Anatomy And Physiology 6th Edition By Elaine N. Marieb – Test Bank

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ExamName___________________________________MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.1)The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.1)A)cortexB)cuticleC)external root sheathD)medullaAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)2)The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likelyto be found in the dermis?2)A)goblet cells, parietal cells, and chondrocytesB)monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytesC)osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cellsD)fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cellsAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)3)In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which ofthe following is another vital function of the skin?3)A)It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body.B)It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calciummetabolism.C)It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.D)The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)1
4)The papillary layer of the dermis is composed of loosely packed connective tissue with numerouspeg-like projections that provide a great deal of surface area connecting the dermis to theepidermis. Which of the statements below donotrepresent benefits provided by the papillarylayer’s anatomy?4)A)The looseness allows for phagocytes to roam through the tissue and search for infection.B)The high surface area allows for a stronger connection of dermis to epidermis.C)The spaces in the connective tissue allow many small blood vessels to deliver nutrients andpickup waste diffusing from the superficial epidermal layers.D)The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)5)The composition of the secretions of the eccrine glands is ________.5)A)fatty substances, proteins, antibodies, and trace amounts of minerals and vitaminsB)99% water, sodium chloride, trace amounts of wastes, and vitamin CC)primarily uric acidD)metabolic wastesAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)6)Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer.6)A)Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.B)Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant.C)Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum.D)Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)7)William has a cut that is superficial, painful but not bleeding. Based on this information you wouldpredict that the cut has penetrated to ________.7)A)the stratum basale but not the dermal layersB)the subcutaneous layer, but no deeperC)the stratum corneum but not the stratum granulosumD)the papillary layer but not the reticular layerAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)2
8)Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are thetwo types of sweat glands?8)A)sebaceous and merocrineB)eccrine and apocrineC)holocrine and mammaryD)mammary and ceruminousAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)9)What are the most important factors influencing hair growth?9)A)age and glandular productsB)the size and number of hair folliclesC)sex and hormonesD)nutrition and hormonesAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)10)Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body.How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?10)A)by using the “rule of nines”B)by measuring urinary output and fluid intakeC)by observing the tissues that are usually moistD)through blood analysisAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)11)Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does?11)A)Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair.B)Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.C)Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.D)Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)3
12)A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?12)A)corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basaleB)basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneumC)basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneumD)granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneumAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)13)Which glands produce ear wax?13)A)eccrine glandsB)apocrine glandsC)merocrine glandsD)ceruminous glandsAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)14)Apocrine glands, which begin to function at puberty under hormonal influence, seem to play littlerole in thermoregulation. Where would we find these glands in the human body?14)A)in the palms of the hands and soles of the feetB)in the axillary and anogenital areaC)in all body regions and buried deep in the dermisD)beneath the flexure lines in the bodyAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)15)Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of thefollowing changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease?15)A)The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint.B)The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.C)It is impossible to suggest Addison’s disease from an inspection of a person’s skin.D)Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)4
16)The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. Thesecretion of sebum is stimulated ________.16)A)when the air temperature dropsB)by hormones, especially androgensC)as a protective coating when one is swimmingD)by high temperaturesAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)17)Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that thedermis has been previously stretched and/or torn?17)A)There is an episode of acute pain due to the large number of tactile corpuscles.B)The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.C)The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.D)The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causingpermanent “black-and-blue marks.”Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)18)Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.18)A)the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicleB)hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predeterminedlengthC)eyebrow follicles are only active for a few monthsD)they grow much slowerAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)19)The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.19)A)cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicleB)allow the hair to assist in touch sensationC)serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passedD)bind the hair root to the dermisAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)5
20)Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch?20)A)Pacinian corpuscleB)Ruffini bodyC)free nerve endingD)tactile corpuscleAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)21)The friction ridges seen in finger, palm and foot prints are different among various people but verysimilar between identical twins. This evidence suggests which of the following?21)A)That friction ridges change over time.B)That friction ridges are genetically determined.C)That friction ridges aid in griping.D)That friction ridges allow for better tactile sensation.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)22)The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health,well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for celldivision and replacement?22)A)stratum granulosumB)stratum basaleC)stratum lucidumD)stratum corneumAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)23)What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?23)A)catastrophic fluid lossB)unbearable painC)loss of immune functionD)infectionAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)6
24)Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negativefeedback?24)A)Release of chemical signals by keratinocytes that have been damaged by UV light that willincrease the production of melanin.B)The secretion of antibacterial compounds in sebum.C)Removal of nitrogenous compounds like urea within the sweat.D)The near waterproof secretions of glycolipids that is released by cells in the stratumgranulosum.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)25)The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible forthe tension lines in the skin?25)A)the reticular layerB)the hypodermal layerC)the papillary layerD)the subcutaneous layerAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)26)Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage whenkeratinocytes ________.26)A)maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denatureB)accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blockingpigment layerC)maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granulesD)provide the melanocyte with nutrients necessary for melanin synthesisAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)27)Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negativefeedback?27)A)Lack of pain in third degree burns due to damage to sensory nerves in the dermis.B)Excretion of salts within the sweat.C)An increase in sebum production in response to androgens (male sex hormones).D)Release of sweat by eccrine glands in response to heat.Answer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)7
28)Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protectthe skin from the effects of UV damage?28)A)The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin’s color.B)Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a naturalsunscreen.C)Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, issynthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight.D)The skin is protected by increasing the number of epidermal dendritic cells, which help toactivate the immune system.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)29)Which of the following examples listed below illustrates homeostasis maintained by a negativefeedback?29)A)Production of vitamin D initiated by the suns UV light striking the skin.B)Thickening of epidermis to form a callus in places where the skin is exposed to friction.C)Changes in the response of the hair follicle to dihydrotestosterone (DHT).D)Formation of cerumen wax to deter insects from entering the ear.Answer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)30)Which of the following is not one of the functions of the skin?30)A)Delivers important information about our environmental conditions to our brains.B)Conducts endergonic metabolic chemical reactions using the suns energy to initiate vitamin Dsynthesis.C)Gives the body its overall shape, loss of this function can be seen with the drooping of skinwith age.D)Holds a portion of the bloods total volume to be shunted (diverted) to other organs whenneeded.Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)31)A dendritic or Langerhan cell is a specialized ________.31)A)nerve cellB)phagocytic cellC)squamous epithelial cellD)melanocyteAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)8
32)Which type of skin cancer appears as a scaly reddened papule and tends to grow rapidly andmetastasize?32)A)melanomaB)adenomaC)squamous cell carcinomaD)basal cell carcinomaAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)33)Cells of the stratum spinosum have many interlocking desmosomes that will remain between thecells as they migrate to the stratum corneum. These cell junctions serve the body by ________.33)A)preventing ultraviolet light from penetrating the deeper layers of the epidermisB)allowing secretions like sweat or sebum to pass throughC)stopping water loss and preventing dehydrationD)preventing mechanical stress or trauma from damaging the epidermisAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)34)Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which ofthe following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?34)A)Glycolipids that are secreted by keratinocytes into extracellular spaces.B)The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it.C)Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.D)The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thickbundles of intermediate filaments.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)35)A patient has skin that is slightly blue in color. A likely treatment for this person might be________.35)A)exposing the patient to more sunlightB)increasing fluids through IV therapyC)giving the patient supplemental oxygen by maskD)encouraging the patient to eat more orange colored vegetables (rich in beta carotene)Answer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)9
36)Which layer of skin isleastprotected by melanin?36)A)stratum corneumB)stratum basaleC)stratum spinosumD)stratum granulosumAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)37)A light skinned person who is very cold may have a pale appearance. Which of the following is thebest explanation for why this might be so?37)A)The person’s blood vessels in the dermis have undergone vasoconstriction (narrowing).B)The person’s blood vessels in the epidermis have undergone vasodilation (widening).C)The cold has slowed the movement of blood.D)The person is in fear of hypothermia (sever cold exposure).Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)38)A light skinned person may appear pink when they become over heated. The best explanation forthis is ________.38)A)blood flow has increased to the sweat glands in order to increased their metabolic activityB)the blood vessels of the dermis have undergone vasodilation, bringing a greater volume ofblood to the skinC)the melanocytes are responding to the heat of the sun and change the appearance of the skinwith increased productionD)the heart is pumping faster because the person was probably exercisingAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)39)The surge of sex hormones that accompanies puberty has a wide range of effects on the body. Oneof those effects is to enhance the activity of the sebaceous glands, increasing the production ofsebum. Which of the following is the most likely to result from the increased sebaceous activity?39)A)Increased oily appearance and more acne.B)Decreased vitamin D synthesis.C)Increased hair growth.D)Increased cooling of the skin.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)10
40)A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot, almost to the papillary region of thedermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?40)A)basaleB)spinosumC)lucidumD)granulosumAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)41)The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.41)A)it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shockB)it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shockC)the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorberD)the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucusAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)42)The arrector pili muscle’s predominate, useful function in humans is to ________.42)A)provide warmth by making the hair stand on endB)prevent germs from entering the hair shaftC)assist in the release sebum from nearby sebaceous glandsD)stimulate faster hair growthAnswer:CExplanation:A)B)C)D)43)A surgeon opens her patient by cutting the integument parallel to the cleavage lines of the dermis(tension lines). This will result in ________.43)A)greater chance of infectionB)faster healing of the skin and less scaringC)slowed healing and grater scaringD)less chance for infectionAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)44)The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________.44)A)use of farm chemicalsB)overexposure to UV radiationC)raceD)geneticsAnswer:BExplanation:A)B)C)D)11
45)All of the following will help the skin to fight infection but one. Which of the following will havelittle effect on the skin’s ability to fight infection?45)A)Greater production of melanin.B)Greater production of keratinocytes resulting in more layers of the stratum corneum.C)Increased secretions of defensins from skin cells.D)More tight junctions between keratinocytes of the stratum corneum.Answer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)46)Which of the following cells and their functions are correctly matched?46)A)dendritic cellsNactivate the immune systemB)keratinocytesNprovide sense of touch and pressureC)tactile cellsNprotectionD)melanocytesNprotects cells in the stratum corneum from damaging effects of sun’s raysAnswer:AExplanation:A)B)C)D)47)Which layer of the epidermis will be supplied with the highest levels of oxygen from the blood?47)A)stratum corneumB)stratum granulosumC)stratum spinosumD)stratum basaleAnswer:DExplanation:A)B)C)D)12
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.Figure 5.1Using Figure 5.1, match the following:48)Sudoriferous gland.48)Answer:CExplanation:49)Region that thickens markedly when one gains weight.49)Answer:BExplanation:13
Figure 5.2Using Figure 5.2, match the following:50)Reticular layer of the dermis.50)Answer:CExplanation:14
Figure 5.1Using Figure 5.1, match the following:51)Where capillary loops are found.51)Answer:EExplanation:15
Figure 5.2Using Figure 5.2, match the following:52)Epidermis.52)Answer:AExplanation:53)Papillary layer of the dermis.53)Answer:BExplanation:16
Figure 5.1Using Figure 5.1, match the following:54)Pulls the hair follicle into an upright position.54)Answer:AExplanation:55)Dense irregularly arranged, fibrous connective tissue.55)Answer:DExplanation:56)Responsible for shock absorption and located in the hypodermis.56)Answer:BExplanation:17
57)Site of the dermal ridges that produce epidermal ridges on the epidermal surfaces of thefingers.57)Answer:EExplanation:Figure 5.2Using Figure 5.2, match the following:58)Hypodermis.58)Answer:DExplanation:TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.59)The action of the arrector pili muscle is very similar in humans as it is in other mammals but itsbeneficial functions differ.59)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:60)Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. and the burn is quite painful. Joe’s burn would best bedescribed as a third-degree burn.60)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:18
61)Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.61)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:62)The dermis contains blood vessels and nerve fibers while the epidermis does not.62)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:63)The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.63)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:64)The apocrine sweat glands are not the primary gland involved in thermoregulation.64)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:65)Thick skin has a more extensive dermal layer than thin skin.65)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:66)The skin cancer most likely to metastasize is cancer of the melanocytes.66)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:67)When a patient is said to have “third-degree burns,” this indicates that the patient has burns thatcover approximately one-third or more of the body.67)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:68)During the regressive phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.68)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:69)The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenatedhemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflectingthrough the epidermis.69)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:70)The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and thereforethere are no sensory receptors in the skin.70)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:71)Cells in the stratum corneum undergo mitosis to keep the layer thick and protective.71)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:19
72)The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in theunderlying dermis.72)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:73)For a doctor, simply looking at a patient’s skin can help in making a diagnosis.73)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:74)When an individual is exposed to extremely cold air the dermal blood vessels will dilate so thatmore blood will be brought closer to the outside surface of the skin.74)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:75)The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of thedermis.75)Answer:TrueFalseExplanation:MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.Match the following:76)Cells plus a disc-like sensory nerveending that functions as a sensoryreceptor for touch.Answer:A77)The protein found in the epidermisthat is responsible for toughening theskin.Answer:C78)Skin macrophages that help activatethe immune system.Answer:BA)Merkel discB)Dendritic cellsC)Keratin76)77)78)Match the following:79)A bluish color in light-skinnedindividuals.Answer:B80)Usually indicates a liver disorder.Answer:AA)JaundiceB)Cyanosis79)80)20
Match the following:81)The layer of the epidermis where thecells are considered protective butnonviable.Answer:A82)The glands that serve an importantfunction in thermoregulation.Answer:B83)Hair that lacks pigment and is oftencalled “immature hair.”Answer:CA)Stratum corneumB)Sudoriferous glandsC)Vellus81)82)83)Match the following:84)Appearance of a permanent tan;bronzing.Answer:AA)Addison’s disease84)Match the following:85)Cell remnants of the stratum corneum.Answer:AA)Cornified keratinocytes85)Match the following:86)May indicate fear, anger, anemia, orlow blood pressure.Answer:B87)May indicate embarrassment, fever,hypertension, inflammation, orallergy.Answer:AA)ErythemaB)Pallor86)87)Match the following:88)The most abundant cells of theepidermis.Answer:AA)Keratinocytes88)Match the following:89)The layer that contains the mitoticviable cells of the epidermis.Answer:AA)Stratum basale89)21
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.90)Betty, an 83-year-old woman, is bedfast due to a severely broken hip. Unfortunately, she has developed adecubitus ulcer. What is a decubitus ulcer and what may have caused it to occur?Answer:A decubitus ulcer is a localized breakdown and ulceration of skin due to interference with its bloodsupply. Usually occurs over a bony prominence, such as the hip or heel, that is subjected to continuouspressure; also called a bedsore.91)What are vellus hairs?Answer:pale, fine body hair associated with newborn children, women, bald men, and “peach fuzz” on all people.92)The skin protects, but how does it protect us and from what? Describe how the epidermal dendritic cells andmelanocytes protect us. Describe what these cells protect us from.Answer:The epidermal dendritic cells act as antigen presenting cells (APC), they present part of the pathogens(fragments of pathogens called epitopes) to other immune system cells to trigger an immune response toan infection. The melanocytes produce melanin in response to exposure to cell damaging, ultravioletlight. UV light is converted to heat when it strikes melanin pigment. Unlike UV light, heat will notdamage the cells particularly the DNA within the nucleus of the skin’s cells.93)Burns that result in injury to the epidermis and the upper regions of the dermis is called a ________ burn.Answer:second-degree94)We are told that every surface we touch is teeming with bacteria, and bacteria are found in the pools we swimin, the water we wash with, and on the hands of friends. Why are we not inundated with bacterial infections onour skin?Answer:The low pH of the skin secretions, otherwise known as the acid mantle, retards the multiplication ofbacteria on the skin. Also, in areas where sufficient sebum is produced regularly, many species ofbacteria cannot exist. Beside the barrier qualities of the skin, it is also true that not all bacteria are harmfulor thrive on skin.95)Mary noticed a large, brown spot on her skin. She has been playing tennis in the sun for several years withoutsun protection. She reported the discovery to a friend, who told her to apply the ABCD rule to determinewhether or not she had malignant melanoma. Her friend told her that if her answer was “no” to the questionsthat were asked by the ABCD rule, she had nothing to worry about. What is the ABCD rule and should sheignore the spot if her answers are negative?Answer:The ABCD rule refers to the following: asymmetryNwhere the two sides of the spot do not match;border irregularityNthe borders are not round and smooth; colorNthe pigmented spot contains shadesof black, brown, tan, and sometimes blues and reds; and diameterNthe spot is larger than 6 mm indiameter. It is imperative that Mary have a physician examine the spot immediately. Any unusual lesionon the skin of a sun worshipper should be examined and the ABCD rule does not account for all possiblefactors, such as rapid growth, even if less than 6 mm.96)Why are the apocrine sweat glands fairly unimportant in thermal regulation?Answer:They are largely confined to the axillary and anogenital regions rather than distributed on the bodywhere heat can be more readily dissipated.22
97)Robert, a surfer, has a mole that has changed its shape and size. His doctor, applying the ABCDE rule,diagnosed a melanoma. What do the letters ABCDE represent?Answer:A=asymmetryB=border irregularityC=colorD=diameterE=elevation98)The 68-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital medical floor with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. Hiswife asks the nurse why his skin looks blue. How would you explain cyanosis to the patient and his wife?Answer:Cyanosis is a dusky bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs withreduced oxygen levels. Without enough oxygen getting to the tissues the skin in Caucasians appears bluedue to the color combination of dark maroon blood seen through the yellowish tint of skin. At closeinspection of the conjunctiva and palms and soles may also show evidence of cyanosis.99)There are several reasons other than genetics for hair loss. Identify some of these other factors.Answer:Stressors such as acutely high fever, surgery, severe emotional trauma; drugs such as antidepressants andchemotherapy drugs; burns and radiation; lack of adequate nutrition due to poor skin circulation; and aprotein-deficient diet can cause hair loss or thinning.100)Pigment-producing cells in the epidermis are ________.Answer:melanocytes101)A summertime golden bronze tan may not be a tan at all; especially if the skin appears almost metallic bronze, itmay be the result of ________ disease.Answer:Addison’s102)How are burns commonly classified? Give an example.Answer:Burns are classified according to their severity or depth. For example, in first-degree burns, only theepidermis is damaged; in second degree burns, the epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; in thirddegree burns, there is widespread damage of epidermis and dermis.103)Explain why soap that has an alkaline base may not be healthy for some patients to use daily.Answer:The skin’s acid mantle retards growth of bacteria. Soap may destroy the acid mantle of the skin, causing itto lose its protective mechanism. Some soaps contain antibacterial agents, which can change the naturalflora of the skin.104)The white crescent portion of the nail is called the ________.Answer:lunula105)What complications might be anticipated from the loss of large areas of skin surfaces?Answer:Large losses of skin, as with severe burn injuries, allow excessive fluid loss and infection. Skin grafting or”synthetic skin” applications are usually necessary.106)Balding men have tried all kinds of remedies, including hair transplants, to restore their lost locks. Explain thecause of male pattern baldness.Answer:It appears to be genetically determined and sex-linked, and is possibly caused by a delayed-action genethat responds to DHT and alters normal metabolism.23
107)Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. Melanoma is most common in Caucasiansbetween 40 and 70 years of age. Explain why Caucasians would have a greater incidence of melanoma.Answer:Melanoma has its beginnings in melanocytes, the skin pigment cells. These cells produce the darkprotective pigment called melanin to protect against sun damage to DNA. Since the melanocytes inCaucasian people do not make as much melanin per cell as darker-skinned individuals, theirmelanocytes are more easily sun-damaged, resulting in damaged DNA cells that are more apt to losegenetic control of their own cell division.108)The ________ are the small muscles located in the dermis that cause goose bumps.Answer:arrector pili109)The coarse hair of the eyebrows and scalp is called ________ hair.Answer:terminal110)The layer of the epidermis immediately under the stratum lucidum in thick skin is the stratum ________.Answer:granulosum111)In addition to the synthesis of vitamin D, keratinocytes are able to carry out some other biologically importantfunctions. Name at least two of these other functions.Answer:Keratinocyte enzymes can neutralize carcinogens that penetrate the epidermis. Keratinocytes are alsoable to convert topical cortisone to a more active anti-inflammatory form.112)The temperature yesterday was an uncomfortable 98°F. You unwisely chose to play tennis at noon, counting onyour body’s internal defenses to protect you against heat exhaustion. How did your body respond to thisdistress?Answer:The thermoreceptors sense the temperature change, and neural stimulation responds by stimulatingsweat glands. Their watery products evaporated at the skin surface and cooled the body. Blood vessels inthe dermis also responded by dilating and releasing heat to the exterior.113)Why is profuse sweating on a hot day good, and yet a potential problem?Answer:Good because the sweat and evaporating of the sweat causes cooling of the body. Bad because excessivewater and salt loss may occur. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may follow.114)List the layers of the dermis and describe the functions of the tissue that makes up each layer.Answer:The papillary layer is composed of areolar connective tissue that allows phagocytes and other defensivecells to serve as a second line of defense against microbial invasion. The reticular layer is composed ofdense irregular connective tissue that gives the skin strength and resiliency, maintains hydration, andprovides elasticity to the skin.24
115)The Waldorf family was caught in a fire but escaped. Unfortunately, the father and daughter suffered burns.The father had second-degree burns on his entire chest, abdomen, and both arms, and third-degree burns onhis entire left lower extremity. The daughter suffered first-degree burns on her whole head and neck andsecond-degree burns throughout both lower extremities.a. What percentage of the father’s body was covered by burns?b. What percentage of the daughter’s body received first-degree burns?c. What part of the daughter’s body has both the dermis and epidermis involved?d. The father experiences a good deal of pain in the area of the chest andabdomen, but little pain in the leg. Why?Answer:a. 45% (18% anterior torso+9% both arms but not forearms+18% lower extremity)b. 9%c. 36%d. Normally, third-degree burns sear nerve endings off. When the tissue regenerates, pain will return.Second-degree burns are usually very painful because of the irritated but live nerve endings.116)What is the function of skin dermal folds and deep skin creases?Answer:to accommodate for joint movement117)Cradle cap in infants is called ________.Answer:seborrhea118)The only place you will find stratum ________ is in the skin that covers the palms, fingertips, and soles of thefeet.Answer:lucidum119)Billions of consumer dollars are spent for deodorants and antiperspirants each year. Explain the production ofbody odors frequently associated with axillary skin.Answer:Sweat is mostly an odorless watery secretion produced by eccrine and apocrine glands. The odor usuallyarises when bacteria break down lipids and proteins in the surface secretions.120)John, a younger teenager, notices that he is experiencing a lot of pimples and blackheads, which frequentlybecome infected. What is causing this problem?Answer:Because of hormonal changes, teenagers frequently have overactive sebaceous (oil) glands, which canclog and become infected or inflamed. Scratching, squeezing, or irritating the tissue can lead to infection.25
Answer KeyTestname: C51)C2)D3)B4)D5)B6)D7)A8)B9)D10)A11)D12)A13)D14)B15)B16)B17)B18)C19)B20)D21)B22)B23)A24)A25)A26)B27)D28)B29)B30)C31)B32)C33)D34)A35)C36)A37)A38)B39)A40)A41)C42)C43)B44)B45)A46)A47)D48)C49)B50)C26
Answer KeyTestname: C551)E52)A53)B54)A55)D56)B57)E58)D59)TRUE60)FALSE61)TRUE62)TRUE63)FALSE64)TRUE65)FALSE66)TRUE67)FALSE68)TRUE69)TRUE70)FALSE71)FALSE72)FALSE73)TRUE74)FALSE75)TRUE76)A77)C78)B79)B80)A81)A82)B83)C84)A85)A86)B87)A88)A89)A90)A decubitus ulcer is a localized breakdown and ulceration of skin due to interference with its blood supply. Usuallyoccurs over a bony prominence, such as the hip or heel, that is subjected to continuous pressure; also called a bedsore.91)pale, fine body hair associated with newborn children, women, bald men, and “peach fuzz” on all people.92)The epidermal dendritic cells act as antigen presenting cells (APC), they present part of the pathogens (fragments ofpathogens called epitopes) to other immune system cells to trigger an immune response to an infection. Themelanocytes produce melanin in response to exposure to cell damaging, ultraviolet light. UV light is converted to heatwhen it strikes melanin pigment. Unlike UV light, heat will not damage the cells particularly the DNA within thenucleus of the skin’s cells.93)second-degree27
Answer KeyTestname: C594)The low pH of the skin secretions, otherwise known as the acid mantle, retards the multiplication of bacteria on theskin. Also, in areas where sufficient sebum is produced regularly, many species of bacteria cannot exist. Beside thebarrier qualities of the skin, it is also true that not all bacteria are harmful or thrive on skin.95)The ABCD rule refers to the following: asymmetryNwhere the two sides of the spot do not match; border irregularityNthe borders are not round and smooth; colorNthe pigmented spot contains shades of black, brown, tan, andsometimes blues and reds; and diameterNthe spot is larger than 6 mm in diameter. It is imperative that Mary have aphysician examine the spot immediately. Any unusual lesion on the skin of a sun worshipper should be examined andthe ABCD rule does not account for all possible factors, such as rapid growth, even if less than 6 mm.96)They are largely confined to the axillary and anogenital regions rather than distributed on the body where heat can bemore readily dissipated.97)A=asymmetryB=border irregularityC=colorD=diameterE=elevation98)Cyanosis is a dusky bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs with reducedoxygen levels. Without enough oxygen getting to the tissues the skin in Caucasians appears blue due to the colorcombination of dark maroon blood seen through the yellowish tint of skin. At close inspection of the conjunctiva andpalms and soles may also show evidence of cyanosis.99)Stressors such as acutely high fever, surgery, severe emotional trauma; drugs such as antidepressants andchemotherapy drugs; burns and radiation; lack of adequate nutrition due to poor skin circulation; and aprotein-deficient diet can cause hair loss or thinning.100)melanocytes101)Addison’s102)Burns are classified according to their severity or depth. For example, in first-degree burns, only the epidermis isdamaged; in second degree burns, the epidermis and upper dermis are damaged; in third degree burns, there iswidespread damage of epidermis and dermis.103)The skin’s acid mantle retards growth of bacteria. Soap may destroy the acid mantle of the skin, causing it to lose itsprotective mechanism. Some soaps contain antibacterial agents, which can change the natural flora of the skin.104)lunula105)Large losses of skin, as with severe burn injuries, allow excessive fluid loss and infection. Skin grafting or “syntheticskin” applications are usually necessary.106)It appears to be genetically determined and sex-linked, and is possibly caused by a delayed-action gene that respondsto DHT and alters normal metabolism.107)Melanoma has its beginnings in melanocytes, the skin pigment cells. These cells produce the dark protective pigmentcalled melanin to protect against sun damage to DNA. Since the melanocytes in Caucasian people do not make asmuch melanin per cell as darker-skinned individuals, their melanocytes are more easily sun-damaged, resulting indamaged DNA cells that are more apt to lose genetic control of their own cell division.108)arrector pili109)terminal110)granulosum111)Keratinocyte enzymes can neutralize carcinogens that penetrate the epidermis. Keratinocytes are also able to converttopical cortisone to a more active anti-inflammatory form.112)The thermoreceptors sense the temperature change, and neural stimulation responds by stimulating sweat glands.Their watery products evaporated at the skin surface and cooled the body. Blood vessels in the dermis also respondedby dilating and releasing heat to the exterior.113)Good because the sweat and evaporating of the sweat causes cooling of the body. Bad because excessive water and saltloss may occur. Fluid and electrolyte imbalances may follow.28
Answer KeyTestname: C5114)The papillary layer is composed of areolar connective tissue that allows phagocytes and other defensive cells to serveas a second line of defense against microbial invasion. The reticular layer is composed of dense irregular connectivetissue that gives the skin strength and resiliency, maintains hydration, and provides elasticity to the skin.115)a. 45% (18% anterior torso+9% both arms but not forearms+18% lower extremity)b. 9%c. 36%d. Normally, third-degree burns sear nerve endings off. When the tissue regenerates, pain will return. Second-degreeburns are usually very painful because of the irritated but live nerve endings.116)to accommodate for joint movement117)seborrhea118)lucidum119)Sweat is mostly an odorless watery secretion produced by eccrine and apocrine glands. The odor usually arises whenbacteria break down lipids and proteins in the surface secretions.120)Because of hormonal changes, teenagers frequently have overactive sebaceous (oil) glands, which can clog and becomeinfected or inflamed. Scratching, squeezing, or irritating the tissue can lead to infection.29

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