Biology 12th Edition by by Sylvia S. Mader -Test Bank

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Chapter 05

Membrane Structure and Function

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A major chemical that regulates the fluidity of animal cell membranes by stiffening the membrane at higher temperatures and preventing the membrane from freezing at lower temperature is
    A. cholesterol.
    B.  lipid in nature.
    C.  a steroid.
    D.  All of the choices are correct.

All are true. Cholesterol is lipid in nature and a steroid. It regulates the fluidity of animal cell membranes.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Proteins in a membrane are
    A. peripheral if they are on the inside surface held in place by the cytoskeleton.
    B.  integral if they are embedded in the membrane and protrude from both surfaces of the bilayer.
    C.  integral if they protrude from only one surface of the bilayer.
    D.  All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct. Proteins in a membrane are peripheral if they are on the inside surface held in place by the cytoskeleton, integral if they are embedded in the membrane, integral if they protrude from only one surface of the bilayer.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Which of the following protein functions is not correctly associated with the correct integral protein?
    A. carrier proteins-facilitate passage of molecules through the membrane
    B.  enzymatic proteins-catalyze a specific reaction
    C.  channel proteins-block the activity of carrier proteins
    D.  cell recognition proteins-recognize pathogens

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Active transport
    A. requires an input of ATP.
    B.  is involved in diffusion.
    C.  occurs in osmosis and facilitated transport.
    D.  All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.01 Explain how active transport moves substances across a membrane.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

  1. The channel protein that accounts for why water can cross a membrane more quickly than expected is
    A. ATP synthetase.
    B.  aquaporin.
    C.  the sodium-potassium pump.
    D.  integrin.

The newly discovered membrane channel protein that accounts for the quick movement of water across a membrane is aquaporin.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Which of the following is true with respect to plant cell walls?
    A. They contain n-acetylglutamic acid.
    B.  They all have secondary cell walls to some extent.
    C.  There is a greater amount of cellulose in secondary cell walls than in primary cell walls.
    D.  Lignin is found in primary cell walls of plants.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.03 Explain the role of plasmodesmata in plants.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Wall

  1. In a phospholipid bilayer, the
    A. phosphate groups are hydrophobic.
    B.  fatty acid tails are ionized.
    C.  fatty acid tails are hydrophilic.
    D.  proteins are located only between the two layers.
    E.  phosphate heads are oriented toward the exterior of the cell or toward the cytoplasm.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Which statement is true about the plasma membrane?
    A. The proteins make up the matrix of the membrane.
    B.  The model can be likened to a sandwich where phospholipids are like the bread and proteins are like the filling.
    C.  The fluid nature of the membrane is regulated by flip-flopping of the phospholipids from one side of the membrane to the other.
    D.  Proteins and phospholipids can move sideways within the plane of the membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Which statement is NOT true about the proteins in the plasma membrane?
    A. Proteins may be attached to the inner surface of the plasma membrane.
    B.  The hydrophobic portion of a protein is embedded within the membrane.
    C.  Some peripheral proteins are connected to cytoskeletal filaments.
    D.  Integral proteins are responsible for membrane functions.
    E.  Glycoproteins contain carbohydrate chains that are oriented toward the inner surface of the membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Which phrase does NOT describe one of the functions of proteins of the plasma membrane?
    A. forming a channel through the membrane
    B.  initiating the replication of the genetic material
    C.  binding to a substance to carry it through the membrane
    D.  acting as a receptor for substances external to the cell
    E.  increasing the rate of a chemical reaction

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Red blood cells come in many “blood types” including type A, type B, type AB, type O [lacking proteins A and B], Rh positive, and Rh negative [lacking Rh+] and many others. If blood is transfused, the recipient detects any new or “foreign” proteins. These blood type proteins are
    A. in the plasma where they have been secreted by the red blood cells.
    B.  inside the red blood cell cytoplasm.
    C.  on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.
    D.  evenly distributed throughout the cell contents and plasma.
    E.  in the red blood cell nucleus.

These blood type proteins are on the outer surface of the red blood cell membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Whether a molecule can cross the plasma membrane depends upon
    A. the size of the molecule.
    B.  the shape of the molecule.
    C.  the chemical properties of the molecule.
    D.  the charge of the molecule.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct. Whether a molecule can cross the plasma membrane depends upon the size of the molecule, the shape of the molecule, the chemical properties of the molecule and the charge of the molecule.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

  1. If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, which will occur?
    A. Salts will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
    B.  Water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.
    C.  Salts will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
    D.  Water will move out of the cell into the surrounding solution.
    E.  None of the choices will occur.

If a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water will move into the cell from the surrounding solution.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

  1. Which is the best definition of osmosis?
    A. The movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration.
    B.  The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.
    C.  The movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration.
    D.  The movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration.
    E.  The movement of a substance against its concentration gradient through the release of energy from ATP.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

  1. Having similar ____________ would allow tissues and organs to be transplanted easily.
    A. cell recognition proteins
    B.  major histocompatibility complex proteins
    C.  carbohydrate chains in the cell membrane
    D.  all of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation

All of the choices are involved in tissue transplantation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Which type of molecule will require some amount of energy to cross the cell membrane?
    A. glycerol
    B.  polar
    C.  non-polar molecules
    D.  carbon dioxide
    E.  oxygen

Polar molecules are incompatible with the interior of the cell and require energy to cross the membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.04 Explain why the plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. Freshwater protozoans react to a/an _____ environment by removing water through _____.
    A. hypertonic, turgor pressure
    B.  hypotonic, turgor pressure
    C.  isotonic, a contractile vacuole
    D.  hypertonic, a contractile vacuole
    E.  hypotonic, a contractile vacuole

Freshwater protozoans react to a/an hypotonic environment by removing water through a contractile vacuole.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

  1. Which of the following is NOT associated with animal cells?
    A. an extracellular matrix
    B.  plasmodesmata
    C.  gap junctions
    D.  adhesion junctions (desmosomes)
    E.  tight junctions

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04.02 Compare the structure and function of adhesion, tight, and gap junctions in animals.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. The major functions of the plasma membrane do NOT include
    A. separation of the fluid environments inside and outside the cell.
    B.  regulation of molecules and ions that pass into and out of the cell.
    C.  recognition and communication between different cells and tissues.
    D.  maintaining connections between adjacent cells.
    E.  production of proteins used in construction of the cell wall.

The major functions of the plasma membrane do NOT include the production of proteins used in construction of the cell wall.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Some parasites and disease agents regularly change their identity before our immune system can build up substantial antibodies. How could cells change their chemical identity on a regular basis?
    A. Rapid evolution produces mutations.
    B.  A new phospholipid bilayer is generated to replace the old layer.
    C.  Because the membrane is “set,” the cell must reproduce and then the cell with the old membrane must die.
    D.  Cells eliminate all surface proteins and present only a naked lipid bilayer.
    E.  Different glycolipids and glycoproteins are produced internally and moved into the plasma membrane.

Cells change their chemical identity on a regular basis by producing different glycolipids and glycoproteins internally and moving them into the plasma membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Plants show turgor pressure when
    A. cells are losing water from their water vacuoles.
    B.  cells contain water vacuoles that are full of water.
    C.  water is being used up in photosynthesis.
    D.  water is being evaporated from the leaves.

Plants show turgor pressure when their cells contain water vacuoles that are full of water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Cell Wall

  1. Which is the best definition of active transport?
    A. movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration
    B.  movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
    C.  movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration
    D.  movement of water across a semi permeable membrane from an area of lower water concentration to an area of higher water concentration
    E.  movement of a substance against its concentration through the release of energy from ATP

.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.01 Explain how active transport moves substances across a membrane.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. Sugars and amino acids are carried into the cell by means of
    A. facilitated transport.
    B.  diffusion.
    C.  endocytosis.
    D.  exocytosis.

Sugars and amino acids are carried into the cell by means of facilitated transport.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.02 Describe the role of proteins in the movement of molecules across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

  1. The process by which cholesterol is transported into the cell by the binding of LDL to its receptor and the internalization of the receptor-LDL complex is
    A. facilitated transport.
    B.  active transport.
    C.  cotransport.
    D.  endocytosis.
    E.  exocytosis.

The process by which cholesterol is transported into the cell by binding of LDL to its receptor and the internalization of the receptor-LDL complex is by receptor-mediated endocytosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.03 Contrast the bulk transport of large and small substances into a cell.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Design an experiment that illustrates how any one of these factors (temperature, pressure, molecule size) may affect the rate of diffusion.

Answer may vary. A simple experiment to test the diffusion rate at two different temperatures follows. Use two large beakers, one with water at 60°F and the other with water at 90°F. Put a drop of dark red food coloring in each beaker. Observe the diffusion of the red food dye in both beakers to determine when the color is evenly distributed. One will observe that diffusion occurs at a faster rate at higher temperatures.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. The solution in the thistle tube is _______ to the solution in the beaker.

    A.  hypertonic
    B.  hypotonic
    C.  isotonic
    D.  none of the answer choices

The solution in the tube has a higher concentration of solute than the solution in the beaker. It is, therefore, hypertonic.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

  1. A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. Where is the highest concentration of water found?

    A.  in the 10% solution
    B.  in the 5% solution
    C.  the concentration of water is the same in both solutions.
    D.  None of the answer choices

The highest concentration of water is in the 5% solution.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. There is a differentially permeable membrane across the broad end of the tube, which is permeable to water but not to the sugar glucose. What will occur over time to the water? To the solute?

As time passes, the water will move from an area of higher water concentration (5%) to an area of lower water concentration (10%). The solute can not cross the membrane, so solute will not diffuse, although there is a concentration gradient. The water level in the thistle tube rises, thus diluting the 10% solution. The 10% solution becomes less concentrated because of the diffusion of water into the tube. The 5% solution becomes more concentrated as water diffuses out of this area into the thistle tube.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. A 10% glucose solution is placed in the thistle tube. The thistle tube is placed in a beaker that contains a 5% glucose solution. There is a differentially permeable membrane across the broad end of the tube, which is permeable to water but not to the sugar glucose. As diffusion occurs

    A.  the 10% solution will become more concentrated and the 5% solution will become less concentrated.
    B.  both solutions will become more concentrated.
    C.  the 10% solution will become less concentrated and the 5% solution will become more concentrated.
    D.  both solutions will become less concentrated.

As diffusion occurs, the 10% solution will become less concentrated and the 5% solution will become more concentrated.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

  1. Study the series of pictures to identify the process as

    A.  facilitated transport.
    B.  active transport.
    C.  passive transport.
    D.  osmosis.

The process should be identified as facilitated transport because of the movement of solute from a higher to lower concentration through a carrier protein.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

Essay Questions

 

 

  1. Study the series of pictures to identify the process through which materials are being transported across the membrane. Explain how you arrived at your answer.

The process is facilitated transport. The solute is moving from high to low concentration, as is the case in diffusion. There is a carrier protein, which changes shape as it moves the solute across the membrane. A carrier protein moving solute from high to low concentration is facilitated transport.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

  1. A crystal of green dye is added to a beaker of water. The dye will undergo diffusion. After studying the series of beakers from the left to the right, define diffusion and state the ultimate outcome of diffusion?

The dye is diffusing from an area of high concentration into areas of lower concentration, while water is doing the same. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion of the dye and water continue until dynamic equilibrium is reached.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.02.01 Compare diffusion and osmosis across a membrane.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

  1. Before boarding an airplane on a commercial flight, the traveler must show personal identification and a ticket to airport security. The traveler must then remove his shoes and place any carry-on items on the belt of an x-ray machine before walking through the checkpoint. How is the passage of molecules through a membrane similar to travelers passing through airport security?

Answers may vary. Airport security could be compared to a carrier protein. Security interacts with the passenger, checking their identification and tickets. Only specific, ticketed customers, who are not carrying any foreign (unknown) objects may then pass through the checkpoint. Carrier proteins selectively interact with specific molecules before allowing them to cross the membrane. No foreign objects may enter.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 05.01.03 Describe the diverse role of proteins in membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. Why do membranes self-assemble into their characteristic phospholipids bilayer?

Membranes self assemble in their characteristic manner due to the chemical nature of phospholipid molecules and the aqueous nature of the extracellular fluid and the cytoplasm. Phospholipid molecules are amphipathic, with polar, hydrophilic phosphate groups in the head and hydrophobic, nonpolar tails. The polar heads face the aqueous environments of the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid, while the hydrophobic tails cluster together in the middle of the layer.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Why does this model of a phospholipids bilayer in Fig. 1 not ‘work’?

This model does not ‘work’ because it has the hydrophobic tails oriented towards the hydrophilic heads of the next phospholipids. The hydrophobic tails are not attracted to heads so this model of the membrane is not feasible. See correct model at right.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Why does this model of a phospholipids bilayer in Fig. 2 not ‘work’?

This model does not ‘work’ because it has the hydrophobic tails oriented towards the aqueous environments of the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm. The hydrophobic tails are not attracted to water and would cluster to form an inner layer with the hydrophilic heads oriented out towards the extracellular fluid and in towards the cytoplasm. This is the correct model.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. In the cell pictured, there is no net movement of water. The amount leaving the cell and entering the cell is the same. In what type of environment is this cell found?

    A.  hypertonic
    B.  hypotonic
    C.  isotonic
    D.  none of the above

In an isotonic environment, there would be no net movement of water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Is this cell an animal or plant cell? In what type of environment is this cell found? Is there a net movement of water into or out of the cell? Explain your answer.

This is a plant cell in a hypertonic environment. The semi-rigid cell wall is evident, as the cytoplasm is shrinking (plasmolysis). There is a net movement of water out of the cell.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Eukaryotic cells are substantially larger than bacterial cells and average over 20 times more volume-per-surface-area than bacterial cells. How can the eukaryotic cell membrane provide this higher rate of exchange of materials?
    A. Plasma membrane folds increase the surface area.
    B.  Carrier proteins speed the rate at which a solute crosses the plasma membrane in the direction of decreasing concentration.
    C.  Mitochondria are concentrated near membranes to provide energy for active transport of molecules or ions.
    D.  Large molecules are engulfed by vesicle formation.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 05.03.01 Explain how active transport moves substances across a membrane.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. Imagine a person has a genetic disorder that prevents them from producing the protein collagen, what types of cellular issues will they be faced with?
    A. The cell will not have the ability to divide properly.
    B.  The cell will not have the ability to regulate the movement of molecules through the membrane.
    C.  The cell would not be recognized by the body’s immune system.
    D.  The cell would not have the ability to resist stretching.
    E.  All of the choices are plausible.

Collagen provides the cell with the ability to resist stretching.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.04.01 Explain the role of the extracellular matrix in an animal cell.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. All life forms currently have a basic cell membrane so we presume that the earliest forms of life had this “fence” isolating the internal organization from the external chaos. It is likely that the primordial environment was acidic. In order for a cell to function in this type of environment, the cell membrane would have to include
    A. a sodium (Na+) pump.
    B.  a proton (H+) pump.
    C.  mitochondria underneath in order to provide energy for active transport.
    D.  an acid-proof cell wall.
    E.  a totally nonpermeable membrane.

The cell membrane would have to include a proton (H+) pump to rid the cytoplasm of excess protons, thus increasing the pH.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.01.01 Distinguish between the different structural components of membranes.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

 

  1. If a living plant were moved from a freshwater aquarium to a saltwater aquarium, which of the following would occur?
    A. Nothing. The plant would be fine in either aquarium.
    B.  The plant’s cells would take on ions.
    C.  The plant’s cells would take on water and will lyse.
    D.  The plant’s cells would lose water and plasmolysis would occur.

If a living plant were moved from a freshwater aquarium to a saltwater aquarium, the plant’s cells would lose water and plasmolysis would occur.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

  1. Which of the following is the reason plants wilt if they are watered with a salt solution?
    A. to protect the leaves from full exposure to the salt
    B.  an increase in turgor pressure
    C.  salt weakens the plant cell walls
    D.  loss of water due to the salt solution resulting in a decrease in turgor pressure

The reason a plant wilts if they are watered with a salt solution is due to loss of water and the resulting decrease in turgor pressure.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.03 Differentiate among the effects of hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions on animal and plant cells.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Passive Transport

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. Why can nonpolar molecules freely cross the cell membrane while polar molecules require energy?

Nonpolar molecules tend to be molecules that are similar in composition to the phospholipid center of the membrane.  They can cross the membrane at no energy cost.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.01.04 Explain why the plasma membrane exhibits selective permeability.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

 

True / False Questions

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis involves the use of specific proteins in the cell membrane.
    TRUE

It is true that receptor-mediated endocytosis involves the use of specific proteins in the cell membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.03 Contrast the bulk transport of large and small substances into a cell.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. Fluidity of a membrane increases as the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids goes up.
    TRUE

It is true that the fluidity of a membrane increases as the percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in the phospholipids goes up.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.02 Describe the nature of the fluid-mosaic model as it relates to membrane structure.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Plasma Membrane

  1. In the cells that line the lumen of the small intestine, gap junctions keep materials from the digestive tract from slipping between the cells and entering the tissues.
    FALSE

In the cells that line the lumen of the small intestine, it is tight junctions, not gap junctions that keep materials in the digestive tract from slipping between the cells and entering the tissues.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.02 Compare the structure and function of adhesion, tight, and gap junctions in animals.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

  1. In the sodium-potassium pump, sodium is transported out of the cell and potassium is transported into the cell as ATP is broken by a membrane protein.
    TRUE

It is true that in the sodium-potassium pump, sodium is transported out of the cell and potassium is transported into the cell as ATP is broken by a membrane protein.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.01 Explain how active transport moves substances across a membrane.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. The process by which a white blood cell or an amoeba engulfs bacteria is called phagocytosis.
    TRUE

It is true that the process by which a white blood cell or an amoeba engulfs bacteria is called phagocytosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.03 Contrast the bulk transport of large and small substances into a cell.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

  1. An extracellular matrix helps some cells to adhere to neighboring cells.
    TRUE

It is true that an extracellular matrix helps some cells to adhere to neighboring cells.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.01 Explain the role of the extracellular matrix in an animal cell.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What type of transport mechanism is required to move sodium ions against their concentration gradient?
    A. active
    B.  passive
    C.  diffusion
    D.  osmosis

Active transport is used to move ions against a concentration gradient

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.02 Compare the energy requirements of passive and active transport.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. Which scenario is most likely to occur if the mitochondria in the kidney cells were to decrease in function?
    A. The kidneys would improve in function.
    B.  The kidneys would begin excreting large amounts of waste products.
    C.  The amount of active transport in the kidneys would significantly decrease.
    D.  The amount of active transport in the kidneys would increase.

.Active transport requires large amounts of energy. If the mitochondria cease to function the active transport in the kidneys would decrease

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.03.02 Compare the energy requirements of passive and active transport.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

  1. Why is the energy expended during endocytosis worth it?
    A. The cell increases the amount of ATP produced in order to complete endocytosis.
    B.  The contents drawn into the cell are isolated from the cytoplasm preventing them from altering the cells function.
    C.  The cell expends such a small amount of energy to run endocytosis it doesn’t really matter.
    D.  There is no energy expenditure during endocytosis.

Preventing the mixing of cellular contents during endocytosis is worth the energy expended.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.02 Compare the energy requirements of passive and active transport.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

  1. Which process is responsible for moving cellular wastes across the cell membrane and out of the cell?
    A. endocytosis
    B.  exocytosis
    C.  pinocytosis
    D.  receptor-mediated endocytosis

Endocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis are processes that draw substances into the cell.  Cellular wastes would be removed from the cell through the process of exocytosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.03 Contrast the bulk transport of large and small substances into a cell.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

  1. Which of the following is an example of active transport through a cell membrane?
    A. Movement of carbon dioxide out of the blood stream and into the lungs
    B.  Movement of oxygen from the lungs into the bloodstream
    C.  Movement of sweat onto the surface of your skin
    D.  Absorption of glucose from the gut into the bloodstream

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.01 Explain how active transport moves substances across a membrane.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

  1. Which type of junctions will create a solid barrier to prevent molecules from moving between the cells?
    A. gap
    B.  desmosomes
    C.  tight
    D.  plasmodesmata

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04.02 Compare the structure and function of adhesion, tight, and gap junctions in animals.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

 

 

  1. Which cell junction will allow the movement of molecules between two plant cells?
    A. plasmodesmata
    B.  gap
    C.  tight
    D.  adhesion

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04.03 Explain the role of plasmodesmata in plants.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

  1. Which cell junction is unique to animals? v: 04_12_2014_QC_47498
    A. gap
    B.  tight
    C.  desmosomes
    D.  all are unique to animals

All are unique to animals.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.04.02 Compare the structure and function of adhesion, tight, and gap junctions in animals.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

  1. Which of the following situations is most likely to produce a heart attack?
    A. The gap junctions have collapsed and they do not allow the correct flow of ions from one cell to the next.
    B.  The plasmodesmata have collapsed and they do not allow the correct flow of ions from one cell to the next.
    C.  The tight junction has ripped and is allowing ions to leak through the membrane lining the heart.
    D.  The cell walls have broken down and are not able to support the heart.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 05.04.02 Compare the structure and function of adhesion, tight, and gap junctions in animals.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Cell Junctions

 

 

  1. Which type of cellular process will most likely be used by an amoeba in order to obtain food?
    A. phagocytosis
    B.  pinocytosis
    C.  exocytosis
    D.  receptor-mediated endocytosis

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.03 Contrast the bulk transport of large and small substances into a cell.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Active Transport

 

 

 

Chapter 29

Vertebrate Evolution

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. All of the following are characteristics of vertebrates EXCEPT
    A. internal organs.
    B.  vertebral columns.
    C.  postanal tails.
    D.  exoskeletons.
    E.  skulls.

Characteristics of vertebrates include internal organs, vertebral columns, postanal tails and skulls. Vertebrates do not have exoskeletons.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.02.01 Describe the four characteristics that are unique to vertebrates.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

  1. Vertebrates without jaws would be the
    A. rays.
    B.  turtles.
    C.  lampreys.
    D.  eels.

Vertebrates without jaws would be jawless fish, lampreys.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.03.01 List several features of jawless fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

  1. What is the main reason that mammals underwent adaptive radiation after the demise of the dinosaurs?
    A. They had to adapt in order to physically survive the ice age.
    B.  The mammals had little competition so it was easier for them to evolve into the niches that were once occupied by the dinosaurs.
    C.  They had an “inner need” to become better suited to their environment.
    D.  No answer choice is correct.

The mammals had little competition so it was easier for them to evolve into the niches that were once occupied by the dinosaurs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 29.06.02 Discuss the timeline of the evolution of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

  1. The following are differences between amphibians and reptiles EXCEPT
    A. amphibians have smooth non-scaly skin, whereas reptiles are covered with scales and their skin is dry.
    B.  all reptiles respire by the use of lungs, while amphibians use small lungs supplemented by cutaneous respiration.
    C.  amphibian eggs are laid in water, but reptiles do not require water for reproduction.
    D.  reptiles are ectothermic, while amphibians are endothermic.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.04.01 List the seven characteristics that define the amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. Which of the following reptilian features enabled them to adapt to a terrestrial environment?
    A. A dry skin, ectothermy and external fertilization
    B.  Two pairs of paired limbs, a septum that divides the ventricle, and well developed kidneys
    C.  Skin that allows for respiration, a septum that divides the ventricle and an amniotic egg
    D.  Efficient respiration, ectothermy and external fertilization
    E.  Live birth, efficient excretion and two pairs of limbs

Two pairs of paired limbs, a septum that divides the ventricle, and well developed kidneys enabled reptiles to adapt to a terrestrial environment.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 29.05.01 List the seven features that define the reptiles.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. A notochord is
    A. a strip of cartilage that forms a back and tail in all vertebrates.
    B.  a stiff dorsal supporting rod.
    C.  replaced by the vertebral column during development.
    D.  All of the choices are correct.
    E.  a stiff dorsal supporting rod that is replaced by the vertebral column during development.

A notochord is a stiff dorsal supporting rod that is replaced by the vertebral column during development.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.01.01 Identify the four basic characteristics of a chordate.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Chordates

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. If the only chordate characteristic that adult sea squirts possess are gills, why are they classified as a chordate?

Answers may vary. It is true that adult sea squirts have only one chordate characteristic, gills. However, the sea squirt larvae are bilaterally symmetrical and have all four chordate characteristics: a notochord, a dorsal tubular nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and a postanal tail.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 29.01.01 Identify the four basic characteristics of a chordate.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Chordates

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. ______ were the first vertebrates to live on land and they evolved from _____.
    A. Amphibians; fish
    B.  Reptiles; amphibians
    C.  Mammals; reptiles
    D.  Amphibians; lancelets

Amphibians were the first vertebrates to live on land and they evolved from fish.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.04.03 Summarize the two hypotheses that explain the evolution of amphibians from lobe-finned fishes.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the jawless fishes?
    A. Ectotherms that have a bony skeleton.
    B.  Ectotherms that have a smooth nonscaly skin.
    C.  Endotherms that have a smooth nonscaly skin.
    D.  Vertebrates that have scales and are ectothermic.

Jawless fish are ectotherms that have a smooth nonscaly skin.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.03.01 List several features of jawless fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

  1. The four defining characteristics of chordates are
    A. segmentation, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, and an amniotic egg.
    B.  a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, bilateral symmetry, and mammary glands.
    C.  bilateral symmetry, segmentation, a well-developed coelom, and limbs.
    D.  a well-developed coelom, pharyngeal pouches, a notochord, and jaws.
    E.  pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a postanal tail.

The four defining characteristics of chordates are pharyngeal pouches, a dorsal nerve cord, a notochord, and a postanal tail.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.01.01 Identify the four basic characteristics of a chordate.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Chordates

 

 

  1. In some chordates, the _______ is (are) replaced by ________.
    A. pharyngeal pouches; gills
    B.  dorsal hollow nerve cord; a ventral solid nerve cord
    C.  gill arches; pharyngeal pouches
    D.  notochord; a dorsal hollow nerve cord
    E.  a vertebral column; notochord

In some chordates, the pharyngeal pouches are replaced by gills.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.01.01 Identify the four basic characteristics of a chordate.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Chordates

  1. Which of these is NOT one of the characteristics of a vertebrate?
    A. radial symmetry
    B.  segmentation
    C.  extreme cephalization
    D.  closed circulation
    E.  coelom

The characteristics of vertebrates include segmentation, cephalization, closed circulation, and a coelom. Radial symmetry is not a characteristic of vertebrate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.02.01 Describe the four characteristics that are unique to vertebrates.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

  1. Which of the following features are shared by all of the jawed fish?
    A. endothermic, gills and scales
    B.  ectothermic, smooth nonscaly skin and bony skeleton
    C.  cartilaginous endoskeleton, gills and scales
    D.  bony endoskeleton, gills and scales

All jawed fish have a cartilaginous endoskeleton, gills and scales.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.03.02 Describe four characteristics shared by all jawed fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

  1. Which feature would have given the jawed fish an evolutionary advantage over the jawless fish when it came time to hunt for food?
    A. The evolution of jaws from the gill slits that would enable them to bite more efficiently.
    B.  The evolution of an ectothermic lifestyle so they could regulate their body temperature based upon the environment.
    C.  Gills that would increase the efficiency of their breathing.
    D.  A cartilaginous endoskeleton that would provide for more power while swimming.
    E.  A skin that is nonscaly that also allows for an increased respiration ability.

The evolution of jaws from the gills slits enabled jawed fish to bite more efficiently.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 29.03.02 Describe four characteristics shared by all jawed fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

 

 

  1. Sharks
    A. lack bony skeletons.
    B.  have placoid scales.
    C.  have a keen sense of smell.
    D.  have teeth derived from epidermal scales.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

Sharks lack bone skeletons and have placoid scales, a keen sense of smell, and teeth derived from epidermal scales. All of the choices are correct.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.03.03 Compare and contrast cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

  1. The jawed fish and all other vertebrates are gnathostomes, which means they have
    A. segmentation.
    B.  jaws.
    C.  a notochord that develops into a vertebral column.
    D.  amniotic eggs.
    E.  exoskeletons

The jawed fish and all other vertebrates are gnathostomes, which means they have jaws.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.02.02 Explain how the terms tetrapod, gnathostome, and amniote relate to vertebrate evolution.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

  1. Which feature is found in the bony fish but not in the cartilaginous fish?
    A. scales
    B.  lateral line system for detecting prey
    C.  endothermy
    D.  ectothermy
    E.  swim bladder

A swim bladder is found in the bony fish and not in the cartilaginous fish.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.03.03 Compare and contrast cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

  1. Amphibians evolved from
    A. darters.
    B.  sharks.
    C.  bass and bluegill.
    D.  sturgeon and catfish.
    E.  lobe-finned fishes with lungs.

Amphibians evolved from lobe-finned fishes with lungs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.04.03 Summarize the two hypotheses that explain the evolution of amphibians from lobe-finned fishes.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. During the course of fish evolution two of the gill slits slowly evolved into ____________.
    A. gills
    B.  the pectoral fins
    C.  the swim bladder
    D.  the jaw
    E.  No answer choice is correct.

The gill slit evolved into the jaw.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.03.02 Describe four characteristics shared by all jawed fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

 

  1. Which of these characteristics is NOT found in the amphibians?
    A. thin moist skin
    B.  two-chambered heart
    C.  small inefficient lungs
    D.  aquatic larvae
    E.  eggs with gelatinous covering

The following are characteristics of amphibians: thin moist skin, small inefficient lungs, aquatic larvae, and eggs with a gelatinous covering. However, amphibians have a three-chambered heart, not a two-chambered heart.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.04.01 List the seven characteristics that define the amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. The amphibians’ unique contribution to the evolution of land vertebrates was
    A. respiration by gills.
    B.  respiration through the skin.
    C.  separation of lung/gill and systemic (body) circulation.
    D.  development of the tail for propulsion.
    E.  the leathery waterproof egg shell.

The amphibians’ unique contribution to the evolution of land vertebrates was separation of lung and systemic (body) circulation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.05.02 Explain why the reptiles are represented by more than one evolutionary lineage.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Amphibians were the dominant animal life during the ________ period.
    A. Jurassic
    B.  Carboniferous
    C.  Devonian
    D.  Silurian
    E.  Cambrian

Amphibians were the dominant animal life during the Carboniferous period.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.04.02 Describe the features of the three groups of living amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. The amphibians’ common receptacle for the urinary, genital, and digestive canals is the
    A. vulva.
    B.  glottis.
    C.  cloaca.
    D.  tympanum.
    E.  operculum.

z The amphibians’ common receptacle for the urinary, genital, and digestive canals is the cloaca.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.04.01 List the seven characteristics that define the amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

  1. Lungless salamanders lack lungs and breathe through their skins after they lose their gills. You would expect lungless salamanders to
    A. prefer drier habitats.
    B.  prefer stagnant water.
    C.  be larger than most salamanders.
    D.  be restricted to smaller and/or thinner body plans.

Lungless salamanders lack lungs and breathe through their skins after they lose their gills. You would expect lungless salamanders to be restricted to smaller and/or thinner body plans. This would allow for a larger surface area to volume ratio thereby ensuring adequate oxygen intake to meet the metabolic needs of the organism.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 29.04.02 Describe the features of the three groups of living amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. Most salamanders practice internal fertilization
    A. using spermatophores.
    B.  externally in water.
    C.  internally by copulation.
    D.  just like frogs.

Most salamanders practice internal fertilization using spermatophores.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.04.02 Describe the features of the three groups of living amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

  1. Reptiles evolved from ______ ancestors and were abundant by the ________ Period.
    A. mammals; Carboniferous
    B.  fish; Devonian
    C.  echinoderms; Cambrian
    D.  amphibians; Permian

Reptiles evolved from amphibian ancestors and were abundant by the Permian Period.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.05.02 Explain why the reptiles are represented by more than one evolutionary lineage.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Which of these characteristics first developed in reptiles?
    A. amniotic egg
    B.  scales on skin
    C.  four-legged body
    D.  skull and vertebral column
    E.  animals living completely on land

The amniotic egg first developed in reptiles.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.01 List the seven features that define the reptiles.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

 

 

  1. The mammal-like reptiles that gave rise to mammals were the
    A. coelacanths.
    B.  therapsids.
    C.  lampreys.
    D.  archaeopteryx.

The mammal-like reptiles that gave rise to mammals were the therapsids.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.02 Explain why the reptiles are represented by more than one evolutionary lineage.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Which term can be applied to all of the vertebrates except for the jawless fish?
    A. Gnathostomes
    B.  Endothermic
    C.  Tetrapods
    D.  Amniotes

The jawed fishes and all the other vertebrates are gnathostomes—animals with jaws.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.02.02 Explain how the terms tetrapod, gnathostome, and amniote relate to vertebrate evolution.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. The circulatory pathways of vertebrates are pictured. Briefly differentiate between the pathways and identify the pathways found in:

Pathway A
Pathway B
Pathway C

Pathway A is found in fishes. This is a single loop pathway involving a two-chambered heart. Pathway B is found in amphibians and most reptiles. This double loop pathway sends blood to the lungs and to the body. There is some mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood in the single ventricle of the three-chambered heart. Pathway C: This double loop pathway involves a four-chambered heart. Only oxygen-poor blood is sent to the lungs and oxygen-rich blood is sent to the body.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 29.04.02 Describe the features of the three groups of living amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Several lineages of reptiles evolved from a common ancestral stem reptile, each adapting to different ways of life.
    TRUE

It is true that several lineages of reptiles evolved from a common ancestral stem reptile, each adapting to different ways of life.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.02 Explain why the reptiles are represented by more than one evolutionary lineage.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Based on molecular data and skull features, what reptile(s) has an independent lineage from all other reptiles?
    A. lizards
    B.  snakes
    C.  turtles
    D.  crocodiles
    E.  lizards and crocodiles have independent lineages

Based on molecular data and skull features, turtles have an independent lineage from all other reptiles.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.02 Explain why the reptiles are represented by more than one evolutionary lineage.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

 

 

  1. It was during the ______ period within the ______ era that chordates made their first appearance.
    A. Cambrian, Paleozoic
    B.  Ordovician, Paleozoic
    C.  Mesozoic, Cretaceous
    D.  Paleozoic, Cambrian

The Paleozoic era is distinguished by the arising of the chordates and first vertebrates. Chordates appeared at the start of the  Cambrian period, 542 mya.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.02.03 Identify the geologic era and periods in which chordates and the first vertebrates appear.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Chordates

  1. Which of the following groups had made their appearance during the Ordovician period?
    A. jawless and jawed fish
    B.  jawed fish and amphibians
    C.  amphibians and reptiles
    D.  reptiles and mammals
    E.  All of these groups had appeared by the Ordovician period.

Jawless and jawed fish had made their appearance during the Ordovician period.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.02.03 Identify the geologic era and periods in which chordates and the first vertebrates appear.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

  1. Characteristics of birds include all of the following EXCEPT
    A. aquatic reproduction.
    B.  endotherms.
    C.  modified reptilian scales as feathers.
    D.  hard-shelled eggs.
    E.  a modified skeleton with a fused collarbone and a keel.

Characteristics of birds include all of the following except aquatic reproduction. Birds are endotherms and have modified reptilian scales as feathers, hard-shelled eggs, and a modified skeleton with a fused collarbone and a keel.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.03 Define the traits of birds that are related to flight.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Generally the respiratory system in birds
    A. is identical to the human breathing system.
    B.  is merely accelerated by the flight muscles.
    C.  resembles the positive pressure system of a frog.
    D.  is a one-way circulation of air so constant oxygen absorption can meet the high oxygen demand.

Generally the respiratory system in birds is a one-way circulation of air so constant oxygen absorption can meet the high oxygen demand.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.05.03 Define the traits of birds that are related to flight.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

 

 

  1. All of the following statements concerning birds are true EXCEPT
    A. birds have small, relatively under-developed brains.
    B.  some birds do not have the ability to fly.
    C.  birds have acute vision.
    D.  birds use the sun, stars, and the Earth’s magnetic field to guide them.

All of the following statements concerning birds are true except that birds have small, relatively under-developed brains. In fact, birds have well developed brains, the ability to fly, acute vision, and use the sun, stars, and the Earth’s magnetic field to guide them.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.05.03 Define the traits of birds that are related to flight.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Mammals are different from birds in all these characteristics EXCEPT
    A. hair.
    B.  mammary glands.
    C.  constant body temperature.
    D.  young born alive.

Mammals are different from birds in all these characteristics except constant body temperature. Both birds and mammals are endotherms.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 29.06.01 Describe five features of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

 

 

  1. The organ of nutrition used in fetal development in the most successful mammals is the
    A. mammary gland.
    B.  egg.
    C.  pouch.
    D.  placenta.
    E.  marsupium.

The organ of nutrition used in fetal development in the most successful mammals is the placenta.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.06.03 Identify several features that define each of the three living lineages of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

  1. The duckbill platypus is different than most mammals because it
    A. lacks hair.
    B.  is “cold-blooded.”
    C.  doesn’t secrete milk.
    D.  doesn’t give birth, but lays eggs.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

The duckbill platypus is different than most mammals because it doesn’t give birth, but lays eggs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.06.03 Identify several features that define each of the three living lineages of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

 

 

  1. The position of mammals in evolution is best described as
    A. they dominate life in the sea.
    B.  they were among the first animals to live on land and their diversity is greater than all living things known.
    C.  they arose from mammal-like reptiles in the Jurassic but remained small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated the land.
    D.  mammals gave rise to birds.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

The position of mammals in evolution is that of arising from mammal-like reptiles in the Jurassic but remaining small and insignificant while dinosaurs dominated the land.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.06.02 Discuss the timeline of the evolution of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

  1. Monotremes
    A. are egg laying mammals.
    B.  include the anteater and duck-billed platypus.
    C.  nurse their young.
    D.  All of the answer choices are correct.

Monotremes are egg laying mammals that nurse their young and include the anteater and duck-billed platypus.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.06.03 Identify several features that define each of the three living lineages of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

 

 

  1. The mammalian lineages include
    A. placental mammals.
    B.  marsupials.
    C.  monotremes.
    D.  All of the answer choices are correct.
    E.  No answer choice is correct.

The mammalian lineages include placental mammals, marsupials, and monotremes.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.06.03 Identify several features that define each of the three living lineages of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

  1. Which of the following groups are considered chordates but are lacking the vertebral column trait?
    A. osteichthyes & urochordata
    B.  urochordata & cephalochordates
    C.  cephalochordates & chondrichthyes
    D.  sea squirts & chondrichthyes

The nonvertebrate chordates do not have a spine made of bony vertebrae. They are divided into two groups: the cephalochordates and the urochordates.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.01.02 Name the two groups of nonvertebrate chordates.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Invertebrate Chordates

 

 

  1. Among the chordates, which features are unique to the tunicates?
    A. leathery outer covering and an excurrent siphon
    B.  gill slits and bilateral symmetry
    C.  sexual reproduction and complete digestive system
    D.  sessile adult stage and aquatic lifestyle
    E.  leathery outer covering and sessile adult stage

Leathery outer covering and an excurrent siphon are unique to tunicates.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 29.01.03 Describe two features of each of the two groups of nonvertebrate chordates.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Invertebrate Chordates

  1. Predacious meat eaters with large and conical-shaped canines are
    A. cetaceans.
    B.  chiroptera.
    C.  carnivores.
    D.  proboscidea.

Carnivores are predacious meat eaters with large and conical-shaped canines.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.06.01 Describe five features of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

 

True / False Questions

  1. All chordates are also vertebrates.
    FALSE

All chordates are not vertebrates.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 29.01.01 Identify the four basic characteristics of a chordate.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Chordates

 

 

  1. The most successful mammals belong to the marsupials group.
    FALSE

The most successful mammal group are the placental mammals.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.06.03 Identify several features that define each of the three living lineages of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

  1. The cephalochordates possess an atrium that is used to filter microscopic food particles out of the water.
    TRUE

It is true that the cephalochordates possess an atrium that is used to filter microscopic food particles out of the water.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 29.01.03 Describe two features of each of the two groups of nonvertebrate chordates.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Invertebrate Chordates

 

 

 

Essay Questions

  1. Compare the characteristics of mammals and birds, noting the similarities and differences between the groups. Why don’t we consider mammals and birds closely related with a common ancestor, since they are both “warm-blooded”?

Answers may vary. The mammals and birds do share certain traits and are thought to have evolved from an ancestral stem reptile. Both birds and mammals have similar circulatory pathways and are endotherms. While birds have feathers, which are modified scales, to keep them warm, mammals have hair. Many scientists think hair evolved from reptilian scales. There are many differences between birds and mammals. Most modern mammals do not lay eggs, as birds do. They give birth to live young and have mammary glands which secrete milk as nourishment for their young. Birds do not have either of these characteristics. Although the brains of birds are well developed, mammalian brains are much more complex and larger. Birds and mammals differ structurally in a variety of ways, like teeth, bones, and respiratory systems. The fossil record clearly reveals that birds and mammals arise from different reptilian lineages. Scientists have discovered a sequence of transitional fossil forms between the dinosaurs and birds and between the dinosaurs and the thecodonts. Fossils evidence also supports the evolution of mammals from therapsids and therapsids from pelycosaurs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
Learning Outcome: 29.06.01 Describe five features of mammals.
Section: 29.06
Topic: Mammals

 

 

  1. Identify four of the features that terrestrial vertebrates had to evolve in order to adapt to a terrestrial environment?

These features could include:

1. A thick and dry skin that prevented them from drying out.
2. Paired limbs that could support their body weight on land.
3. Lungs that would increase their efficiency of breathing on land.
4. A heart that would separate oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood.
5. Efficient excretion to decrease the amount of water lost.
6. Amniotic egg that could survive in a terrestrial environment.
7. Internal fertilization to increase the chances of successful reproduction.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 29.05.01 List the seven features that define the reptiles.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Explain the four features necessary to classify an organism as a vertebrate.

The answer should include:

1. Presence of a vertebral column
2. Skull that encloses and protects the brain
3. Cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton
4. Large coelom and complete digestive tract

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 29.02.01 Describe the four characteristics that are unique to vertebrates.
Section: 29.02
Topic: Vertebrates

 

 

  1. Name the two groups of organisms that are classified as nonvertebrate chordates and indicate their unique features.

The cephalochordates (lancelets) and urochordates (sea squirts) are nonvertebrate chordates.  The cephalochordates are small marine chordates that filter feed on the microscopic plankton found in water.  They will filter it through their gills with a chamber known as the atrium before the water exists via the atriopore.  The notochord will extend from the head to the tail, segmentation is also present. The urochordates appear to be a thick-walled sac that lives on the ocean floor.  They have an incurrent and excurrent siphon through which water passes.  They will also filter feed on microscopic plankton. They are bilaterally symmetrical and will be sessile as adults.

 

Bloom’s Level: 6. Create
Learning Outcome: 29.01.02 Name the two groups of nonvertebrate chordates.
Section: 29.01
Topic: Invertebrate Chordates

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which of the following features were required for the the evolution of the amphibians?
    A. notochord, vertebrae, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs and 4 limbs
    B.  notochord, vertebrae, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs and amniotic eggs
    C.  notochord, vertebrae, jaws, cartilaginous skeleton, lungs and 4 limbs
    D.  notochord, mammary glands, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs and 4 limbs

The amphibian body plan evolved from a notochord, vertebrae, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs and 4 limbs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 29.04.01 List the seven characteristics that define the amphibians.
Section: 29.04
Topic: Amphibians

 

 

  1. Which is the correct sequence for the evolution of reptilian features?
    A. notochord, vertebrae, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs, 4 limbs and an amniotic egg
    B.  notochord, jaws, vertebrae, bony skeleton, lungs, 4 limbs and an amniotic egg
    C.  notochord, vertebrae, jaws, cartilaginous skeleton, lungs, 4 limbs and an amniotic egg
    D.  vertebrae, jaws, notochord, bony skeleton, lungs, 4 limbs and an amniotic egg
    E.  notochord, vertebrae, jaws, 4 limbs, bony skeleton, lungs, and an amniotic egg

The correct sequence for the evolution of reptilian features is a notochord, vertebrae, jaws, bony skeleton, lungs, 4 limbs and an amniotic egg.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 29.05.01 List the seven features that define the reptiles.
Section: 29.05
Topic: Reptiles

  1. Which of the following features are found in the lobe-finned fish but are not present in the cartilaginous fish?
    A. bony skeletons and lungs
    B.  paired fins and a bony skeleton
    C.  jaws and lungs
    D.  vertebrae and amniotic eggs

Lobe-finned fish possess a bony skeleton and lungs while the cartilaginous fish do not.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
Learning Outcome: 29.03.03 Compare and contrast cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes.
Section: 29.03
Topic: Fishes

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