Biology Of Humans Concepts Applications And Issues 6th Edition By Judith – Test Bank

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Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6e (Goodenough)

Chapter 5  The Skeletal System

 

5.1  Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

  1. A) protects internal organs
  2. B) releases stored calcium and phosphorus when the body needs to use them
  3. C) produces blood cells
  4. D) produces muscle cells

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.1

Section:  5.1

 

2) In the spongy bone, which of the following produces blood cells?

  1. A) yellow marrow
  2. B) osteons
  3. C) osteocytes
  4. D) red marrow

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

3) Which of the following covers compact bone and functions in bone repair and growth?

  1. A) endosteum
  2. B) periosteum
  3. C) diaphysis
  4. D) epiphysis

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

4) Which of the following is incorrect about the human skeleton?

  1. A) It can release phosphorous.
  2. B) It can store fat.
  3. C) It can produce blood cells.
  4. D) It is composed only of a solid nonliving matrix.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

5) How many bones are in the human body?

  1. A) 203
  2. B) 206
  3. C) 300
  4. D) 308

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

6) Where would we find yellow bone marrow?

  1. A) in the flat bones of the skull
  2. B) surrounding the outside of the long bones
  3. C) surrounding the outside of the flat bones
  4. D) in the shaft of the long bones

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

7) Human growth hormone (HGH) can be used to treat patients with pituitary dwarfism. Today, parents are getting HGH injections for their children to provide an advantage in sports or to enhance their appearance by making them taller. Based on what you know about the process of bone lengthening, what is the most appropriate age group to begin such injections?

  1. A) 3- to 6-year-olds
  2. B) 7- to 10-year-olds
  3. C) 18- to 21-year-olds
  4. D) 21- to 30-year-olds

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Global LO:  G5

Section:  5.3

 

8) Which of the following cells form new bone in bone tissue?

  1. A) osteons
  2. B) osteoblasts
  3. C) osteocytes
  4. D) fibroblasts

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Section:  5.3

 

9) Forensic scientists may have to identify an adult victim who was lost in the wilderness years ago from the remains found by a hiker. What type of evidence from the bones would they look for to determine the age of the person?

  1. A) the size of the bones and the condition of the growth plate
  2. B) the number of bones
  3. C) any broken bones because the bones of the elderly break easily
  4. D) The bones do not yield much information that can help to determine age.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Global LO:  G7

Section:  5.3

 

10) Calcium intake is important for women during pregnancy. If a woman for whatever reason does not get enough calcium in her diet during pregnancy, what is likely to happen to her bone tissue?

  1. A) She will experience severe bone loss due to the loss of estrogen production during pregnancy.
  2. B) She may experience some bone loss due to the lack of calcium in her diet, but nothing significant.
  3. C) She may experience significant bone loss due to both the lack of dietary calcium and the fact that the fetus requires extra calcium, which will be removed from her own bone tissue.
  4. D) The fetus will be born without a skeleton.

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Section:  5.3

 

11) You have fractured your bone and your physician is explaining the healing process to you. She tells you that after the blood clot forms, the next step is the development of the callus. Which of the following describes the structure of the callus?

  1. A) spongy bone
  2. B) compact bone
  3. C) cartilage
  4. D) osteoclasts

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.4

Section:  5.4

 

 

12) Too much calcium in the bloodstream, a condition called hypercalcemia, can be very dangerous. The thyroid gland releases a hormone, calcitonin, when calcium is too high. How does calcitonin lower calcium levels in the blood?

  1. A) It reduces osteoclast activity and increases osteoblast activity.
  2. B) It increases osteoclast activity and reduces osteoblast activity.
  3. C) It reduces both osteoclast and osteoblast activity.
  4. D) It increases both osteoclast and osteoblast activity.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

13) Astronauts returning to Earth from an extended stay in space have to be extremely careful not to break a bone. It takes several weeks to restore normal bone strength. Which would be the best regimen to rebuild the lost bone tissue?

  1. A) Stay inactive, avoiding exercise until the lost bone tissue is rebuilt.
  2. B) Hit the gym and get going with a few weeks of heavy weight lifting.
  3. C) Several weeks of swimming will rebuild all lost bone mass.
  4. D) Start with walking and build up to jogging, with an extra regimen of light weight lifting in the gym.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

14) Why do women experience the symptoms of osteoporosis more acutely than men?

  1. A) Women have less bone mass and produce less estrogen later in life; these factors accelerate calcium loss.
  2. B) Women have less muscle mass and don’t exercise as much.
  3. C) Men don’t produce estrogen, so they don’t rely on it as much as women do.
  4. D) Men take in more calcium in their diet, so they can’t get osteoporosis.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Global LO:  G7

Section:  5.5

 

15) Which hormone causes calcium to be released from bone into the bloodstream?

  1. A) Boniva
  2. B) estrogen
  3. C) calcitonin
  4. D) parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

16) Which of the following occurs after a calcium-rich meal?

  1. A) Parathyroid hormone stimulates the activities of osteoblasts and removes calcium from the blood.
  2. B) Calcitonin removes calcium from the blood and stimulates the activities of osteoclasts.
  3. C) Parathyroid hormone is released by the thyroid gland to inhibit the activities of osteoclasts.
  4. D) Calcitonin stimulates the activities of osteoblasts and removes calcium from the blood.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

17) The number of bones in a newborn exceeds the number of bones in an adult. Why would the number of bones decrease over time?

  1. A) Some bones are lost when they are replaced by adult versions, like the loss of baby teeth.
  2. B) As some bones grow larger, others do not and are no longer needed.
  3. C) The bones of a baby are more fragile than an adult, so more are needed to support the weight of the body.
  4. D) Some of the bones of babies will eventually fuse together to become one larger bone.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

18) Membranous areas in the infant skull that join bones and function to allow for rapid growth of the brain are known as ________.

  1. A) fibrous membrane
  2. B) osteocytes
  3. C) fontanels
  4. D) lacunae

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

19) Which of the following are the bones that form the bridge of the nose?

  1. A) occipital
  2. B) sphenoid
  3. C) nasal
  4. D) temporal

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

 

20) Which of these cranial bones separates the cranial cavity from the nasal cavity and provides the olfactory nerves with access to the brain?

  1. A) temporal
  2. B) foramen magnum
  3. C) sphenoid
  4. D) ethmoid

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

21) Which of these bones form the cheekbones in the skulls of mammals?

  1. A) nasal bones
  2. B) fontanels
  3. C) palatine bones
  4. D) zygomatic bones

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

22) The ________ bones are two small bones found at the corner of the eyes that have a duct system that drains tears from the eyes into the nasal chambers.

  1. A) lacrimal
  2. B) frontal
  3. C) occipital
  4. D) temporal

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

23) A series of interconnected bones that form the backbone of all mammals, fishes, reptiles, and birds is the ________.

  1. A) mandible
  2. B) scapula
  3. C) femur
  4. D) vertebral column

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

 

24) Slipped disks are very common in the United States. Which of the following can cause a slipped disk?

  1. A) slipping on the ice in winter and breaking a vertebra of the coccyx
  2. B) improper lifting, leading to a bulge in a disk between two lumbar vertebrae
  3. C) two vertebrae of the sacrum slipping past each other in opposite directions
  4. D) scoliosis

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

25) Which bone(s) form(s) a connection between the scapula and the sternum to support the pectoral girdle?

  1. A) clavicles
  2. B) vertebrae
  3. C) humerus
  4. D) ribs

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

26) A cartilage disk that joins the two pelvic bones in the anterior region of the pelvic girdle is known as the ________.

  1. A) pubic symphysis
  2. B) sacrum
  3. C) patella
  4. D) pelvis

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

27) The main weight-bearing bone in the lower extremities is known as the ________.

  1. A) fibula
  2. B) tibia
  3. C) pelvis
  4. D) femur

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

 

28) The bones that make up the digits of the hands or feet are known as the ________.

  1. A) metatarsals
  2. B) carpals
  3. C) phalanges
  4. D) tarsals

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

29) Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by an inflammation of tendons passing through the carpal tunnel of the wrist. What causes this inflammation and pain?

  1. A) The tendons become stretched out and ultimately tear away from the bone.
  2. B) Certain continuous hand motions cause the tendons to repeatedly rub against bone.
  3. C) The associated muscles are too weak and begin to spasm, leading to inflammation.
  4. D) The muscles eventually fatigue and become swollen, thus swelling the tendon.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

30) Which of these joints allow movement in only one plane, such as in the knee or elbow?

  1. A) hinge
  2. B) fibrous
  3. C) ball-and-socket
  4. D) cartilaginous

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

31) Straps of connective tissue that hold bones together, support joints, and direct movement are known as ________.

  1. A) tendons
  2. B) ligaments
  3. C) bursae
  4. D) cartilages

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

 

32) Bands of connective tissue that help muscles attach to bones are termed ________.

  1. A) ligaments
  2. B) cartilage
  3. C) tendons
  4. D) fibrocartilage

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

33) You sprain your ankle at a roller derby practice. How would you treat your injury?

  1. A) First use ice to reduce swelling, and then use heat much later to aid healing.
  2. B) First use heat to aid healing, and use ice later to reduce swelling.
  3. C) Use ice only because it will reduce swelling and increase blood flow to aid healing.
  4. D) Just leave it alone. Ice and heat both make the injury worse.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

5.2  Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) One of the functions of the skeletal system is the storage of ________ and ________.

Answer:           calcium; phosphorus

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.1

Section:  5.1

 

2) The ________ is the site in long bones that stores fatty tissue used for energy.

Answer:  yellow marrow

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

3) Osteoblasts deposit ________ on the collagen frame during the development of bone from cartilage.

Answer:  calcium salts

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Section:  5.3

4) The first step in the healing of a fracture is the formation of ________.

Answer:  a blood clot

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.4

Section:  5.4

 

5) The hormone ________ removes calcium from the blood and causes it to be stored in the bone.

Answer:  calcitonin

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

6) A condition in which the bone is broken down faster than it is built is known as ________.

Answer:  osteoporosis

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

7) ________ mostly affects women, when breakdown of the bone outpaces the formation of new bone during bone remodeling.

Answer:  Osteoporosis

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

8) The ________ bone contains the foramen magnum.

Answer:  occipital

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

9) The ________ forms the lower jaw in humans.

Answer:  mandible

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

10) The ________ divides the left and right chambers inside the nose.

Answer:  nasal septum

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

11) The ________ is formed from two bones that are fused at the midline, forming the upper jaw.

Answer:  maxilla

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

12) Vertebrae in the neck are classified as ________ vertebrae.

Answer:  cervical

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

13) The condition known as cleft palate is due to the ________ bones not fusing properly.

Answer:  maxillae

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

14) The pectoral girdle is composed of the ________, or shoulder blades, and the collarbones.

Answer:  scapulae

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

15) The ________ girdle connects the legs to the vertebral column.

Answer:  pelvic

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

16) The ________ joints have no joint cavity and usually do not permit movement. Sutures between skull bones are this kind of joint.

Answer:  fibrous

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

17) A(n) ________ is defined as damage to a ligament that can take longer to heal than muscular damage because the ligament does not have a large blood supply.

Answer:  sprain

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

18) Fluid-filled sacs known as ________ function to cushion certain joints, such as the elbow joint.

Answer:  bursae

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

5.3  Matching Questions

 

Match each definition in the first column to the correct term in the second column.

 

  1. A) Sacrum
  2. B) Metatarsals
  3. C) Carpals
  4. D) Foramen magnum
  5. E) Tarsals
  6. F) Femur
  7. G) Osteoblasts
  8. H) Temporal
  9. I) Lumbar
  10. J) Osteoclasts
  11. K) Pubic symphysis
  12. L) Humerus

 

1) The opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

2) The bone that is connected to the pectoral girdle and forms a joint with the radius and ulna.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

3) The bones in the feet that are connected to the phalanges anteriorly and to the tarsal bones posteriorly.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

4) The seven bones that form the ankle.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

5) Eight bones that form the wrist and are connected to the radius and ulna.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

6) Also known as the thighbone, it rotates within a socket in the pelvis.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

7) Vertebrae in the lower back region just above the sacral region.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

8) Bones that form on either side of the cranium and are thought of as the temples.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

9) Produced from the fusion of five vertebrae and allows an individual to sit.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

10) Bone cells that break down bone tissue.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

11) Calcitonin stimulates the activity of these bone cells.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Section:  5.5

 

12) During childbirth, hormones loosen its cartilage to allow the pelvis to widen.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

Answers: 1) D 2) L 3) B 4) E 5) C 6) F 7) I 8) H 9) A 10) J 11) G 12) K

 

5.4  Short Answer and Essay Questions

 

1) In addition to support of soft tissue, what are the other five functions of the skeletal system?

Answer:  The skeletal system allows for movement, protection of internal organs, the storage of the minerals calcium and phosphorus, the storage of fat, and the production of blood cells.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.1

Section:  5.1

 

 

2) Why would a scientist trying to isolate osteoblasts look between the periosteum and the bone in a young animal to find them?

Answer:  In growing bones, new bone tissue is deposited more heavily on the outside, or periosteal surface, of a bone. Since it is the osteoblasts that add bone tissue, they are found in higher proportions on the periosteal surface of the bone.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Section:  5.2

 

3) A patient with leukemia has blood cells that are not dividing properly and are out of control. Treatment consists of a bone marrow transplant. How would this help?

Answer:  The improperly dividing cells must be destroyed, or they will continue to cause problems. The only way to ensure that all of the leukemia cells are removed is to destroy all of the blood cells. Then a new supply of functioning blood cells has to be implanted to restore the blood cell population. Since the stem cells in the bone marrow give rise to all forms of blood cells, the transplant would replace the defective cells.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.2

Global LO:  G5|G8

Section:  5.2

 

4) Briefly explain the formation of bone in the human body.

Answer:  The fetal skeleton is first made of cartilage. Cartilage is strong and flexible, and the cartilage cells are able to divide and grow as the fetus grows. During the third month of fetal development, osteoblasts begin to form a collar around the long bones in the fetus. The osteoblasts form from cartilage cells that are transformed as blood vessels form around the cartilage. These osteoblast collars support the bones as the cartilage inside breaks down, leaving a cavity inside. The cavity is filled with hollow space that the osteoblast cells fill with spongy bone. The osteoblasts secrete collagen and other organic material, which then mix with calcium salts to form mature bone cells called osteocytes that are unable to divide. The epiphyseal plates form at the end of the long bones, and the long bones are able to grow from these structures.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Section:  5.3

5) Organized sports can be very competitive, even for young children. Little League players are often pushed to develop such skills as perfecting a curve ball. However, repeatedly trying to throw a curve ball can cause injury in growing bone. What part of the bone is most likely affected?

Answer:  Certain repetitive motions place an undue amount of strain on joints. Since the epiphyseal plate in children has not formed solid bone, it also is subject to stress. The process of throwing a curve ball involves a wrist-flicking motion that can compress the growth plates in the bones of the arm and wrist, causing damage to them.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.3

Global LO:  G5

Section:  5.3

 

6) You fall while roller-skating and notice a hematoma on your tibia, suggesting that you damaged the bone. Describe step by step how your bone will heal.

Answer:  Within a few days, connective tissue cells called fibroblasts grow inward from the periosteum and invade the clot. The fibroblasts secrete collagen fibers that form a mass called a callus, which links the broken surfaces of the bone. Some of the fibroblasts then transform into cartilage-producing cells that secrete cartilage into the callus. Next, osteoblasts from the periosteum invade the callus and begin to transform the newly deposited cartilage into new bone material, changing it into a bony callus. During this transformation, the bony callus becomes thicker than the undamaged part of the bone and protrudes from it. In time, however, the extra material is broken down, and the healed part of the bone returns to nearly normal size.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.4

Section:  5.4

 

7) Briefly explain osteoporosis, and identify preventive measures a person can take to reduce the risk of this condition.

Answer:  Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone density that occurs during the bone remodeling process. The destruction of old bone exceeds the formation of new bone, so the bones become thin and brittle, increasing the probability of fractures. Estrogen stimulates bone formation; this hormone declines sharply after menopause, leading to an increased risk of osteoporosis. There are several measures an individual can take to reduce his or her susceptibility to osteoporosis: (1) reduce or eliminate alcohol consumption (alcohol interferes with estrogen function); (2) stop smoking because smoking reduces estrogen levels; (3) consume calcium-rich foods, such as milk products, broccoli, spinach, shrimp, and soy products, to increase calcium levels in the body, which helps prevent bones from becoming thin; and (4) do weight-bearing exercise, which will stress the bones and cause them to thicken, thereby helping to prevent osteoporosis.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Global LO:  G5|G7

Section:  5.5

8) Why would a tall woman be at less risk of osteoporosis than a short woman, yet both would be at higher risk than a man?

Answer:  The severity of a case of osteoporosis is directly related to the bone mass of the individual. A tall female would tend to have higher bone mass than a woman with a slight build. However, since females experience loss of estrogen, they generally lose bone mass faster than a typical male.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.5

Global LO:  G5

Section:  5.5

 

 

9) Explain the structure and function of the fontanels in an infant. At what age do they disappear?

Answer:  The fontanels are membranous areas between the bones in the infant’s skull. They allow the head to be flexible as it passes through the birth canal. They also allow for a rapid increase in the size of the brain as it grows. They are replaced by bone by age 2.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.6

Section:  5.6

 

10) Explain the structure and function of the pectoral and pelvic girdles.

Answer:  The pectoral girdle is made up of the scapulae and clavicles, which join the scapula and the sternum. The pectoral girdle supports the arms. The pelvic girdle is made up of two pelvic bones that attach in the back to the sacrum. These are joined in the front at the pubic symphysis, which is composed of cartilage. The pelvic girdle serves to connect the legs with the pelvis. Both girdles allow the body to move and change position.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.7

Section:  5.7

 

11) Arthroscopic surgery is used to repair damage to the knee. What sorts of things can go wrong that can lead to damage in someone’s knee?

Answer:  Many parts of the knee are subject to misalignment or damage. The knee is a major load-bearing hinge joint. It is built to bend in only one plane, but it is also subjected to stress that can tend to bend the knee in a direction it is not designed to bend. When this happens, some of the many ligaments in the knee can tear. The patella is a bone that does not bear weight but lends structure to the knee joint. The patella can also be pushed out of proper alignment in an injury. The cartilage of the knee can wear out over time as well.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Global LO:  G5

Section:  5.8

 

12) Rheumatoid arthritis is the most threatening form of arthritis and often results in a replacement prosthesis of the damaged joint. Explain how this form of arthritis differs from other forms.

Answer:  Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks its own synovial membranes. Rheumatoid arthritis is a permanent condition; therefore, eventually the cartilage will be destroyed, and the only treatment is to replace the damaged joint. In contrast, osteoarthritis involves degeneration of joint surfaces caused by wear and tear; it is not an autoimmune disease.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Section:  5.8

 

13) You use your computer for several hours every day. Why is it important to have the proper hand rest and an adjustable workstation and to take frequent breaks from typing?

Answer:  Repetitive motion in the hand or wrist, such as using a computer keyboard and mouse, can cause tendons in your hands to become inflamed and press against the nerve, resulting in numbness or tingling in the hand and pain that may affect the wrist, hand, and fingers. This condition, known as carpal tunnel syndrome, is increasingly common as people spend more time operating computer keyboards and playing video games.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  5.8

Global LO:  G5

Section:  5.8

 

 

 

 

Biology of Humans: Concepts, Applications, and Issues, 6e (Goodenough)

Chapter 17  Reproductive Systems

 

17.1  Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) How many chromosomes are provided to a zygote from each gamete?

  1. A) 23
  2. B) 46
  3. C) 46 pairs
  4. D) none of the above

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.1

Section:  17.2

 

2) Without the ________, the semen would not naturally be able to counteract the acidity of the vagina.

  1. A) glans penis
  2. B) prostate
  3. C) seminal vesicles
  4. D) interstitial cells

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

3) Alterations to the positioning of the testes in males serve the purpose of ________.

  1. A) allowing more room for the urethra
  2. B) adjusting the temperature needed for production of healthy sperm
  3. C) allowing glands to release their contents
  4. D) allowing for an erection to occur

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

4) The structure that is shared between the male reproductive and urinary systems is the ________.

  1. A) prostate gland
  2. B) seminal vesicles
  3. C) urethra
  4. D) seminiferous tubules

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

5) Sperm are formed originally in the ________.

  1. A) vas deferens
  2. B) bulbourethral glands
  3. C) prostate gland
  4. D) seminiferous tubules

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

6) When sperm enter the epididymis, they ________.

  1. A) are mature
  2. B) are incapable of moving on their own
  3. C) are ready to fertilize an egg
  4. D) come from the vas deferens

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

7) Glands that produce secretions just before ejaculation that may function to lubricate or rinse urine from the urethra are called ________.

  1. A) prostate
  2. B) vas deferens
  3. C) bulbourethral
  4. D) endometrium

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

8) The correct sequence for sperm movement is from the epididymis to the ________ to the urethra.

  1. A) vas deferens
  2. B) rete testes
  3. C) seminiferous tubules
  4. D) ureter

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

 

9) The sperm structure that helps penetrate the egg cell is the ________.

  1. A) midpiece
  2. B) tail
  3. C) ATP
  4. D) acrosome

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

10) The midpiece of the mature sperm contains mitochondria that provide metabolic energy for the trip to the egg. Fructose (simple sugar) is used as fuel by the sperm. From where is this fructose secreted?

  1. A) prostate gland
  2. B) seminal vesicles
  3. C) bulbourethral gland
  4. D) acrosome

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

11) A fertility doctor is trying to determine why a couple is infertile. It has been determined that the woman is fertile, so the problem must be with her partner. In analyzing the partner’s semen, the doctor notices that it seems to be lacking fructose. The structure malfunctioning must be the ________.

  1. A) bulbourethral glands
  2. B) prostate gland
  3. C) seminal vesicles
  4. D) urethra

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

12) Which hormone in men could be manipulated to eliminate sperm production without producing problems with the maintenance of secondary sex characteristics?

  1. A) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  2. B) testosterone
  3. C) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  4. D) luteinizing hormone (LH)

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

 

13) Because of its function, this hormone is often called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone.

  1. A) GnRH
  2. B) LH
  3. C) FSH
  4. D) inhibin

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

14) If you wanted to decrease sperm production, which of the following hormones would be most effective?

  1. A) inhibin
  2. B) FSH
  3. C) GnRH
  4. D) TSH

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

15) A male has been tested, and his sperm seem to be normal. They are motile and seem to be surviving for the appropriate amount of time. However, the sperm don’t seem to be able to fertilize an egg. What part of the sperm is most likely to be malfunctioning?

  1. A) the tail
  2. B) the head
  3. C) the midpiece
  4. D) the acrosome

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

16) Which of these can be described as the release of the oocyte from an ovary?

  1. A) menstruation
  2. B) ovulation
  3. C) implantation
  4. D) fertilization

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

 

17) A structure covered by the anterior labia minora that contains many nerve endings and functions in sexual arousal in females is called the ________.

  1. A) uterus
  2. B) vagina
  3. C) clitoris
  4. D) cervix

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

18) Which of the following signals the end of the reproductive period in females?

  1. A) menopause
  2. B) endometriosis
  3. C) ovulation
  4. D) follicle formation

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

19) The tubes that extend from the uterus and function to transport the immature egg from the ovary to the uterus are known as ________.

  1. A) vas deferens
  2. B) cervix
  3. C) oviducts
  4. D) seminiferous tubules

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

20) If a woman were exposed to a chemical that caused the cilia in her reproductive system to stop moving, what specifically is likely to happen?

  1. A) She would no longer be able to ovulate, and early menopause would occur.
  2. B) Ova could no longer pass through oviducts.
  3. C) Spontaneous abortions would occur.
  4. D) She would have many ovarian cysts.

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

 

21) Which of the following hormones is not involved in the male reproductive system?

  1. A) FSH
  2. B) LH
  3. C) testosterone
  4. D) progesterone

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

22) What do the cells that form the outer sphere of the mature Graafian follicle become once luteinizing hormone transforms the cells?

  1. A) ovum
  2. B) follicle
  3. C) corpus luteum
  4. D) first polar body

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

23) The functions of the corpus luteum include all of the following except ________.

  1. A) maintenance of the endometrium
  2. B) secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  3. C) secretion of progesterone
  4. D) secretion of estrogen

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

24) During a normal female reproductive cycle, the hormone produced only after ovulation is ________, made by the ________.

  1. A) progesterone; corpus luteum
  2. B) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); anterior pituitary
  3. C) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH); hypothalamus
  4. D) luteinizing hormone (LH); anterior pituitary

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

 

25) When a female has low levels of estrogen and progesterone, ________.

  1. A) she is ovulating
  2. B) her uterus is ready to accept an embryo
  3. C) she is pregnant
  4. D) she is menstruating

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

26) Prostaglandins are thought to cause ________.

  1. A) PID
  2. B) menstrual cramps
  3. C) vaginitis
  4. D) endometriosis

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.4

Section:  17.5

 

27) Which of the following is related to an increase in the chance of breast cancer?

  1. A) early menopause
  2. B) pregnancy
  3. C) early first menstruation
  4. D) breast-feeding

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.4

Section:  17.5

 

28) Which of the following is most likely to stop sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)?

  1. A) IUD
  2. B) diaphragm
  3. C) tubal ligation
  4. D) latex condom

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Section:  17.7

 

29) Which sterilization technique involves cutting the vas deferens on each side to prevent sperm from leaving the body?

  1. A) hysterectomy
  2. B) tubal ligation
  3. C) vasectomy
  4. D) testicular deactivation

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Section:  17.7

 

30) The semen from a man who has had a vasectomy would include each of the following except ________.

  1. A) sperm
  2. B) secretions from the prostate gland
  3. C) secretions from the bulbourethral glands
  4. D) secretions from the seminal vesicles

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Section:  17.7

 

31) Which of the following statements is false?

  1. A) Females enter menopause when their follicles become overly responsive to LH and FSH.
  2. B) The pH of the vagina is acidic to deter microbial growth.
  3. C) Females are born with more primary follicles than they have at puberty.
  4. D) In oogenesis, meiosis is completed only if fertilization occurs.

Answer:  A

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

32) Women taking birth control pills are more likely to have ________.

  1. A) babies
  2. B) decreased blood pressure
  3. C) increased STDs
  4. D) fewer abnormal blood clots

Answer:  C

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Section:  17.7

 

 

33) A pregnant woman (first trimester) is concerned that she has been exposed to a chemical that blocks estrogen and progesterone receptors so that the body does not recognize these hormones. What is the most important reason she should be worried about this?

  1. A) GnRH may be inhibited.
  2. B) Luteinizing hormone (LH) may cause the release of another egg.
  3. C) Ovulation might occur.
  4. D) Menstruation may occur, thus causing the embryo or early fetus to be lost.

Answer:  D

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

34) A 25-year-old woman has just had the Implanon or Nexplanon system inserted for contraception. Six months later, she is concerned because she is not menstruating. This is ________, and the reason is that she has an increased level of ________.

  1. A) abnormal; luteinizing hormone (LH)
  2. B) normal; progesterone
  3. C) normal; estrogen
  4. D) abnormal; follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.6

Section:  17.7

 

35) During which stage of the sexual response cycle do the tissues of the sex organs begin to show increased blood flow and swelling?

  1. A) orgasm
  2. B) excitement
  3. C) resolution
  4. D) plateau

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.5

Section:  17.6

 

36) As men age, the prostate may enlarge but not become cancerous. This enlarged prostate may result in ________.

  1. A) sterility
  2. B) difficulty with urination
  3. C) impotence
  4. D) constipation

Answer:  B

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

 

17.2  Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1) The ________ are the tubular structures that occur between the ovaries and the uterus.

Answer:  oviducts

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

2) The function of the ________ is sperm storage and maturation in males.

Answer:  epididymis

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

3) Within the uterus, the layer of tissue where an embryo should implant is the ________.

Answer:  endometrium

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

4) The external genitalia of a woman refer to the reproductive structures that lie outside the opening to the vagina. They are also known as the ________.

Answer:  vulva

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

5) Cells that are located between the seminiferous tubules of the testis and whose function is to produce androgens are called ________.

Answer:  interstitial cells

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

6) The ________ is the tube that conducts sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.

Answer:  vas deferens

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

7) The ________ is a part of the sperm that contains enzymes that spill out from the sperm and digest through the layers surrounding the secondary oocyte to allow fertilization.

Answer:  acrosome

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

8) ________ is a hormone produced by the seminiferous tubules that inhibits FSH from stimulating the production of sperm cells.

Answer:  Inhibin

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

9) The anterior pituitary gland secretes ________. In men, this hormone causes the cells that will become sperm to be more sensitive to the effects of testosterone.

Answer:           follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

10) The secretions of the ________ contain fructose and prostaglandins.

Answer:  seminal vesicles

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

11) The hormones FSH and LH are produced by the ________.

Answer:  anterior pituitary gland

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

12) In the female, the ________ secretes both estrogen and progesterone, and if fertilization does not occur, this structure degenerates.

Answer:  corpus luteum

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

13) The ________ is a cylindrical organ whose role in reproduction is to deliver the sperm to the female reproductive system.

Answer:  penis

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

14) ________ is the hormone that stimulates the production of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testis.

Answer:           Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

15) The ________ is a gland that often enlarges as a man ages, potentially causing problems with urination.

Answer:  prostate

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

16) The organs that produce the gametes (egg or sperm) are called ________.

Answer:  gonads

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.1

Section:  17.1

 

17.3  Matching Questions

 

Match each definition in the first column to the correct term in the second column.

 

  1. A) Endometrium
  2. B) Testis
  3. C) Cervix
  4. D) Uterus
  5. E) Oviduct
  6. F) Ovaries
  7. G) Vagina
  8. H) Seminal vesicle
  9. I) Penis
  10. J) Prostate gland
  11. K) Vas deferens
  12. L) Glans penis

 

1) A gland that produces alkaline secretions that function to activate sperm and reduce the acidity of the female reproductive system.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

2) One of a pair of glands that produces fluid that nourishes sperm and assists movement of sperm in the female reproductive tract.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

3) The lining of the uterus that is lost and replaced on a monthly basis in the form of menstrual fluid and serves as the site of implantation.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

4) A muscular tube in females used for sexual reproduction that receives the penis during sexual intercourse and serves as the birth canal.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

5) The reproductive organ in males that produces sperm and testosterone for reproduction.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

6) The opening of the uterus that extends into the vagina.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

7) The pear-shaped organ in females that houses and nourishes the developing fetus.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

8) The organs in females that produce the sex hormones and the eggs for reproduction.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

9) A region located at the tip of the penis that has a high concentration of nerves for sexual arousal.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

10) The male organ that delivers sperm to the female’s reproductive tract.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

11) The name of the third tubule that sperm enter after they have been produced in the first tubule.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

12) The zygote typically begins its development into an embryo here.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

Answers: 1) J 2) H 3) A 4) G 5) B 6) C 7) D 8) F 9) L 10) I 11) K 12) E

 

 

17.4  Short Answer and Essay Questions

 

1) Sam was pretty self-destructive: He drank alcohol heavily and smoked marijuana and tobacco frequently. He would steal sedatives from the medicine cabinets of his friends and family for his own pleasure, too. What reproductive system problem is he more likely to have than other men of the same age? What can Sam possibly do about that situation?

Answer:  He would be most likely to develop erectile dysfunction (ED). Sam should first stop doing those things because each of them is probably causing problems in other systems, too. In addition, he should go to his physician and get a prescription for any of the several ED drugs available, such as Viagra, Levitra, or Cialis. It is important to follow the directions for using these medications.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Global LO:  G5

Section:  17.3

 

2) Speculate as to why the success rate of treatment is much higher for testicular and prostate cancers than for ovarian cancer.

Answer:  Testicular cancer affects men in their young-adult to middle-aged years. If testicular cancer is detected early, the chance of survival is nearly 100%, but self-examination and detection are essential. For prostate cancer, like testicular cancer, the key to survival is early detection. If the cancer is still contained within the prostate when detected, the chances for survival for 5 years are 95%. Unfortunately, there is no self-exam or routine testing that is used for ovarian cancer. This makes early detection difficult.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2|17.3

Global LO:  G2

Section:  17.3|17.4

 

3) What are the main differences in the formation of the egg and sperm in males and females?

Answer:  Sperm formation, or spermatogenesis, in males occurs in the seminiferous tubules, which involves the development of four sperm cells from each spermatogonium. A mature male produces millions of sperm. In contrast, a mature female usually produces only one egg (technically a secondary oocyte) each month. Also, oogenesis begins during fetal development, but egg development is arrested and won’t continue until ovulation and fertilization take place. In oogenesis, there will be only one viable egg produced and three polar bodies.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2|17.3

Section:  17.3|17.4

 

4) Using fertility awareness as a means of birth control requires a detailed understanding of the female reproductive cycle. Given what you know about the cycle, when exactly should a woman avoid sex to prevent pregnancy if she is relying on fertility awareness? Make sure to explain your answer. What are the challenges to this method of birth control?

Answer:  Fertility awareness involves avoiding sex before and after ovulation occurs. Because sperm can live between 2 and 5 days (2 to 3 days is most typical), sex should be avoided between 2 and 5 days prior to ovulation. After ovulation has occurred, the egg lives only about 1 day, and sex should be avoided during this time. However, because the timing of the female cycle is variable, it can be difficult to pinpoint exactly when ovulation will occur.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Global LO:  G5

Section:  17.4

 

5) Assume that a woman has a “normal” 28-day reproductive cycle. She is concerned about the times in which she may get pregnant. Her partner tells her that the only day she has to worry about in terms of getting pregnant is the day she ovulates. Explain to her why this is not the case.

Answer:  Typically, an egg survives about 1 day, and sperm survive about 2 or 3 days (but possibly up to 5 days). This means any sperm deposited in the female system a few days prior to ovulation could fertilize the egg. Because the egg lives only about 1 day, the female should be concerned about the day following ovulation. This typically gives a 4-day window of concern. Further, the timing of ovulation is uncertain, so this must be accounted for as well.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Global LO:  G5

Section:  17.4

 

6) After a fertility analysis, it is determined that the semen a man produces has the appropriate number of functional sperm cells, yet he is still having problems with his fertility. This indicates that something other than the sperm is causing the problem. List one potential structure that could be causing the problem and what the problem would be.

Answer:  The student could name any of the accessory glands in the male system. For example, malfunctions of the prostate, seminal vesicles, or the bulbourethral glands could cause problems.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

 

7) An experimental male birth control method has been developed that inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Does this drug have the ability to prevent sperm production? Justify your answer. Indicate any potential side effects that might be of concern to a man using this method.

Answer:  Yes. If GnRH were inhibited, then there would be no release of FSH or LH from the pituitary. Without LH, the testes will not produce testosterone. Without testosterone, no sperm will be made. However, this may not be agreeable to the man because inhibition of testosterone interferes with sperm production and the maintenance of secondary sex characteristics.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Application/Analysis

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

 

8) The following table compares various methods of hormonal birth control for women. Fill in each blank with the appropriate information.

 

Method How is it used? Be specific on timing issues! What hormones does it contain?
Oral contraception (combination birth control pills) 21 days of active pills followed by 7 days off Estrogen and progesterone
DepoProvera injection    
Implanon    
Ortho Evra (patch)    
NuvaRing    

 

In general, how do all these methods work to prevent pregnancy? Be detailed, and include all the relevant hormones.

Answer:

Method How is it used? Be specific on timing issues! What hormones does it contain?
Oral contraception (combination birth control pills) 21 days of active pills followed by 7 days off Estrogen and progesterone
DepoProvera injection An injection that lasts 3 months Progesterone
Implanon Surgically implanted capsules that last years Progesterone
Ortho Evra (patch) Place a patch on the skin for a week, replace for a second week, replace for a third week, and wear no patch on the fourth week Estrogen and progesterone
NuvaRing Insert ring in vagina near the cervix for 21 days, then remove for 7 days Estrogen and progesterone

 

Methods involving estrogen and progesterone prevent maturation and ovulation of eggs. Progesterone-only methods may prevent ovulation; these methods also thicken cervical mucus and make the endometrium unsuitable for implantation.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.3

Section:  17.4

 

9) Describe the “path” of a sperm cell from its production until it leaves the male body.

Answer:  Sperm are produced in the seminiferous tubes and enter the epididymis. Here the sperm mature and become capable of fertilizing an egg and moving on their own. From the epididymis, the vas deferens transfers the sperm to the urethra. The urethra conducts sperm (in semen) out of the body through the penis.

Bloom’s Taxonomy:  Knowledge/Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  17.2

Section:  17.3

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