) compete for the same food source.
  3. C) exhibit mutualism with each other.
  4. D) exhibit parasitism with each other.
  5. E) succeed one another as a climax community develops.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Food chains pass energy and nutrients from producers to various levels of consumers. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

21) An organism’s ________ is its position in the food chain relative to the ecosystem’s energy source.

  1. A) habitat
  2. B) niche
  3. C) climax level
  4. D) trophic level
  5. E) keystone level

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Trophic levels are different levels in food webs, with fewer organisms and less energy usually available at higher and higher levels. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

22) An organism that can use solar energy and inorganic substances to produce all the organic material it requires is a(n)

  1. A) primary producer and heterotroph.
  2. B) heterotroph.
  3. C) autotroph and primary producer.
  4. D) autotroph.
  5. E) primary producer.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Producers use energy from an inorganic source to provide the base of the food chain, and autotrophs can make all of the organic molecules which they need from inorganic precursors. Please see section 19.3 and 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.03; 19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

23) In the pyramid of energy, organisms that obtain their energy from only eating primary producers are called

  1. A) secondary producers.
  2. B) tertiary consumers.
  3. C) secondary consumers.
  4. D) tertiary producers.
  5. E) primary consumers.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Primary consumers obtain energy captured through photosynthesis by primary producers. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

24) Decomposers

  1. A) obtain nutrients from detritus.
  2. B) return organic molecules to their inorganic form.
  3. C) include bacteria.
  4. D) include fungi.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Decomposers are often microbes, working to extract energy and nutrients from dead material. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

25) The remaining energy in the producer level that is available for consumers is the

  1. A) net primary consumption.
  2. B) gross primary production.
  3. C) gross primary consumption.
  4. D) net primary production.
  5. E) net energy fixation.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The energy entering an ecosystem, usually from the sun, comes in via primary producers, almost all of which are photosynthetic. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.03 Explain why the number of trophic levels in a community is limited.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

26) “Net primary productivity” is the amount of energy

  1. A) used in metabolism by producers.
  2. B) given off as heat by producers.
  3. C) trapped by the autotrophs of an ecosystem.
  4. D) available for consumers.
  5. E) used in metabolism by consumers.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Net primary productivity is the difference between the capture of energy by primary producers and their own use of energy. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.03 Explain why the number of trophic levels in a community is limited.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

27) Which ecosystem would have the highest net primary production?

  1. A) desert
  2. B) tropical rain forest
  3. C) temperate forest
  4. D) boreal forest
  5. E) tundra

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The ecosystems with the highest net primary productivity are those with the greatest availability of nutrients, light, and water. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

28) As an overall average, about ________ of the energy at one trophic level is generally available to the next highest rank in the food chain.

  1. A) 2%
  2. B) 10%
  3. C) 4%
  4. D) 7%
  5. E) 20%

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  In an ecosystem with four levels, only about one-thousandth of the originally-captured energy is available to the top-level consumers. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

29) Biomagnification occurs with chemicals that

  1. A) dissolve in only acidic solvents.
  2. B) dissolve in water.
  3. C) are not readily degraded and dissolve in fat.
  4. D) are not readily degraded and dissolve in water.
  5. E) dissolve in only basic solvents.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Biomagnification occurs when molecules are passed up the food web and retained at higher and higher concentrations. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.04 Explain the link between food webs and biomagnification.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

30) Which is not an important biogeochemical cycle on Earth?

  1. A) ATP cycle
  2. B) water cycle
  3. C) carbon cycle
  4. D) phosphorus cycle
  5. E) nitrogen cycle

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  While ATP production is critical, ATP does not cycle between organisms and abiotic components of the Earth. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

31) In the water cycle, animals return water to the environment by

  1. A) both transpiration and excretion.
  2. B) excretion only.
  3. C) transpiration only.
  4. D) both respiration and excretion.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Animals release water into the environment when they breathe out and when they excrete wastes. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

32) If you were to shine a lightbulb on a puddle, and the water in the puddle disappeared, you would say that you had added energy to the puddle and had seen

  1. A) sublimation.
  2. B) condensation.
  3. C) convection.
  4. D) evaporation.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Evaporation of abiotic water returns it to the atmosphere. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

33) Carbon returns to the atmosphere

  1. A) as carbon dioxide.
  2. B) from respiration of plants.
  3. C) by the burning of fossil fuels.
  4. D) from respiration of animals.
  5. E) All answers are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Carbon is used in many ways and can, thus, find its way back to the atmosphere in many ways. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

34) If you gave N2 to a culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, you would expect to detect

  1. A) nitrates.
  2. B) ammonium ions.
  3. C) nitrites.
  4. D) carbon dioxide.
  5. E) methane.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Nitrogen-fixers like Rhizobium first produce ammonia. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

35) ________ bacteria return nitrogen to the atmosphere by converting nitrates to N2.

  1. A) Nitrogen-fixing
  2. B) In nitrification,
  3. C) In denitrification,
  4. D) In transpiration,
  5. E) In respiration,

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  In denitrification, different bacteria than those which fixed the nitrogen obtain energy by returning the nitrogen to the atmosphere. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Community Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

You go on a canoe trip to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Northern Minnesota. This ecosystem is cold most of the year and receives plenty of rainfall. It has many lakes that are full of walleye pike fish. You know that walleye like to eat minnows. In turn, the minnows feed on scuds (zooplankton) which eat algae (phytoplankton).

 

36) Walleye pike fish are what?

  1. A) secondary consumers
  2. B) tertiary consumers
  3. C) primary consumers
  4. D) producers
  5. E) decomposers

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Tertiary consumers are the fourth level in a food chain. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

37) In this system, the zooplankton are the

  1. A) tertiary consumers.
  2. B) secondary consumers.
  3. C) producers.
  4. D) decomposers.
  5. E) primary consumers.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Zooplankton eat phytoplankton, the primary producers in many aquatic ecosystems. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

38) In this system, mercury released from coal-burning power plants would be at the highest concentration in

  1. A) the phytoplankton.
  2. B) the zooplankton.
  3. C) the minnows.
  4. D) the walleye pike fish.
  5. E) The amount of mercury would be the same in all organisms.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Biomagnified substances show up at the highest concentrations in the highest levels of a food web. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.06.04 Explain the link between food webs and biomagnification.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

39) If a person takes an antibiotic for a bacterial infection, this can reduce the amount of bacteria in their normal microbiota and allow yeast in their genitourinary tract to flourish, which could result in a yeast infection. This is an example of

  1. A) predation.
  2. B) symbiosis.
  3. C) the competitive exclusion principle.
  4. D) the co-inclusion principle.
  5. E) endosymbiosis.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Many beneficial microbes protect our bodies by competitively excluding from our bodies harmful fungi and bacteria. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions; Community Diversity

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.04.02 Describe competitive exclusion.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

40) Based on the 10% rule, if there are 10,000 calories of net primary productivity in an ecosystem, how much energy will be generally available to a primary consumer?

  1. A) 100 calories
  2. B) 10,000 calories
  3. C) 10 calories
  4. D) 1,000 calories
  5. E) 1 calorie

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Primary consumers receive one-tenth of the energy found at the level of primary producers. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  4. Analyze

Learning Outcome:  19.06.03 Explain why the number of trophic levels in a community is limited.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

41) Based on the 10% rule, if there are 10,000 calories of net primary productivity in an ecosystem, how much energy will be generally available to a secondary consumer?

  1. A) 1,000 calories
  2. B) 100 calories
  3. C) 10,000 calories
  4. D) 10 calories
  5. E) 1 calorie

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Secondary consumers can access one one-hundredth of the energy found at the primary producer level. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  4. Analyze

Learning Outcome:  19.06.03 Explain why the number of trophic levels in a community is limited.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

42) Mycorrhizal fungi contribute to nutrient cycles by aiding in the absorption of minerals, which they share with plants in return for carbohydrates. This shows that nutrient cycling can be an example of

  1. A) commensalism.
  2. B) parasitism.
  3. C) mutualism.
  4. D) predation.
  5. E) herbivory.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Mycorrhizae use their abundant surface area to help plants with their abilities as autotrophs. Please see sections 19.4 and 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.04; 19.06

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.; 19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

43) The concentration of the pesticide DDT is likely highest in which organism?

  1. A) a minnow
  2. B) a mosquito larva
  3. C) a seagull
  4. D) plankton
  5. E) algae

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Pesticides will be most greatly biomagnified in organisms highest on a food chain. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.06.04 Explain the link between food webs and biomagnification.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

44) The concentration of the pesticide DDT is likely lowest in which organism?

  1. A) a seagull
  2. B) a minnow
  3. C) a mosquito larvae
  4. D) algae
  5. E) plankton

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Pesticides are least concentrated in the lowest-level members of a food chain. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.06.04 Explain the link between food webs and biomagnification.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

45) Some scientists predict that as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, plant growth will also increase. What is the best explanation for this hypothesis?

  1. A) Plants consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
  2. B) Plants release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
  3. C) Plants consume carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during respiration.
  4. D) Plants release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere during respiration.
  5. E) No answer is correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  More carbon dioxide makes for more photosynthesis, and, thus, more plant growth. Please see section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

46) Some scientists predict that as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels increase, the pH of the oceans will drop, threatening coral and organisms with shells. What is the best explanation for this hypothesis?

  1. A) Carbon dioxide combines with water to form a base.
  2. B) Carbon dioxide combines with water to form an acid.
  3. C) As the pH of the ocean decreases, more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  4. D) As the pH of the ocean increases, more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.
  5. E) As the oceans warm, more water is evaporated, lowering the pH of the remaining water.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Carbon dioxide reacts with water and forms carbonic acid. See section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Biogeochemical Cycles

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.07.01 Describe and diagram the four primary biogeochemical cycles.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

47) Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the roots of soybeans help provide a source of nitrogen to the plants, and in exchange, the bacteria obtain food from the plants. Which type of interaction is this?

  1. A) mutualism
  2. B) commensalism
  3. C) parasitism
  4. D) predation
  5. E) herbivory

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Mutual benefit in an ecological interaction implies a mutualistic relationship. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology; Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

48) The term abiotic means nonliving.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Abiotic parts of an ecosystem include wind and water. Please see section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

49) The reliance of a plant on one type of insect for pollination and that insect having only the nectar of that plant as its food source is an example of coevolution.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Coevolution of two species tends to make them more and more dependent on one another. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.03 Explain how species interactions can lead to coevolution.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

50) Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which neither member of the relationship benefits.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  In a parasitism relationship, one organism is harmed at the expense of the other. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.01 Compare and contrast the main types of interactions between species in a community.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

51) An example of a keystone species is a root-associated fungus that conifer trees need in order to survive and also supplies food for rodents.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Keystone species interact with many other species and are critical in an ecosystem for those other species. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Interactions; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.04 Describe and give examples of the importance of a keystone species.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

52) If you found a durable organism growing on bare rock and breaking it down into small particles of soil, it would be considered a pioneer species.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Pioneer species in primary succession are those which break down rock and start producing soil. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecological Succession

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

53) The species that appear in a climax community usually are short-lived, early-maturing, r-selected species that are strong competitors in a stable environment.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Climax community members are generally long-lived and late to reproduce, which works well when the community is stable for a long period. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Community Ecology

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.05.01 Explain measures of diversity in biological communities.; 19.05.02 Compare and contrast primary and secondary succession.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

54) Energy can be depleted within an ecosystem.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Ecosystems constantly obtain energy from an abiotic source, usually the sun. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

55) If asked to put an arrow in a diagram showing energy flow through an ecosystem, you would use a single-headed arrow.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Energy enters an ecosystem at the producers and flows upward through successive levels of consumers. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

56) A network of interconnected food chains is a food web.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Just as a spider makes a web of many strands, so many food chains are linked together to make a food web in an ecosystem. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.02 Explain the roles of primary producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

57) Raw sewage affects nutrient flow through an ecosystem more than energy flow.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Raw sewage provides a burst of nutrients, but little energy is directly extracted from it by organisms. Please see section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow; Trophic Levels

Bloom’s:  4. Analyze

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

58) The major types of ecosystems are termed

  1. A) habitats.
  2. B) niches.
  3. C) biospheres.
  4. D) terrestrial zones.
  5. E) biomes.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Biomes are characterized by their precipitation, temperature, flora, and fauna. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology; Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

59) Which of the following is NOT an abiotic component or condition of an ecosystem?

  1. A) water
  2. B) archaea
  3. C) rock
  4. D) salinity
  5. E) temperature

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Archaea are living organisms. Abiotic refers to nonliving. See section 19.1 for more information.

Section:  19.01

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.01.01 Distinguish between biotic and abiotic interactions in an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

60) On Earth, solar energy is most intense at

  1. A) the South Pole.
  2. B) the North Pole.
  3. C) 60°N latitude.
  4. D) the equator.
  5. E) 60°S latitude.

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  Across the year, the greatest amount of sunlight falls at the equator. Please see section 19.2 for more information.

Section:  19.02

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.02.01 Explain how Earth’s curvature and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect climate.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

61) The different seasons of the year are caused by the

  1. A) tilt of the Earth’s axis as the Earth travels around the Sun.
  2. B) rotation of the Earth around the Sun.
  3. C) rotation of the Earth on its axis.
  4. D) rotation of the moon around the Earth.
  5. E) gravitational pull of the moon as it travels around the Earth.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Seasons are different due to differences in received solar energy, which drives differences in weather. Please see section 19.2 for more information.

Section:  19.02

Topic:  Climate; Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.02.01 Explain how Earth’s curvature and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect climate.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

62) The Earth has a constant tilt of ________ on its axis from its plane of orbit.

  1. A) 12.5 degrees
  2. B) 23.5 degrees
  3. C) 30 degrees
  4. D) 9 degrees
  5. E) 5.5 degrees

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  The angle of tilt in the Earth’s axis helps create the varied seasons. Please see section 19.2 for more information.

Section:  19.02

Topic:  Climate

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.02.01 Explain how Earth’s curvature and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect climate.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

63) Which item helps compose a living thing rather then being a major component of soil?

  1. A) rock fragments
  2. B) organic matter
  3. C) microbes
  4. D) bacteria
  5. E) chloroplasts

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Chloroplasts are critical for the structure and function of plant cells, but not for the structure of soil. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

64) Which of the following is not a major terrestrial biome of Earth?

  1. A) the temperate grasslands
  2. B) the tundra
  3. C) the taiga
  4. D) the Antarctic
  5. E) the tropical rain forest

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  While the Antarctic is an important geographic region, it is not also the name of a biome. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

65) Tropical rain forest soils are usually

  1. A) nutrient-rich.
  2. B) low in organic matter.
  3. C) nutrient-poor and low in organic matter.
  4. D) nutrient-rich and low in organic matter.
  5. E) nutrient-poor.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Most of the nutrients in a tropical rainforest are in the organisms rather than in the soils. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

66) Which of the following is not a characteristic of the tropical rain forest biome?

  1. A) warm climate
  2. B) nutrient-rich soil
  3. C) a year-round growing season for plants
  4. D) a tremendous diversity of animal life
  5. E) a location near the equator

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Tropical rainforest soils are usually acidic and low in nutrients and organic matter. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

67) Trees that lose only a few leaves at a time are

  1. A) deciduous trees.
  2. B) carnivorous trees.
  3. C) maple trees.
  4. D) hickory trees.
  5. E) coniferous trees.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Conifers are evergreens and only lose a few leaves at a time. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

68) The taiga

  1. A) consists of mostly coniferous trees.
  2. B) has nutrient-rich soil.
  3. C) has a long growing season.
  4. D) is warm and dry.
  5. E) consists of mosses and lichens.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Taiga is an area of cold boreal forest far from the equator, unless it is found at high altitude. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

69) A grassland biome

  1. A) consists of mostly coniferous trees.
  2. B) has nutrient-rich soil.
  3. C) has many self-pollinating flowering plants.
  4. D) is warm and dry.
  5. E) consists of mosses and lichens.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Grasslands, like those of the central part of North America before the creation of the farm belt, tend to have young, nutrient-rich, high-fertility soils. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

70) The yearly rainfall of a desert biome is

  1. A) 150 to 200 centimeters per year.
  2. B) more than 300 centimeters per year.
  3. C) less than 20 centimeters per year.
  4. D) more than 200 centimeters per year.
  5. E) 50 to 100 centimeters per year.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Deserts see little rainfall, but some have beautiful blooms of many plants if the rain comes in a concentrated burst. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.; 19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

71) Water covers about ________ of the Earth’s surface.

  1. A) 33%
  2. B) 40%
  3. C) 50%
  4. D) 70%
  5. E) 80%

 

Answer:  D

Explanation:  The great majority of the surface of the Earth is covered by water, making aquatic biomes quite common. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

72) Which of the following eats free-floating photosynthetic organisms found in lakes?

  1. A) phytoplankton
  2. B) green algae
  3. C) zooplankton
  4. D) cyanobacteria
  5. E) diatom

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Zooplankton are tiny, floating animals. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

73) The area where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean is a(n)

  1. A) intertidal zone.
  2. B) continental shelf.
  3. C) hydrothermal vent.
  4. D) open ocean.
  5. E) estuary.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Estuaries are very productive habitats, in part due to the abundant water available to organisms. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

74) Along coastlines, the area between high tide and low tide is the

  1. A) open ocean.
  2. B) hydrothermal vent.
  3. C) intertidal zone.
  4. D) estuary.
  5. E) continental shelf.

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  The intertidal zone is periodically inundated and exposed. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

You are hiking in the Colorado Rockies in the summer. You start hiking at 6,000 feet in a warm grassland full of elk. As you climb the mountain, you pass through forests from 8,000–10,000 feet with lots of deer. Above 10,000 feet, you are in an alpine tundra with furry marmots.

75) Which two parameters most influence the location of biomes?

  1. A) altitude and latitude
  2. B) latitude and temperature
  3. C) temperature and precipitation
  4. D) precipitation and altitude
  5. E) precipitation and latitude

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Biomes are first defined by the plants in them, which in turn are limited in type by temperature and precipitation. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

76) As you climb the mountain, why are the biomes changing?

  1. A) The air is thinner.
  2. B) The latitude is changing.
  3. C) More rain falls in a rain shadow.
  4. D) Some animals live better at higher elevations.
  5. E) It is colder.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Average temperature generally decreases with increasing latitude and altitude. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Climate; Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

77) What types of plants would you expect to find in an alpine tundra?

  1. A) tall trees
  2. B) aquatic plants
  3. C) lichens and mosses
  4. D) tall grasses
  5. E) cactus

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Mosses and lichens are able to withstand the cold, dry, windy conditions of the tundra. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

You go to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in Northern Minnesota. This ecosystem contains mostly coniferous and a few deciduous trees. It has mild winters and cool summers. It also receives plenty of rainfall.

 

78) The Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) is an example of which biome?

  1. A) temperate coniferous forest
  2. B) tropical rainforest
  3. C) short grass prairie
  4. D) tundra
  5. E) temperate rainforest

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Temperate coniferous forests have mild temperatures year round and plenty of rain. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

79) If global temperatures increase, which biome will the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) turn into?

  1. A) tropical rainforest
  2. B) deciduous forest
  3. C) boreal forest
  4. D) short grass prairie
  5. E) tundra

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Temperate deciduous forests have warmer summers than temperate coniferous forests. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

 

80) At the equator, the Earth receives the

  1. A) maximum amount of solar radiation per unit area.
  2. B) minimum amount of solar radiation per unit area.
  3. C) maximum amount of solar radiation only over the ocean.
  4. D) maximum amount of solar radiation only over the land mass.
  5. E) None of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  The equator is not always closest to the Sun, but averaged over the year, it receives more solar radiation than any other part. Please see section 19.2 for more information.

Section:  19.02

Topic:  Climate

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.02.01 Explain how Earth’s curvature and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect climate.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

81) Within convection cells, warm moist air rises from the equator and descends at 20–30 degrees from the equator. Convection cells are partially responsible for the distribution of which two biomes?

  1. A) tropical rain forests and temperate grasslands
  2. B) boreal forests and subtropical deserts
  3. C) tropical rain forests and subtropical deserts
  4. D) tropical rain forests and arctic tundra
  5. E) boreal forests and temperate forests

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Convection cells are the cycles of heating and cooling. See section 19.2 for more information.

Section:  19.02

Topic:  Climate

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.02.01 Explain how Earth’s curvature and the tilt of Earth’s axis affect climate.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

82) As temperatures in an African savanna increase and rainfall decreases, it would most likely change into

  1. A) taiga.
  2. B) desert.
  3. C) tropical rainforest.
  4. D) temperate forest.
  5. E) tundra.

 

Answer:  B

Explanation:  Savannas are often found next to deserts. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Climate; Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

83) Scientists observed that over the past 40 years, marmots, a type of ground squirrel, are located at increasing elevations on mountains. What is the best explanation for this observation?

  1. A) The marmots are adapting to the cold temperatures.
  2. B) Other species are competing with the marmots for their normal habitat.
  3. C) More snow and rain is falling at the top of the mountains.
  4. D) It is becoming colder at the top of the mountains.
  5. E) It is becoming warmer at the top of the mountains.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Marmots have moved to stay in climate conditions which they prefer. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Climate; Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

84) As temperatures in the Arctic rise, which of the following changes may occur?

  1. A) Tundra will be replaced by taiga.
  2. B) Taiga will be replaced by tundra.
  3. C) Temperate forest will be replaced by taiga.
  4. D) Tundra will be replaced by desert.
  5. E) Taiga will be replaced by temperate rain forest.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Taiga biomes are warmer than tundra biomes. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  3. Apply

Learning Outcome:  19.03.01 Explain how temperature and precipitation affect the location of the terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

85) If you went diving in a freshwater lake, you would see very few rooted aquatic plants after a certain depth. What limits plant growth in deeper water?

  1. A) cold temperatures
  2. B) a lack of nutrients
  3. C) a lack of light
  4. D) too many herbivores
  5. E) a lack of oxygen

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Light is absorbed or reflected more and more as light penetrates the water column, eventually enough that plants can no longer grow. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

86) What is a challenge that organisms living in an intertidal zone face that other aquatic organisms normally do not face?

  1. A) damage from pollution
  2. B) changes in temperature at different depths
  3. C) movement of water
  4. D) light penetrating only through the photic zone
  5. E) daily changes in water depth

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Intertidal plants have to adjust to changing water depths due to changes in the tide. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes and Ecosystems

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

87) Why are estuaries and coral reefs more productive than deeper regions of the ocean?

  1. A) They have more access to light and nutrients.
  2. B) They have more access to light and lower salt concentrations in the water.
  3. C) They have more access to light.
  4. D) They have more access to nutrients and lower salt concentrations in the water.
  5. E) They have lower salt concentrations in the water.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  More energy and more resources make for more productivity. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

88) A coral reef is a complex ________ of calcium carbonate shells that are home to microbes, algae, invertebrates, and fishes, and its high productivity helps provide great species richness.

  1. A) abiotic structure
  2. B) community
  3. C) biome
  4. D) population
  5. E) niche

 

Answer:  C

Explanation:  Coral reefs are biomes, rich in species from the animal and plant kingdoms. Please see sections 19.3 and 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.03; 19.05

Topic:  Biomes and Ecosystems

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.05.01 Explain measures of diversity in biological communities.; 19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

89) Coral obtains energy

  1. A) by capturing and digesting small animals and through symbiosis with photosynthetic algae.
  2. B) by capturing and digesting small animals.
  3. C) through symbiosis with photosynthetic algae.
  4. D) by performing photosynthesis.
  5. E) by performing photosynthesis and capturing and digesting small animals.

 

Answer:  A

Explanation:  Coral rely on algae for survival. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes and Ecosystems

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

90) Examples of terrestrial biomes are grasslands, forests, lakes, and deserts.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  Biomes are defined by temperature and the amount of precipitation. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

91) Streams lead to rivers that carry water and sediment toward the ocean or an interior basin.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Water flows downhill until it finds a final destination in an ocean or inland basin. Please see section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

92) The diversity in a kelp forest community can be measured by the number of

  1. A) kelp living in the community.
  2. B) fishes living in the community.
  3. C) abiotic resources utilized by the community.
  4. D) niches in the community.
  5. E) different species of living organisms in the community.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The number of species is a good indicator of ecosystem health—having more species indicates greater health. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Community Diversity

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.05.01 Explain measures of diversity in biological communities.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

93) Species richness is an important measure of diversity in an ecosystem.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Scientists use both species richness and species evenness to measure the diversity of ecosystems. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.01 Explain measures of diversity in biological communities.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

 

94) Species evenness is an important measure of diversity in an ecosystem.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Scientists use both species richness and species evenness to measure the diversity of ecosystems. Please see section 19.5 for more information.

Section:  19.05

Topic:  Ecosystem Ecology

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.05.01 Explain measures of diversity in biological communities.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

95) A flowering plant and a bird which occasionally perches on its branches are not likely to coevolve.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Species which are likely to coevolve are those which interact closely. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.04.03 Explain how species interactions can lead to coevolution.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

96) Competitive exclusion says that two species trying to occupy the same niche in the same ecosystem will not be able to do so indefinitely, one species ultimately outcompeting the other.

 

Answer:  TRUE

Explanation:  Competitive exclusion can explain why one does not find two large sharks with the same prey living together, over a long period, in the same kelp bed. Please see section 19.4 for more information.

Section:  19.04

Topic:  Community Interactions

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.04.02 Describe competitive exclusion.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

97) The chaparral has cool summers with constant rainfall.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  The chaparral has hot dry summers. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.03.02 Describe the characteristics of the major terrestrial biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

98) The photic zone

  1. A) has the most nutrients closer to land.
  2. B) is an area with sufficient light for photosynthesis.
  3. C) has an abundance of photosynthetic organisms.
  4. D) is very shallow.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are correct.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  The photic zone is the layer of water with an abundance of light which leads to nutrients and growth. See section 19.3 for more information.

Section:  19.03

Topic:  Biomes and Ecosystems

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.03.03 Compare and contrast the different aquatic biomes.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

 

99) A pyramid of energy represents each trophic level as a block whose size is directly proportional to the energy used in that level.

 

Answer:  FALSE

Explanation:  A pyramid of energy is a measure of stored energy. See section 19.6 for more information.

Section:  19.06

Topic:  Energy Flow

Bloom’s:  1. Remember

Learning Outcome:  19.06.01 Compare and contrast nutrient cycling and energy flow through an ecosystem.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

100) Which of the following is not a characteristic of eutrophication?

  1. A) It is caused by sewage entering into waterways.
  2. B) It is caused by fertilizers entering into waterways
  3. C) It can result in massive fish kills.
  4. D) It can result in algae blooms.
  5. E) All of the answer choices are characteristics of eutrophication.

 

Answer:  E

Explanation:  Eutrophication is the addition of excess nutrients to water that can result in massive fish kills and algae blooms. See section 19.7 for more information.

Section:  19.07

Topic:  Chemical Cycling

Bloom’s:  2. Understand

Learning Outcome:  19.07.02 Explain the events and consequences of eutrophication in water.

Accessibility:  Keyboard Navigation

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