Biology Life on Earth 11th Edition by Audesirk – Test Bank

$20.00

Pay And Download
Complete Test Bank With Answers
 
 
Sample Questions Posted Below

 

 

 

 

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) The substances in cell membranes that form a barrier to the movement of materials across the
membrane are
A) nucleic acids.
B) external proteins.
C) carbohydrates.
D) internal proteins.
E) lipids.
1)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
2) The ________ portion of the cell membrane is responsible for the isolating function of the
membrane, whereas the ________ portion regulates exchange and communication with the
environment.
A) carbohydrate; lipid
B) lipid; protein
C) cholesterol; lipid
D) nucleic acid; lipid
E) protein; cholesterol
2)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
3) When a mouse cell and a human cell are fused, the membrane proteins of the two cells become
uniformly distributed over the surface of the hybrid cell. This occurs because
A) all proteins in the plasma membrane come from a membrane other than the human or the
mouse.
B) all proteins are anchored within the membrane.
C) proteins are asymmetrically distributed within the membrane.
D) many proteins can move around within the bilayer.
E) different membranes contain different proteins.
3)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
4) Phospholipids spontaneously form a bilayer in an aqueous solution. Why do the heads of the
phospholipids point out and the tails point toward one another?
A) The tails are repelled by the aqueous environment, and the heads will directly interact with
the aqueous solution.
B) The tails are nonpolar and form hydrogen bonds with one another.
C) The heads are repelled by the water inside and outside the cell.
4)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
1
5) Plasma membranes are best described as a
A) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic tails facing toward one another.
B) single layer of phospholipids with water molecules attached along one side.
C) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophilic heads facing away from one another.
D) double layer of phospholipids with hydrophobic tails facing away from each other (toward
the cytoplasm of the cell and the extracellular solution).
E) single layer of phospholipids with tails pointed toward the inside of the cell.
5)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
6) The hydrophobic tails of a phospholipid bilayer are oriented toward the
A) both the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm.
B) interstitial fluid.
C) cytoplasm of the cell.
D) interior of the plasma membrane (i.e., toward one another).
E) extracellular fluid surrounding the cell.
6)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
7) Which of the following accounts for the fluid aspect of the fluid mosaic model of plasma
membranes?
A) One of the components of the membrane is water.
B) The bilayer permits diffusion of certain lipid-soluble substances.
C) The membrane is water soluble.
D) The plasma membrane is ʺfluidʺ because of the movement of substances across the
membrane.
E) The individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to one another, so the movement of
certain proteins and lipids is possible within and through the bilayer.
7)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
8) According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes, which of the following is a TRUE
statement about membrane phospholipids?
A) They occur in an uninterrupted bilayer, with membrane proteins strictly anchored to the
surface of the membrane.
B) They have hydrophilic tails in the interior of the membrane.
C) They form a viscous fluid through which proteins shift and flow.
D) They are free to depart from the membrane and are dissolved in the surrounding solution.
E) They frequently flip-flop from one side of the membrane to the other.
8)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
2
9) In biological membranes, the phospholipids are arranged in a
A) single layer, with the phosphorus-containing region facing the interior of the cell.
B) bilayer, with the fatty acids pointing toward one another.
C) bilayer, with the fatty acids facing outward (facing the interior and exterior of the cell).
D) bilayer, with the phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane.
E) single layer, with the fatty acids facing the interior of the cell.
9)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
10) The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein are most likely to be found
A) only in muscle cell membranes.
B) exposed on the surface of the cell membrane.
C) attached to carbohydrates and facing the interior of a cell.
D) associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
E) in the interior of the membrane.
10)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
11) Suppose that plasma membranes were single layers of phospholipids rather than double layers,
and the heads faced the extracellular fluid. The interior of this hypothetical cell would have to be
A) hydrophobic and nonpolar.
B) hydrophobic only.
C) nonpolar only.
D) hydrophilic only.
E) polar only.
11)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
12) What would happen if the plasma membrane were composed solely of phospholipids and no
proteins?
A) Simple diffusion and osmosis would continue to occur.
B) The movement of molecules across the membrane would not be affected.
C) All movement of molecules across the membrane would cease.
D) Immune reactions would not be affected.
E) Only water would be able to pass through the membrane.
12)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.1
3
13) ISO membranes are inside-out membrane vesicles used by researchers in membrane studies. As a
molecule diffuses into the vesicle, it will encounter the layers of the membrane in the following
order
A) head-tail-tail-head.
B) tail-head-tail-head.
C) head-tail-head-tail.
D) tail-head-head-tail.
E) head-head-tail-tail.
13)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
14) What structure in the membrane causes plasma membranes to resist freezing?
A) Cholesterol
B) Unsaturated fatty acid tails
C) Nonpolar heads of the phospholipids
D) Saturated fatty acid tails
E) Channel proteins
14)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
15) Within the fluid mosaic of a plasma membrane, what is the role of transport and channel proteins?
A) They are cell-surface connection sites.
B) They identify the cell.
C) They prevent the passage of amino acids.
D) They permit ions and water molecules to move through the plasma membrane.
E) They may set off cellular changes such as cell division or hormone secretion.
15)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.2
16) Recognition proteins are most important for
A) maintaining membrane integrity.
B) facilitated diffusion of molecules.
C) active transport of molecules.
D) distinguishing foreign cells from ʺselfʺ cells.
E) maintaining membrane fluidity.
16)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
4
17) In general, which of the following is (are) largely responsible for moving substances across the
plasma membrane, communicating with other cells, and identifying the cell?
A) Cytoskeleton
B) Proteins
C) Nucleic acids
D) Carbohydrates
E) Phospholipids
17)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.2
18) What prevents your immune system from attacking your own cells?
A) Receptor proteins
B) Fever
C) Cholesterol
D) Recognition proteins
E) Inadequate enzymes
18)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
19) The main lipids found in cell membranes are
A) glycerol.
B) phospholipids.
C) triglycerides.
D) waxes.
E) steroids.
19)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
20) Which of the following groups includes carrier and channel proteins?
A) Transport proteins B) Receptor proteins
C) Connection proteins D) Recognition proteins
20)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.2
21) Recognition proteins, such as those embedded on the surface of red blood cells, are composed of
A) glycoproteins. B) phospholipases.
C) steroids. D) nucleic acids.
21)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
5
22) Which of the following would NOT be found in a membrane?
A) Receptor protein
B) Cellulose
C) Cholesterol
D) Channel protein
E) Phospholipid
22)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
23) Cell membranes do all of the following EXCEPT
A) isolate the cellʹs contents from the external environment.
B) regulate the movement of substances between the cytoplasm of the cell and the extracellular
fluid.
C) provide attachments between cells.
D) allow communication between cells.
E) provide an energy source for the cell.
23)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
24) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for facilitated diffusion?
A) Connection proteins
B) Receptor proteins
C) Enzymes
D) Transport proteins
E) Recognition proteins
24)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1, 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
25) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for maintaining cell shape by
linking the membrane protein with the cytoskeleton?
A) Enzymes
B) Receptor proteins
C) Recognition proteins
D) Connection proteins
E) Transport proteins
25)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
6
26) Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for conveying external
messages such as those sent by a hormone signal?
A) Receptor proteins
B) Recognition proteins
C) Transport proteins
D) Enzymes
E) Connection proteins
26)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
27) The net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is best described
by which of the following?
A) Passive transport
B) Osmosis
C) Endocytosis
D) Active transport
E) Exocytosis
27)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
28) For diffusion to occur, there must be
A) a gradient. B) ATP. C) water. D) a membrane.
28)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
29) The bacterium Vibrio cholerae releases a toxin that blocks a channel protein in the membranes of
cells that line the intestine. This toxin prevents the movement of sodium ions from the inside of the
intestine into cells. If the sodium ions could not move into the cells, how would this affect the
movement of water between the inside of the intestine and the cells?
A) Water would leave the intestines and enter the cells by osmosis.
B) Water would leave the intestines and enter the cells by facilitated diffusion.
C) Water would leave the cells and enter the intestines by facilitated diffusion.
D) The movement of water would not be affected.
E) Water would leave the cells and enter the intestines by osmosis.
29)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
30) Which of the following is an energy-requiring mode of transport that brings substances into a cell?
A) Simple diffusion B) Facilitated diffusion
C) Osmosis D) Active transport
30)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
7
31) In reference to diffusion, passive really means
A) no energy required.
B) no gradient.
C) in the air.
D) without a membrane.
E) very slowly.
31)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
32) Imagine that you fill a shallow tray with water and place a drop of red ink in one end of the tray
and a drop of green ink in the other end. Which of the following is TRUE at equilibrium?
A) The red and green ink do not mix at all.
B) The concentration of each ink is higher at one end of the tray than at the other end.
C) The red ink is uniformly distributed in one half of the tray, and the green ink is uniformly
distributed in the other half of the tray.
D) No predictions can be made without knowing the size of the ink molecules.
E) The red and green inks are both uniformly distributed throughout the tray.
32)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
33) Carbon dioxide crosses the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. The rate at which carbon
dioxide enters the cell is determined by the
A) amount of energy being produced by the cell.
B) concentration of carbon dioxide on each side of the membrane.
C) amount of oxygen being exported from the cell.
D) amount of transport protein in the membrane.
E) amount of carbon dioxide outside of the cell.
33)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
34) What is active transport?
A) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell using special proteins and not requiring an
expenditure of energy
B) Rapid movement of molecules in a solution
C) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell against a concentration gradient
D) Diffusion of molecules within a cell
E) Movement of molecules into or out of a cell down a concentration gradient
34)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
35) When substances move across a plasma membrane and down concentration gradients, this is
called
A) active transport. B) exocytosis.
C) passive transport. D) pinocytosis.
35)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
8
36) To say that a cell is ʺselectively permeableʺ means
A) sometimes water passes through, and sometimes it canʹt.
B) it is permeable to different substances than other cells.
C) only certain molecules can pass through.
D) it has different-sized perforations in the membrane.
E) permeability depends on gradient differences.
36)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
37) What happens when diffusion moves molecules across the plasma membrane?
A) Most molecules are capable of crossing the phospholipid bilayer at any location and at
basically the same rate.
B) Energy input is required to transport molecules.
C) The rate of diffusion cannot be influenced by the cell.
D) The cell gains needed materials and gets rid of excess materials very quickly.
E) The process is relatively slow and is driven by concentration gradients.
37)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
38) All of the following may influence the rate of simple diffusion across a selectively permeable
membrane EXCEPT the
A) concentration gradient.
B) lipid solubility of the molecule.
C) temperature.
D) size of the molecule.
E) size of the cell.
38)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
39) Molecules that permeate a plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion
A) require the aid of transport proteins.
B) move from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
C) do so much more quickly than those crossing by simple diffusion.
D) require energy.
39)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
40) Which of the following occurs as an enzyme produced by a cell is secreted from the cell?
A) Pinocytosis
B) Receptor-mediated endocytosis
C) Endocytosis
D) Exocytosis
E) Phagocytosis
40)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
9
41) Molecules assisted by carrier proteins may cross a selectively permeable membrane by
A) simple diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) endocytosis.
E) active transport.
41)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
42) The diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane is called
A) hydrolysis.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated diffusion.
D) exocytosis.
E) active transport.
42)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
43) If red blood cells are taken from the body and placed in a hypertonic solution, what happens to the
cells?
A) The cells remain unchanged due to equal water concentrations inside and outside the cells.
B) The cells swell and burst because water moves into them.
C) The cells shrivel up because water leaves them.
D) The cells remain unchanged due to equal solute concentrations inside and outside the cells.
E) They become white blood cells.
43)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
44) Imagine an artificial cell made with a selectively permeable membrane that allows water to pass
through but does not allow sugar to pass. If the artificial cell contains a 1% sugar solution and then
you place the cell in a 2% sugar solution, what happens?
A) Sugar diffuses in and water diffuses out until equilibrium is reached.
B) Water enters the cell because the solution is hypotonic to the cell.
C) There is no movement of water.
D) Water leaves the cell because the solution is hypertonic to the cell.
44)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
10
45) A freshwater protozoan, such as Paramecium, tends to ________ because it lives in a ________
environment.
A) gain water; isotonic
B) lose water; hypertonic
C) lose water; hypotonic
D) gain water; hypertonic
E) gain water; hypotonic
45)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
46) Solutions that cause water to enter cells by osmosis are called
A) permeable.
B) hypertonic.
C) hydrophilic.
D) isotonic.
E) hypotonic.
46)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
47) The blood plasma of a man who drinks salt water will become ________ to his red blood cells,
whereas the red blood cells will be ________ to the blood plasma.
A) hypotonic; hypertonic
B) hypertonic; isotonic
C) hypertonic; hypotonic
D) isotonic; hypertonic
E) isotonic; isotonic
47)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
48) The slowest rate of diffusion of dye particles in water will occur at
A) 20°C. B) 30°C. C) 60°C. D) 10°C.
48)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
49) Suppose you have two glucose solutions separated by a selectively permeable membrane. If there
is a concentration gradient of glucose across the membrane, then the solutions cannot be ________
relative to each other.
A) isotonic B) hypertonic C) hypotonic
49)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
11
50) Imagine that beaker A has a 10% sucrose solution, and beaker B has an 8% sucrose solution. This
means that
A) beaker A is hypertonic relative to beaker B.
B) beaker A is hypotonic relative to beaker B.
C) beaker A is isotonic relative to beaker B.
50)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
51) More than half a century ago, two cell biologists published details of their research involving
isolated membrane vesicles from chloroplasts. Normally, the fluid inside these vesicles is near
neutral. In an experiment, these membrane vesicles were soaked in an acidic solution (pH 4) until
the inside of the vesicle also became pH 4.
Based on the details provided in this scenario, by what mechanism could hydrogen ions have
crossed the vesicle membrane, and what do you think happened at the molecular level?
A) Simple diffusion; hydrogen ions moved into the vesicle through a channel protein.
B) Active transport; hydrogen ions moved out of the vesicle with the help of ATP energy.
C) Facilitated diffusion; hydrogen ions moved into the vesicle through a channel protein.
D) Pinocytosis; water moved from outside the vesicle to inside.
E) Osmosis; water moved from inside the vesicle to outside.
51)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
52) The secretion of excess water via a contractile vesicle of a Paramecium cell is an example of
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) active transport.
C) simple diffusion.
D) osmosis.
E) exocytosis.
52)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
53) Two aqueous solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane that allows water to
pass through but does not allow starch to pass through. Solution A is 10% starch and solution B is
5% starch. What will occur?
A) Water will diffuse from solution B to solution A.
B) Water will diffuse from solution A to solution B.
C) Starch will diffuse from solution B to solution A.
D) Starch will diffuse from solution A to solution B.
E) Both water and starch will diffuse from solution B to solution A.
53)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
12
54) The rate of facilitated diffusion of a molecule across a membrane will increase as the concentration
gradient of the molecule across the membrane increases to a certain point. Eventually, an increase
in the concentration of the molecule will not cause any further increase in facilitated diffusion.
Thus, there is a maximal rate of facilitated diffusion. This is because
A) there are a limited number of carrier proteins in the membrane.
B) facilitated diffusion requires ATP energy.
C) as the concentration gradient increases, molecules interfere with one another.
D) the diffusion constant depends on the concentration gradient.
E) the increased concentration gradient causes a situation far from equilibrium.
54)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
55) Osmosis moves water from a region of
A) high solute concentration to a region of low solute concentration.
B) negative osmotic potential to a region of positive osmotic potential.
C) low solute concentration of to a region of high solute concentration.
D) low concentration of water to a region of high concentration of water.
E) hypertonic solution to a region of hypotonic solution.
55)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
56) Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that diffuses slowly through artificial phospholipid bilayers. The
cells lining the small intestine, however, rapidly move large quantities of glucose from the
glucose-rich food into their glucose-poor cytoplasm. Given this information, which transport
mechanism is most probably functioning in the intestinal cells?
A) Exocytosis
B) Facilitated diffusion
C) Aquaporin transport
D) Simple diffusion
E) Osmosis
56)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
57) Two similar-sized animal cells are placed in a 0.5% sucrose solution. Cell A enlarges for a while
and then stops; cell B continues to enlarge and finally ruptures. Which of the following must have
been TRUE at the beginning of the experiment?
A) Cell A has a higher concentration of sucrose than cell B.
B) Cell A was hypertonic to the solution, and cell B was hypotonic.
C) Cell B has a higher concentration of sucrose than cell A.
D) Cell A was hypotonic to the solution, and cell B was hypertonic.
E) Cells A and B were isotonic to each other.
57)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
13
58) The cytoplasm of a certain cell, such as a neuron, already has a high concentration of K + ions. How
can K+ ions continue to enter the cell?
A) Infusion
B) Active transport
C) Exocytosis
D) Osmosis
E) Facilitated diffusion
58)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
59) The gases O2 and CO2 enter or leave a plant cell by
A) facilitated diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) facilitated transport.
D) simple diffusion.
E) active transport.
59)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
60) Active transport requires all of the following EXCEPT
A) a gradient.
B) transport proteins.
C) ATP.
D) a membrane.
E) aquaporins.
60)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
61) The process in which white blood cells engulf bacteria is termed
A) exocytosis.
B) reception.
C) pinocytosis.
D) phagocytosis.
E) recognition.
61)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
62) Which process accounts for the movement of solid particles (such as food) into some animal cells?
A) Active transport
B) Simple diffusion
C) Facilitated diffusion
D) Phagocytosis
E) Osmosis
62)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
14
63) Cells use exocytosis to
A) move away from danger.
B) ingest nutrients.
C) pump hydrogen molecules across the membrane.
D) release substances from the cell.
E) create new cells.
63)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
64) If you forget to water your favorite plant, all of the following will occur at a cellular level EXCEPT
A) turgor pressure will build up in the cell.
B) water will move out of the vacuoles by osmosis.
C) water will move out of the cytosol by osmosis.
D) the plasma membrane will shrink away from the cell wall.
E) osmosis will occur.
64)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
65) If a frog egg cell is placed into a hypotonic solution, it will
A) swell via osmosis.
B) shrivel via active transport.
C) shrivel via facilitated diffusion.
D) shrivel via osmosis.
E) swell via facilitated diffusion.
65)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
66) Which of the following requires adenosine triphosphate?
A) Active transport B) Simple diffusion
C) Facilitated diffusion D) Osmosis
66)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
67) Specialized cell junctions include all of the following EXCEPT
A) gap junctions. B) desmosomes.
C) phospholipases. D) tight junctions.
67)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
15
68) The electrical signal for a muscle to contract passes rapidly from one cell to the next via
A) internal proteins.
B) gap junctions.
C) plasmodesmata.
D) desmosomes.
E) tight junctions.
68)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
69) Adhesion of cells within animal tissues is accomplished by cell-to-cell junctions called
A) desmosomes. B) tight junctions.
C) gap junctions. D) plasmodesmata.
69)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
70) The urinary bladder is protected from leaking by cell-to-cell junctions called
A) desmosomes. B) tight junctions.
C) gap junctions. D) plasmodesmata.
70)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
71) Protein channels that provide passage for hormones and nutrients between animal cells are termed
A) desmosomes. B) tight junctions.
C) gap junctions. D) plasmodesmata.
71)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
72) You observe a cell under a microscope and you can clearly see a cell wall, a vacuole, and
cytoplasmic connections. These cytoplasmic connections must be
A) plasmodesmata.
B) osmotic channels.
C) tight junctions.
D) gap junctions.
E) desmosomes.
72)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
TRUE/FALSE. Write ʹTʹ if the statement is true and ʹFʹ if the statement is false.
73) Carrier molecules in the plasma membrane are required only for active transport. 73)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.1
16
74) Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across selectively permeable membranes. 74)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
75) After a dye diffuses uniformly throughout a glass of water, the dye molecules are no longer
moving.
75)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
76) The most common lipids in biological membranes are ________. 76)
Answer: phospholipids
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
77) Phospholipids contain two different parts: a ________ head and a pair of ________ tails. 77)
Answer: polar and/or hydrophilic; nonpolar and/or hydrophobic
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
78) The movement of molecules across a cell membrane via a transport protein in which no
energy is required is called ________ diffusion, and the movement of molecules across a
cell membrane via a protein in which energy (i.e., ATP) is required is called ________
transport.
78)
Answer: facilitated; active
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
79) Facilitated diffusion and active transport both require ________ for the movement of
molecules across the membrane.
79)
Answer: transport proteins
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
80) ________ is used by white blood cells to consume large particles such as bacteria. 80)
Answer: Phagocytosis
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
81) Communication between cells occurs via ________ in plant cells and via ________ in
animal cells.
81)
Answer: plasmodesmata; gap junctions
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
17
82) The cells of the bladder are joined to one another by ________ that prevent substances
from passing between the cells of this tissue.
82)
Answer: tight junctions
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
83) The antibiotic polymyxin B attaches itself to the phospholipids in the phospholipid bilayer
and increases the permeability of the membrane. Describe what will occur as a result.
83)
Answer: The plasma membrane will lose its ability to be a selectively permeable barrier.
Substances will leak out of the cell, and some previously excluded substances may
enter. Eventually, the cell will die.
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
84) How does the cell membrane act as a ʺgatekeeperʺ for the cell? 84)
Answer: It separates the internal and external cell environments, it regulates the exchange of
substances between the external environment and the cytoplasm, and it allows for
communication between cells.
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.1
85) Compare and contrast facilitated diffusion and active transport. 85)
Answer: Both require membrane transport proteins. However, facilitated diffusion does not
require energy and moves substances down a concentration gradient. Active
transport requires energy and moves substances against a concentration gradient.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
86) Compare and contrast osmosis and simple diffusion. 86)
Answer: Both are passive processes. However, osmosis refers to the movement of water
down its concentration gradient across a selectively permeable membrane. No
membrane or membrane protein is required for simple diffusion.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
87) Why is the biological membrane said to be selectively permeable? 87)
Answer: It allows only some molecules to pass through while barring others.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.1
88) Suppose a bag made of a selectively permeable membrane was filled with a 5% solution of
glucose and sealed. What would happen if the bag was placed in pure water or in a 10%
glucose solution?
88)
Answer: In pure water, the bag would swell as water moves in. In the glucose solution, the
bag would shrink as water moves out.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.3
18
89) Why does the cell perform endocytosis in addition to active and passive transport? 89)
Answer: Endocytosis is required for the transport of proteins, microbes, extracellular fluid,
and specific molecules that are all larger than the molecule size transported by
active and passive transport.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
90) Distinguish among the three types of endocytosis: pinocytosis, receptor-mediated
endocytosis, and phagocytosis.
90)
Answer: Pinocytosis is for fluid intake, receptor-mediated endocytosis is for the uptake of
specific molecules, and phagocytosis is used to move large particles into the cell.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
91) Both plant cells and animal cells will swell if placed in a hypotonic solution. However,
only the animal cell will burst. Why?
91)
Answer: Water will enter both cells due to osmosis. In the animal cell, water will continue to
enter as long as the extracellular solution is hypotonic, causing the pliable animal
cell membrane to eventually break and the cell to burst. The stiff cell wall found in
plant cells but not animal cells will not expand indefinitely. At some point, as the
cytoplasm of the plant cell expands, the cell wall will exert a back pressure on the
cell. Further water uptake will be prevented and the plant cell will not burst.
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.1
92) When very small viruses infect a plant cell by crossing its membrane, the viruses often
spread rapidly throughout the entire plant without crossing additional membranes.
Explain how this occurs.
92)
Answer: The viruses travel cell to cell via the plasmodesmata junctions.
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
93) Compare and contrast the intercellular junctions that allow communication between plant
and animal cells.
93)
Answer: Gap junctions in animal cells and plasmodesmata in plant cells are both involved in
coordinating the actions of adjacent cells.
Chapter Section: 5.3
Learning Outcome: 5.4
19
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
94) Based on these four illustrations of diffusion, which mode would most likely be used to transport
oxidized zinc (which has a charge of +2) through the cell membrane?
A) Osmosis through aquaporins
B) Simple diffusion through the bilayer
C) Facilitated diffusion through channel proteins
D) Facilitated diffusion through carrier proteins
94)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.2
95) If the radius of one cell were twice as large as the radius of another cell, how much higher or lower
would its surface-area-to-volume ratio be?
A) 1/2 lower B) 2 times lower C) 10 times higher D) 2 times higher
95)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 5.1
20
96) Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that leads to the production of excessive, thick mucus in the
respiratory tract, causing frequent and serious respiratory infections. The defect is due to the
production of a faulty membrane protein for the transport of the chloride ion. The protein exists in
membranes, but it doesnʹt function normally.
Based on this scenario, what is occurring at the molecular level in a person with cystic fibrosis?
A) A receptor protein is being adversely affected.
B) A channel protein is being adversely affected.
C) Protein filaments in the cytoplasm are being adversely affected.
D) A recognition protein is being adversely affected.
E) A carrier protein is being adversely affected.
96)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 5.1
Learning Outcome: 5.2

21

 

 

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) Which one of the following groups is characterized as eukaryotic?
A) Prions
B) Protists
C) Bacteria
D) Cyanobacteria
E) Viruses
1)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
2) Which of the following best fits into the protistʹs group?
A) Plants
B) Animals
C) Prokaryotes
D) Fungi
E) Any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus
2)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
3) A protist that lives inside a host organism and absorbs nutrients from that living host is
A) a decomposer.
B) symbiotic.
C) predatory.
D) photosynthetic.
E) parasitic.
3)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 20.4, 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
4) Protists
A) obtain nutrition through a variety of different methods.
B) develop embryos during reproduction.
C) carry out photosynthesis without chloroplasts.
D) are prokaryotic.
E) form a single clade.
4)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
1
5) Protists that absorb nutrients from dead organic matter are called
A) decomposers.
B) parasitic.
C) symbiotic.
D) photosynthetic.
E) predatory.
5)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
6) Protist photosynthesis relies on
A) eyespots.
B) silica.
C) pseudoplasmodia.
D) chloroplasts.
E) pseudopods.
6)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
7) The first protist chloroplast was likely to have been a(n)
A) example of secondary endosymbiosis.
B) virus.
C) symbiotic green alga.
D) chemosynthetic bacterium.
E) photosynthetic bacterium.
7)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.2
8) Secondary endosymbiosis can occur when a
A) nonphotosynthetic protist engulfs a photosynthetic protist.
B) virus infects a photosynthetic prokaryote.
C) green alga engulfs a photosynthetic bacterium.
D) nonphotosynthetic protist engulfs a photosynthetic bacterium.
E) protist evolves to become a prokaryote.
8)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.2
9) ________ are photosynthetic protists.
A) Parasites
B) Plants
C) Prokaryotes
D) Fungi
E) Algae
9)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
2
10) The foundation of a marine food chain is
A) plants. B) fungi. C) Archaea. D) algae. E) viruses.
10)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
11) A flagellated protist lives inside the guts of termites and enables the termites to digest the cellulose
in wood as a food source. This protist belongs to the
A) ciliates.
B) Archaea.
C) apicomplexans.
D) amoebas.
E) parabasalids.
11)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
12) Protists that have two nuclei are classified as
A) diplomonads.
B) parabasalids.
C) amoebas.
D) apicomplexans.
E) ciliates.
12)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
13) Protists that lack mitochondria are
A) amoebas.
B) euglenozoans.
C) ciliates.
D) excavates.
E) apicomplexans.
13)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
14) Which protist causes a sexually transmitted disease?
A) Giardia
B) Plasmodium
C) Trypanosoma
D) Pfiesteria
E) Trichomonas
14)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
3
15) Both Trichomonas and Giardia are parasitic protists in the group called
A) slime molds.
B) diatoms.
C) euglenids.
D) excavates.
E) alveolates.
15)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
16) Which cell structure is missing in Trichomonas and Giardia?
A) Flagella
B) Cell membranes
C) Cysts
D) Mitochondria
E) Nuclei
16)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
17) A parasitic protist that presents a major health problem to backpackers and hikers if they drink
unfiltered stream or lake water is
A) Giardia.
B) Plasmodium.
C) Pfiesteria.
D) Didinium.
E) Trypanosoma.
17)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
18) Which group of protists includes photosynthetic, unicellular, freshwater organisms that possess
eyespots?
A) Brown algae
B) Apicomplexans
C) Euglenids
D) Alveolates
E) Amoebas
18)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
4
19) Which group of protists includes photosynthetic, individual cells that lack a rigid cell wall and
move via a flagellum?
A) Slime molds
B) Water molds
C) Euglenids
D) Diatoms
E) Amoebas
19)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
20) The eyespot of a Euglena cell enables it to
A) see images in black and white only.
B) spot potential predators.
C) see images in color.
D) photosynthesize.
E) orient toward light.
20)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
21) Which of the following is a characteristic of the organism that causes malaria?
A) Multicellular
B) Viral
C) Prokaryotic
D) Photosynthetic
E) Unicellular
21)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
22) Which protist causes African sleeping sickness?
A) Plasmodium
B) Didinium
C) Giardia
D) Pfiesteria
E) Trypanosoma
22)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
23) Which protist group includes the water molds, diatoms, and brown algae?
A) Slime molds
B) Excavates
C) Euglenids
D) Stramenopiles
E) Diplomonads
23)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
5
24) Which group has caused such agricultural problems as downy mildew, potato blight, and an
avocado disease?
A) Oomycetes
B) Cyanobacteria
C) Protozoa
D) Slime molds
E) Diatoms
24)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
25) The oomycete that nearly destroyed the French wine industry in the late 1870s was
A) a cercozoan.
B) a protozoan.
C) a water mold.
D) a slime mold.
E) red tide.
25)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
26) Which group comprises a significant portion of phytoplankton and therefore is important to
marine food webs?
A) Protozoa
B) Cyanobacteria
C) Diatoms
D) Euglenids
E) Slime molds
26)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
27) Which group is characterized by gritty, glassy, protective shells?
A) Diatoms
B) Brown algae
C) Water molds
D) Slime molds
E) Dinoflagellates
27)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
6
28) Which unicellular protists have silica shells consisting of top and bottom halves that fit together
like pillboxes?
A) Amoebas
B) Diatoms
C) Euglenids
D) Apicomplexans
E) Slime molds
28)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
29) Which organism caused the disease that destroyed potato crops and led to the Irish potato famine
in the mid-1800s?
A) Kinetoplastids
B) Water mold
C) Trypanosoma
D) Excavates
E) Alveolates
29)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
30) Free-floating, photosynthetic, unicellular protists include
A) amoebas.
B) cyanobacteria.
C) ciliates.
D) phytoplankton.
E) brown algae.
30)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
31) Paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs when ________ are eaten by humans or marine mammals.
A) diatoms
B) excavates
C) dinoflagellates
D) diplomonads
E) euglenids
31)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
32) Both cyanobacteria and phytoplankton are
A) multicellular.
B) eukaryotic.
C) heterotrophic.
D) parasitic.
E) photosynthetic.
32)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
7
33) Which organisms are responsible for the majority of photosynthesis?
A) Conifers
B) Cyanobacteria
C) Phytoplankton
D) Flowering plants
E) Ferns
33)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
34) Both Didinium and Paramecium are protists in the group called
A) slime molds.
B) rhizarians.
C) alveolates.
D) ciliates.
E) excavates.
34)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
35) Which group is commonly referred to as the ʺseaweedsʺ?
A) Water molds
B) Ciliates
C) Cyanobacteria
D) Phytoplankton
E) Brown algae
35)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
36) Which protist group includes organisms that can reach heights of hundreds of feet and grow more
than half a foot per day?
A) Phytoplankton
B) Water molds
C) Cyanobacteria
D) Slime molds
E) Brown algae
36)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
37) The giant kelp found along the Pacific coast is an example of
A) slime molds.
B) cyanobacteria.
C) phytoplankton.
D) brown algae.
E) water molds.
37)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
8
38) Which protist group includes the dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates?
A) Euglenids
B) Diatoms
C) Protozoa
D) Alveolates
E) Stramenopiles
38)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.4
39) Which group of photosynthetic, mostly marine protists was named for the motion created by their
two whip-like flagella?
A) Euglenids
B) Amoebas
C) Cercozoans
D) Dinoflagellates
E) Apicomplexans
39)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
40) When a red tide occurs, huge numbers of microscopic organisms are filtered out of coastal waters
by oysters and clams. This sometimes causes the shellfish to become toxic to people who eat them.
The organisms that create the red tide are classified as
A) dinoflagellates.
B) diatoms.
C) euglenids.
D) red algae.
E) slime molds.
40)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 23.1
41) Which of the following is eukaryotic, usually acts as a producer in its ecosystem, and spins via its
flagella?
A) Apicomplexan
B) Sporozoan
C) Cyanobacterium
D) Slime mold
E) Dinoflagellate
41)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
9
42) Which of the following is the parasite apicomplexans that causes malaria if it infects a human host?
A) Pfisteria
B) Trichomonas
C) Paramecium
D) Plasmodium
E) Giardia
42)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
43) Which protozoan group consists entirely of parasitic forms?
A) Ciliates
B) Radiolarians
C) Amoebas
D) Apicomplexans
E) Slime molds
43)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
44) Which of the following is a parasitic protist that is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes?
A) Pfisteria
B) Paramecium
C) Plasmodium
D) Trichomonas
E) Giardia
44)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
45) The short, hair-like structures that propel Paramecium through the water are called
A) vacuoles.
B) cilia.
C) flagella.
D) pseudoplasmodia.
E) pseudopods.
45)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
46) Calcium carbonate shells and thread-like pseudopods are characteristic of
A) alveolates.
B) radiolarians.
C) euglenids.
D) foraminiferans.
E) excavates.
46)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
10
47) The protist characterized by a silica shell and thread-like pseudopods is a(n)
A) euglenid.
B) alveolate.
C) radiolarian.
D) foraminiferan.
E) excavate.
47)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
48) Plasmodial slime molds are described as acellular because they
A) are heterotrophic.
B) have no membranes surrounding their nuclei.
C) lack DNA.
D) have no nuclei.
E) reproduce asexually.
48)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
49) A pseudoplasmodium is a(n)
A) aggregation of mycelia.
B) disease-causing protist.
C) acellular slime mold.
D) group of cellular slime mold cells.
E) extension of the slime mold that engulfs prey.
49)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
50) A ________ forms when an acellular slime mold is exposed to dry conditions or starvation.
A) water mold B) cellular slime mold
C) fruiting body D) plasmodium
50)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
51) Which of the following characteristics distinguishes red algae from diatoms and dinoflagellates?
A) One is photosynthetic, whereas the other is not.
B) One is multicellular, whereas the other is not.
C) One lives in an aquatic environment.
D) One is a protist, whereas the other is not.
E) One is eukaryotic, whereas the other is not.
51)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
11
52) Which group has silica shells similar to those of diatoms?
A) Euglenids
B) Radiolarians
C) Apicomplexans
D) Dinoflagellates
E) Ciliates
52)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
53) Which of the following is considered to be most closely related to plants?
A) Euglenids
B) Diatoms
C) Slime molds
D) Green algae
E) Brown algae
53)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
54) Which of the following may be parasitic with humans?
A) Diatom
B) Dinoflagellate
C) Apicomplexan
D) Slime mold
E) Amoeba
54)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
55) Which of the following has pseudopods?
A) Diatom
B) Ciliate
C) Apicomplexan
D) Slime mold
E) Amoeba
55)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
TRUE/FALSE. Write ʹTʹ if the statement is true and ʹFʹ if the statement is false.
56) The protists are a group that can best be defined as ʺany eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or
fungus.ʺ
56)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.2
12
57) The protists make up an inadequately defined and poorly organized group that biologists will
likely reorganize.
57)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.2
58) The protists include photosynthetic, parasitic, and pathogenic species. 58)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
59) Some protists can cause sexually transmitted diseases in humans. 59)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
60) Alveolates are characterized by pseudopods and silica shells. 60)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
61) The majority of photosynthesis is carried out by phytoplankton. 61)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
62) Euglenids have functional eyespots that can discern all colors of visible light and the movement of
predators.
62)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
63) Chalk deposits are formed from the ancient remains of apicomplexans. 63)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
64) Giardia is found in fresh water and causes an intestinal infection in mammals. 64)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
65) Diplomonads have two nuclei and move via flagella. 65)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
13
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
66) Some protists, such as amoebas, rely on finger-like projections called ________ for
capturing prey and moving.
66)
Answer: pseudopods
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
67) The process in which photosynthetic bacteria were engulfed by a large cell and formed
chloroplasts is called ________.
67)
Answer: endosymbiosis
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.2
68) Organisms with pseudopods can surround other organisms and trap them in a ________
for digestion.
68)
Answer: food vacuole
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
69) Excavates lack ________. 69)
Answer: mitochondria
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
70) The way that Giardia normally infects a host is when the host ingests ________ in
contaminated water.
70)
Answer: cysts
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
71) Beavers are major carriers of Giardia, which is a member of the group ________ that can
cause severe diarrhea in people who drink water that contains the organismʹs cysts.
71)
Answer: diplomonad
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
72) The coral that make up a tropical coral reef can survive only in clear, well -lit waters
because of the symbiotic, photosynthetic ________ that live within the tissues of the coral.
72)
Answer: dinoflagellates
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
73) The most complex group of unicellular protists is the ________. 73)
Answer: ciliates
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
14
74) The active, feeding form of a(n) ________ is a thin, multinucleate plasmodium. 74)
Answer: acellular slime mold
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.1
75) The ________ algae are an important source of carrageenan, which is used to thicken
paints, cosmetics, and ice cream.
75)
Answer: red
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
76) The White Cliffs of Dover, England, were formed over millions of years by the
accumulation of calcium carbonate shells from ________.
76)
Answer: foraminiferans
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
77) Trypanosoma is a protistan parasite that causes ________ in humans. 77)
Answer: African sleeping sickness
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.2
78) ________ is a protistan parasite that causes malaria in humans. 78)
Answer: Plasmodium
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
79) Malaria is caused by a protist that is transmitted by the bite of a(n) ________. 79)
Answer: mosquito
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
80) The group of protistan aquatic organisms known generally as ________ produces most of
the worldʹs oxygen.
80)
Answer: phytoplankton
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
81) Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by the group of protists known as ________. 81)
Answer: dinoflagellates
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
82) Anaerobic, flagellated protists such as Trichomonas are grouped as ________. 82)
Answer: parabasalids
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
15
83) Oomycetes are primarily ________ that destroy crops such as grapes and potatoes. 83)
Answer: decomposers
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
84) The group ________ includes brown algae and diatoms. 84)
Answer: stramenopiles
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
85) In rhizarians, the ________ extend through a calcium carbonate or silica shell. 85)
Answer: pseudopods
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
86) What types of organisms are classified as protists? 86)
Answer: Protists are a catch-all group that contains all eukaryotic organisms that do not fit
under the heading of plant, animal, or fungus.
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
87) By what mechanism(s) do protists reproduce? 87)
Answer: Protists reproduce by both asexual methods, which yield two identical organisms,
and sexual methods, which combine the genetic material of two organisms.
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.1
88) What would life on Earth be like today if eukaryotic protists had not evolved? 88)
Answer: Life on Earth would most likely be a diversity of prokaryotes, but no eukaryotes.
This is because plants, animals, and fungi likely evolved from protists that
subsequently underwent radical changes in their cellular structure and eukaryotic
design.
Chapter Section: 21.1
Learning Outcome: 21.3
89) How do amoebas differ from foraminiferans? 89)
Answer: Both amoebas and foraminiferans have pseudopods, but amoebas lack the calcium
carbonate shell found on foraminiferans.
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
90) How do kinetoplastids differ from excavates? 90)
Answer: Excavates lack mitochondria, whereas kinetoplastids have mitochondria.
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
16
91) One of the techniques for controlling the spread of malaria is to drape netting over the
bed. What are the two reasons that this measure would prevent the spread of malaria?
91)
Answer: Plasmodium rely on mosquitoes to spread from person to person. The netting would
stop the mosquitoes from biting humans, thereby preventing uninfected mosquitoes
from picking up the parasite and stopping infected mosquitoes from biting a new
host and spreading the infection.
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
92) Explain the difference between a plasmodium and Plasmodium. 92)
Answer: A plasmodium is an acellular slime mold structure made up of thousands of nuclei
that are not confined in separate cells. Plasmodium is the genus of apicomplexan
protists that causes malaria.
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
93) What is required to get a cellular slime mold to form a pseudoplasmodium? 93)
Answer: The pseudoplasmodium forms when food becomes scarce.
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
17
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
94) The organisms in the image have shells made of
A) starch.
B) cellulose.
C) cilia.
D) calcium carbonate.
E) silica.
94)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
18
95) The organisms in the photo belong to the group
A) rhizarians.
B) alveolates.
C) excavates.
D) stramenopiles.
E) euglenozoans.
95)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
19
96) What characteristic do the organisms in the photos share?
A) Both are photosynthetic.
B) Both have calcium carbonate shells.
C) Both use pseudopods to capture food.
D) Both are multicellular.
E) Both are parasites.
96)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
20
97) What characteristic do the organisms in the photos share?
A) Both have calcium carbonate shells.
B) Both use pseudopods to capture food.
C) Both are parasites.
D) Both are photosynthetic.
E) Both are prokaryotic.
97)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
98) While exploring a newly exposed shoreline, you find a new protist. It appears to be multicellular, it
uses carbon dioxide from the air to carry out photosynthesis, and its chloroplasts closely resemble
those of ferns and grasses. This organism is most likely to belong to the group
A) brown alga.
B) apicomplexan.
C) diatom.
D) green alga.
E) slime mold.
98)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
21
99) After a meal of raw oysters, a woman begins to feel numbness and tingling in her hands and feet.
By the time she gets to the hospital, she can no longer move and is having difficulty breathing. The
lab finds a protist with two flagella. The organism is a(n)
A) apicomplexan.
B) dinoflagellate.
C) brown alga.
D) radiolarian.
E) euglenozoan.
99)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3
100) A man is brought to the hospital suffering from nausea, vomiting, and severe stomach cramps. He
had recently returned from a hiking trip in northern Minnesota. A sample taken from the man
shows a single-celled flagellate organism that lacks mitochondria but has two nuclei. This
organism is a(n)
A) excavate.
B) diatom.
C) euglenozoan.
D) green alga.
E) apicomplexan.
100)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
101) A shift in weather patterns causes a drought. The normally moist forest becomes dry, with the leaf
litter on the forest floor blowing away in high winds. The creek, which normally overflows and
floods the forest floor every time it rains, dries up. What would you expect to happen to the slime
molds that live in the area?
A) The plasmodium would expand and colonize the now -clean forest floor.
B) The slime mold would begin making red photosynthetic pigments.
C) The slime mold would begin parasitizing humans.
D) Dry conditions would encourage the slime mold to photosynthesize.
E) The slime molds would shift from the plasmodium and form fruiting bodies.
101)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.4
102) A woman develops liver inflammation, a high fever, and a severe decline in red blood cell
numbers. Her blood is filled with a parasitic, single-celled organism. When asked about any recent
travel, she tells the nurse about her trip to a tropical rain forest. It was a great trip except for the
huge number of mosquitoes that bit her. She is probably infected with
A) Giardia.
B) Trichomonas.
C) Euglena.
D) Plasmodium.
E) Trypanosoma.
102)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 21.2
Learning Outcome: 21.3; 21.4
22

 

 

 

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) All organisms that generate energy (ATP) aerobically need to take in oxygen and remove carbon
dioxide from their bodies. This process is known as
A) absorption.
B) conduction.
C) ingestion.
D) elimination.
E) respiration.
1)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.1
2) The carbon dioxide that is exhaled when you breathe is produced during
A) cellular respiration.
B) nitrogen fixation.
C) intracellular digestion.
D) diffusion.
E) glycolysis.
2)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.1
3) Which of the following is NOT a feature shared by all animal respiratory surfaces?
A) They are thin. B) They are moist.
C) They have a large surface area. D) They are associated with a capillary bed.
3)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.2
4) Why does a typical fish die quickly when it is removed from water?
A) The gills collapse and dry out in the air.
B) Water contains more oxygen, per unit volume, than does air.
C) Oxygen diffuses more rapidly in water than it does in air.
D) Gills split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen, which is used for cellular respiration.
4)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
5) Which of the following structures is NOT part of an insect respiratory system?
A) Tracheoles B) Tracheae C) Parabronchi D) Spiracles
5)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
1
6) Which of the following groups of animals is most efficient at extracting oxygen from the
atmosphere?
A) Mammals
B) Amphibians
C) Insects
D) Reptiles
E) Birds
6)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
7) In the lungs, oxygen moves from air into blood by
A) bulk flow.
B) diffusion.
C) osmosis.
D) facilitated diffusion.
E) active transport.
7)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.8
8) If a respiratory surface dries out, gas exchange will
A) not be affected.
B) decrease for carbon dioxide but increase for oxygen.
C) not occur.
D) decrease for oxygen but increase for carbon dioxide.
E) increase.
8)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.2
9) Which of the following structures protects the delicate gills of many fish?
A) An operculum
B) Tracheoles
C) Lamellae
D) Spiracles
E) An alveolus
9)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
10) Which of the following statements about gas exchange in animals with interacting circulatory and
respiratory systems is FALSE?
A) Gases are transported in the circulatory system by the bulk flow of blood.
B) Carbon dioxide moves from the tissues into the blood by diffusion.
C) Air or water moves across the respiratory surface by bulk flow.
D) Oxygen is actively transported into the circulatory system.
E) Oxygen and carbon dioxide pass through respiratory membranes by diffusion.
10)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.2
2
11) Which of these animals use gills to respire?
A) Spiders
B) Tadpoles
C) Insects
D) Earthworms
E) Jellyfishes
11)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
12) What are spiracles?
A) Openings into the alveoli of the lungs
B) Openings between the gills of a frog tadpole
C) Openings to the bronchi
D) Openings into the tracheae of insects
E) Openings to the parabronchi
12)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
13) All of the following are respiratory surfaces EXCEPT for
A) tracheae of a fly.
B) skin of earthworms.
C) gills of fish.
D) alveoli of dogs.
E) air sacs of birds.
13)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
14) You are a veterinarian working for the San Diego Zoo. Today, you are performing an autopsy on a
22.7-gram frog and a 21.2-gram lizard, both of which appear to have died of a respiratory
infection. Why are you not surprised to find that the lungs of the lizard have a larger internal
surface area than those of the frog?
A) Lizards lay shelled eggs on land, whereas frogs lay jelly-like eggs in water.
B) Lizards are more susceptible than frogs to atmospheric pollutants.
C) Lizards have dry, scaly skin, whereas frogs have thin, moist skin.
D) Lizards have a higher metabolic rate than frogs.
E) The lizard is larger than the frog.
14)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
3
15) Identify the animal that lacks a specialized respiratory organ.
A) Trout
B) Sponge
C) Bat
D) Bird
E) Grasshopper
15)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
16) Air flow into and out of the lungs is an example of
A) diffusion.
B) osmosis.
C) active transport.
D) facilitated diffusion.
E) bulk flow.
16)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.8
17) Why is gas exchange in an aquatic environment more challenging than gas exchange in the air?
A) The countercurrent exchange process limits the amount of oxygen that can be extracted from
water.
B) The large surface area of gills makes them more susceptible to drying out.
C) Gills have a poor blood supply.
D) Less oxygen is available in water than in air.
E) Carbon dioxide is eliminated by active transport in an aquatic environment.
17)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.2
18) Birds are able to sustain long flights at high altitudes because they
A) can extract oxygen during both inhalation and exhalation.
B) decrease their heart rate during flight.
C) are able to lower their body temperature during flight.
D) use anaerobic metabolism during flight.
E) have thicker blood than other animals, with many more red blood cells.
18)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
19) Which of the following structures decreases diffusion distances for oxygen and carbon dioxide by
delivering air directly to body cells?
A) Tracheoles
B) Bronchi
C) Spiracles
D) Parabronchi
E) Gill filaments
19)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.3
4
20) Sea jellies lack specialized organs for gas exchange because
A) their tissues have low energy demands.
B) they donʹt need oxygen.
C) their digestive system eliminates carbon dioxide.
D) they use their circulatory system to deliver oxygen to their cells.
20)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.3
21) Which of the following organisms would use its skin as a primary respiratory surface?
A) Lizard
B) Bird
C) Turtle
D) Snake
E) Salamander
21)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
22) Which sequence of animals represents the evolution of animal respiratory systems?
A) Bird, lizard, salamander, fish
B) Fish, salamander, lizard, bird
C) Fish, lizard, salamander, bird
D) Salamander, lizard, fish, bird
E) Lizard, fish, bird, salamander
22)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
23) Which of these structures is analogous in function to the tracheoles of insects?
A) Body surface of a flatworm B) Skin of an earthworm
C) Gills of a fish D) Bronchi of a human
23)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
24) Which of these structures is analogous in function to the alveoli of humans?
A) Skin of an alligator
B) Parabronchi of a bird
C) Spiracles of a grasshopper
D) Trachea of a frog
E) Operculum of a fish
24)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.8
5
25) The respiratory systems of fishes, frogs, sponges, and earthworms are similar in that they
A) have a countercurrent exchange system.
B) employ an extensive system of air sacs that ensures a unidirectional flow of air.
C) exchange gases across a moist respiratory surface.
D) have internal respiratory structures.
E) utilize a complex network of air-conducting tubes.
25)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
26) Which of the following structures is the site of gas exchange in the human lung?
A) Larynx
B) Alveoli
C) Bronchi
D) Trachea
E) Bronchioles
26)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.11
27) What structure prevents food from entering the larynx?
A) Bronchus
B) Intercostal muscle
C) Respiratory membrane
D) Diaphragm
E) Epiglottis
27)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
28) The vocal cords are located in the
A) trachea. B) bronchi. C) epiglottis. D) larynx. E) pharynx.
28)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
29) Gas exchange in the lungs occurs as a result of
A) active transport of gases between the blood and the alveolus.
B) facilitated diffusion of gases between the hemoglobin and the alveolus.
C) facilitated diffusion of gases between the blood and the alveolus.
D) diffusion of gases between the blood and the alveolus.
E) active transport of gases between hemoglobin and the alveolus.
29)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
6
30) Which of the following represents the correct air pathway during exhalation?
A) Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, larynx, trachea
B) Bronchioles, bronchi, alveoli, trachea, larynx
C) Trachea, larynx, bronchi, alveoli, bronchioles
D) Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
30)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.8
31) Most of the carbon dioxide released from cells is transported in the blood as
A) dissolved carbon monoxide. B) carbohydrates, such as glucose.
C) carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin. D) bicarbonate ions in the plasma.
31)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
32) During inhalation, the diaphragm
A) contracts and becomes dome-shaped. B) contracts and flattens.
C) relaxes and becomes dome-shaped. D) relaxes and flattens.
32)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
33) How much air enters the lungs of an average-sized adult when breathing normally?
A) 275 milliliters
B) 750 milliliters
C) 1,000 milliliters
D) 125 milliliters
E) 500 milliliters
33)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
34) The respiratory control center is located in the
A) medulla.
B) diaphragm.
C) cortex.
D) spinal cord.
E) hypothalamus.
34)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
7
35) The function of the epiglottis is to
A) produce surfactant.
B) prevent food from entering the larynx.
C) facilitate gas exchange in the lungs.
D) assist the vocal cords in sound production.
E) keep the bronchi from collapsing.
35)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
36) During inhalation, air leaving the nasal cavity passes into the
A) larynx.
B) trachea.
C) bronchi.
D) pharynx.
E) bronchioles.
36)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
37) Alveoli
A) are blind sacs that extend from tracheae.
B) are thick-walled.
C) have a moist surface.
D) are found in gills.
E) are not permeable to dissolved oxygen.
37)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
38) A thin slice of lung tissue looks like a cross-section of
A) a blown-up balloon.
B) a sponge.
C) a carrot.
D) a ball of worms.
E) a piece of wood.
38)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
39) The cells that line the human respiratory passageways secrete
A) hormones. B) enzymes. C) water. D) blood. E) mucus.
39)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.11
8
40) Most of the oxygen in the blood is transported
A) as bicarbonate ions.
B) by white blood cells.
C) bound to hemoglobin.
D) combined with carbon dioxide.
E) in the plasma.
40)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
41) Hemoglobin is a respiratory protein. Its function is to
A) remove toxins from plasma.
B) provide structural integrity to red blood cells.
C) attract lymphocytes to damaged tissues.
D) increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood.
E) assist in blood clotting.
41)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
42) What causes smokerʹs cough?
A) Carbon monoxide in the smoke triggers the cough reflex.
B) Smoking damages the cilia that normally remove debris -laden mucus.
C) Nicotine irritates the lining of the lung.
D) Smoking affects the respiratory center neurons in the medulla.
42)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
43) An emergency room physician has withdrawn blood from a vessel in your arm. The dark red color
of the blood indicates that it was
A) going away from the heart.
B) on its way to the tissues of the arm.
C) taken from an artery.
D) coming from the lungs.
E) taken from a vein.
43)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
44) The respiratory membrane is a combination of
A) bronchi and air sacs.
B) bronchioles and capillary walls.
C) bronchi and bronchioles.
D) alveolar and capillary walls.
E) bronchioles and air sacs.
44)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
9
45) What is the function of surfactant?
A) It stimulates activity of the cilia lining the walls of the alveoli.
B) It prevents the alveoli from sticking together and collapsing.
C) It increases surface tension.
D) It increases alveolar expansion.
E) It enhances contraction of the inspiratory muscles.
45)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
46) Which of the following occurs in the lungs?
A) Air loses all of its oxygen.
B) As oxygen-poor blood travels through the lungs, it releases all of its carbon dioxide.
C) Gases move by bulk flow into and out of the blood.
D) Some of the oxygen in the air moves into the blood, and some of the carbon dioxide in the
blood moves into the air.
E) Oxygen and carbon dioxide move from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.
46)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
47) What happens during inhalation?
A) The heart pumps blood to the lungs.
B) Air exits the alveoli.
C) The intercostal muscles relax.
D) The chest cavity decreases in size.
E) The diaphragm contracts.
47)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
48) The respiratory control center consists of
A) the anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
B) a cluster of nerve cells in the medulla.
C) the alveoli.
D) a group of highly modified cells located in the hypothalamus.
E) a cluster of nerve cells in the lungs.
48)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
49) All of the following are possible EXCEPT
A) a voluntary decrease in the rate of breathing.
B) inhibition of the respiratory centers in the brain.
C) a voluntary increase in the rate of breathing.
D) an involuntary increase in the rate of breathing.
E) voluntarily holding oneʹs breath until death occurs.
49)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.9
10
50) The respiratory center is very sensitive to changes in ________ levels, but not very sensitive to
changes in ________ levels.
A) blood sugar; hormone
B) carbon dioxide; oxygen
C) temperature; blood pressure
D) oxygen; carbon dioxide
E) hormone; blood sugar
50)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.12
51) Imagine that a patient is admitted to the hospital after falling from the second-story window of
her apartment. Tests reveal no injuries other than some swelling in the brain. Why, then, would
her breathing become irregular?
A) Her tissues require more oxygen for healing.
B) The respiratory center in the lungs is malfunctioning due to a lack of carbon dioxide.
C) The damage to the brain is affecting the respiratory center in the medulla.
D) Her swollen brain is causing a decrease in blood pressure.
E) The blood returning to the lungs from the brain is too high in oxygen.
51)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
52) Carbon dioxide can be transported in the blood by all of the following methods, EXCEPT
A) as CO within red blood cells. B) carried in plasma as HCO3-.
C) dissolved in plasma as CO2. D) bound to hemoglobin.
52)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
53) Which of the following is NOT part of the conducting portion of the human respiratory system?
A) Pharynx B) Bronchi C) Larynx D) Trachea E) Alveoli
53)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
54) Which of the following events initiates the process of exhalation?
A) Contraction of the diaphragm
B) Contraction of the intercostal (rib) muscles
C) Expansion of the lungs
D) Relaxation of the diaphragm
54)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
11
55) The receptors in the respiratory center are most sensitive to a small
A) increase in blood pH.
B) increase in blood carbon dioxide levels.
C) decrease in blood nitrogen levels.
D) increase in blood oxygen levels.
E) decrease in blood oxygen levels.
55)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.12
56) Which of the following passageways delivers air directly into each lung?
A) Bronchus
B) Bronchiole
C) Pharynx
D) Trachea
E) Larynx
56)
Answer: A
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
57) Which of the following structures serves as a passageway for both air and food?
A) Bronchi
B) Larynx
C) Bronchioles
D) Trachea
E) Pharynx
57)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
58) A layer of smooth muscle in the wall of this tiny air-conducting tube allows it to regulate its
diameter.
A) Larynx
B) Pharynx
C) Alveolus
D) Bronchiole
E) Trachea
58)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
59) Where does gas exchange occur in the mammalian lung?
A) Bronchi
B) The pharynx
C) The trachea
D) Bronchioles
E) Alveoli
59)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.6
12
60) What keeps the trachea from collapsing?
A) Surface tension of water B) Surfactant
C) Cilia D) Semicircular rings of cartilage
60)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
61) For smokers who quit smoking, when does healing begin?
A) After a year B) After 6 months
C) Almost immediately D) After 5 years
61)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.11
62) Smokerʹs cough is the result of
A) dehydration of respiratory passages.
B) an accumulation of mucus.
C) emphysema.
D) nicotine exposure.
E) carbon monoxide irritation in the throat.
62)
Answer: B
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
63) Which of the following is a consequence of breathing secondhand smoke?
A) Nonsmoking spouses of smokers have a 30% lower risk of heart attack.
B) Smokers are more likely to have increased lung capacity.
C) Nonsmoking children of smokers are less likely to develop atherosclerosis.
D) Nonsmoking children of smokers are more likely to contract pneumonia.
63)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.8
64) What happens during countercurrent exchange in fishes?
A) Oxygen enters the blood by active transport, and carbon dioxide exits the blood by diffusion.
B) Gas exchange occurs as blood and water move in the same direction across a respiratory
surface.
C) Oxygen and carbon dioxide move in opposite directions across the respiratory surface by
facilitated diffusion.
D) Oxygen enters the blood by diffusion, and carbon dioxide exits the blood by active transport.
E) Gas exchange occurs as blood and water move in opposite directions across a respiratory
surface.
64)
Answer: E
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
13
65) Fish gills consist of a series of
A) parabronchi.
B) spiracles.
C) opercula.
D) filaments.
E) interconnected bronchioles.
65)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
TRUE/FALSE. Write ʹTʹ if the statement is true and ʹFʹ if the statement is false.
66) All flatworms use their skin as a respiratory organ. 66)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.4
67) The surface area of all respiratory systems must be large compared with the size of the animal
involved because diffusion is a relatively slow process.
67)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.2
68) Vertebrate lungs probably evolved from simple outpocketings of the digestive tract of a freshwater
fish.
68)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
69) Some fishes can extract 80% of the oxygen from water flowing through their gills through
countercurrent exchange.
69)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
70) Gills are respiratory structures found in fish, nudibranch mollusks, and some amphibians. 70)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
71) Most carbon dioxide is transported in red blood cells bound to hemoglobin. 71)
Answer: True False
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.12
14
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
72) When a cell is active, the levels of carbon dioxide are ________ inside the cell than outside
the cell, causing the gas to diffuse out of the cell.
72)
Answer: higher
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.3
73) The cells of cnidarians use relatively little energy, so their demand for oxygen is quite low.
They deliver oxygen to their internal cells by pumping water into and out of a central
chamber called the ________.
73)
Answer: gastrovascular cavity
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.1
74) When a bumblebee lands on a flower, it pumps its abdomen up and down to move
oxygen into its system of tracheae through the round openings called ________ on its
abdomen.
74)
Answer: spiracles
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
75) In humans, the respiratory rate is primarily regulated by levels of ________ in the blood,
which is detected by nerve cells in the respiratory center.
75)
Answer: carbon dioxide
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
76) During gas exchange in the lungs, ________ diffuses from the alveoli into the bloodstream
capillaries, and ________ diffuses from the bloodstream capillaries into the alveoli.
76)
Answer: oxygen; carbon dioxide
Chapter Section: 34.4
Learning Outcome: 34.11
77) What structures make up the large surface area for gas exchange in fishes? 77)
Answer: There are many gills, each of which is made up of many filaments that are covered
by thin folds of tissue called lamellae.
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
78) What three features are common to all respiratory systems? 78)
Answer: All systems are moist and thin and have a large surface area for gas exchange.
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.3
79) How can a sponge deliver oxygen to every cell of its body without a respiratory system? 79)
Answer: A sponge uses ciliated cells to draw water into its porous body, bringing oxygen
and nutrients to its cells while also removing waste and carbon dioxide.
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.4
15
80) How are cellular respiration and organismal respiration related? 80)
Answer: Cells carry out cellular respiration, which uses oxygen and produces carbon
dioxide. Oxygen is supplied to the cells, and carbon dioxide is removed from the
cells by organismal respiration.
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.1
81) How do bulk flow and diffusion interact to enable respiratory systems to deliver oxygen
quickly to all cells of the body?
81)
Answer: Bulk flow carries oxygen quickly into the system and through the circulation to the
cells. Diffusion, a slower process, then only has to move oxygen into the circulation
and into the cells.
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.3
82) The operculum of fishes covers the gills, protecting them from damage and predators.
What additional functions does the operculum have?
82)
Answer: It streamlines the body and keeps water moving over the gills.
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
83) How are birds able to get fresh air even when they are exhaling? 83)
Answer: Birds have posterior air sacs that fill with air during inspiration and empty into the
lungs during exhalation. This supplies oxygen to the lungs continuously, even
when birds are exhaling.
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.6
84) Describe how fishes are able to extract oxygen from water. 84)
Answer: Countercurrent exchange occurs as water flows over the gill filaments. This ensures
that the incoming water is always flowing past capillaries with a lower oxygen
concentration.
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
85) What effect does smoking have on the movement of mucus in the respiratory tract? 85)
Answer: Smoke paralyzes the cilia so that the mucus cannot be swept upward.
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.11
86) What stimulates the respiratory center to increase the breathing rate? 86)
Answer: A rise in carbon dioxide levels
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.9
87) Compare the way most oxygen is carried in the blood with the way most carbon dioxide is
carried.
87)
Answer: Most oxygen is bound to hemoglobin; most carbon dioxide is carried as bicarbonate
ion, with small amounts bound to hemoglobin and dissolved in the plasma.
Chapter Section: 34.3
Learning Outcome: 34.12
16
88) How is the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide related to their concentration
gradients?
88)
Answer: Oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules always move from areas of higher
concentration to areas of lower concentration.
Chapter Section: 34.1
Learning Outcome: 34.2
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
89) Based on this figure, which of the following contains the most oxygen?
A) Blood leaving the tissues B) Blood leaving the right ventricle
C) Blood entering the left atrium D) Blood entering the alveoli
89)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.8
17
90) Refer to this figure to determine which of the following statements is correct.
A) Lamellae bring air within diffusing distance of each body cell.
B) Oxygen diffuses out of blood as it flows through lamellae.
C) Blood and water are flowing in the same direction (concurrent).
D) Blood and water are flowing in opposite directions (countercurrent).
90)
Answer: D
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.7
18
91) Horsehair worms, in the phylum Nematomorpha, do not have a respiratory system. They are
usually found in puddles of water or on damp sidewalks and patios, or they may come wiggling
out of insects. These creatures have no economic importance other than being parasitic to some
insects.
Based on this scenario, horsehair worms are most likely to
A) use large amounts of energy.
B) have a dry skin surface.
C) have a large surface area compared with their volume.
D) have very thick bodies.
E) be unable to efficiently digest food.
91)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.4
92) Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by a mutation in a gene called the cystic fibrosis
transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The mutation causes the afflicted individual to
produce thick, sticky mucus that the cilia lining the respiratory tract canʹt easily remove. There is
no cure for CF, and most individuals suffering from this condition die in their 20s or 30s.
Based on this scenario, what would you conclude about people who have CF?
A) They have excessive growth rates that result in gigantism.
B) They have extremely thin skin that is easily damaged.
C) They suffer from incessant coughing and chronic lung infections.
D) They have elevated oxygen levels in their blood.
E) They have dangerously high blood pressure.
92)
Answer: C
Chapter Section: 34.2
Learning Outcome: 34.8
19

There are no reviews yet.

Add a review

Be the first to review “Biology Life on Earth 11th Edition by Audesirk – Test Bank”

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Category:
Updating…
  • No products in the cart.