An Introduction to Intercultural Communication Identities in a Global Community 9th Edition by Fred E. Jandt – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Language as a Barrier

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. What does the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis address?
  2. the history of writing
  3. the origin of different races
  4. the relationship between language and culture
  5. the relationship between environment and culture

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development of the Hypothesis

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. In the interpretation of linguistic relativism, the difference between languages is not what can be said, but ______.
  2. how fast it is said
  3. how it is said
  4. what cannot be said
  5. what is relatively easy to say

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Because of the interconnection between the Islamic religion and the Arabic language, ______.
  2. Islam did not spread from the region of its origin
  3. modern standard Arabic has replaced English and French in the region
  4. spoken Arabic does not change
  5. the language of the Qur’an is the accepted standard for the written language

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

  1. In the Arabic culture, skillful use of language ______.
  2. commands prestige
  3. is no longer encouraged
  4. is rare because of the difficulty of the language
  5. is restricted to religious matters only

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The rhetoric of confrontation and verbal threats in Arabic ______.
  2. follows actual violence
  3. is a form of verbal aggression that diffuses actual violence
  4. is only directed at non-Arabs
  5. precedes actual violence

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Which of the following is true about the Arabic language?
  2. It cannot be translated into English.
  3. It deemphasizes creative artistry.
  4. It expresses an Islamic worldview.
  5. It makes use of vocal flatness.

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The often-cited example of the different possible translations into English of the Japanese word mokusatsu, which led to a major misunderstanding between the Japanese and the Allies during World War II, is an example of what translation problem?
  2. conceptual equivalence
  3. experiential equivalence
  4. idiomatic equivalence
  5. vocabulary equivalence

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vocabulary Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The two different translations possible for such expressions as “read between the lines” or “my leg went to sleep” would be examples of what translation problem?
  2. conceptual equivalence
  3. experiential equivalence
  4. idiomatic equivalence
  5. vocabulary equivalence

Ans: C

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Idiomatic Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The different possible translations of the word freedom would be an example of what translation problem?
  2. conceptual equivalence
  3. experiential equivalence
  4. idiomatic equivalence
  5. vocabulary equivalence

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptual Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. Errors in translation can be avoided through ______.
  2. back translation
  3. computer translation
  4. the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
  5. using an accurate dictionary

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conceptual Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. When cultures come in contact with no shared language they may develop a new language composed of a mixture of languages. This is known as ______.
  2. Esperanto
  3. Indo-European
  4. Nostratic
  5. pidgin

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pidgins

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The most well-known creole language is ______.
  2. French-based Haitian
  3. Hiri Motu
  4. Pidgin English
  5. Tok Pisin

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Creoles

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. A universal language developed in the 19th century is ______.
  2. Altaic
  3. Esperanto
  4. Indo-European
  5. Nostratic

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Esperanto

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. The number of people living in 1990 who could speak English was ______.
  2. 1 in 3
  3. 1 in 7
  4. 1 in 20
  5. 1 in 50

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The only Germanic language developed outside Europe is ______.
  2. Afrikaans
  3. Malay
  4. Tswana
  5. Xhosa

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: South Africa

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. French language and culture are particularly prominent in which Canadian province?
  2. Alberta
  3. Manitoba
  4. Nova Scotia
  5. Quebec

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Canada

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. In which case did the Supreme Court rule that schools that do not provide special help for children with limited English are violating their civil rights?
  2. Fragante v. City and County of Honolulu
  3. Lau v. Nichols
  4. Plessey v. Ferguson
  5. Serbian Eastern Orthodox Diocese v. Milivojevich

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. In 1990, a federal district court ruled Arizona’s English-only law violated what constitutional guarantee?
  2. due process
  3. freedom of speech
  4. one person one vote
  5. states’ rights

Ans: B

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. What official language(s) does Hawaii have?
  2. English and Spanish
  3. English only
  4. Hawaiian only
  5. English and Hawaiian

Ans: D

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Situation in Hawai’i

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. ______ and Chinese are spoken by more people than English is.
  2. Spanish
  3. French
  4. Japanese
  5. Russian

Ans: A

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Summary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

True/False

 

  1. Whorf observed that the Hopi have no words or expressions that refer to time and concluded that the Hopi had no concept of time.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. When Israel became independent, it adopted a largely defunct language as an official language.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Language as Nationalism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. In some Asian languages, one word can refer to both “food” and “rice.”

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vocabulary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. For religious reasons, spoken Arabic does not change nor vary from country to country.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The rhetoric of confrontation refers to verbal threats and flamboyant language.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The Allies’ translation of the word mokusatsu in the Japanese response to the Potsdam Ultimatum is an example of the translation problem called idiomatic equivalence.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Vocabulary Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Translation of the English word democracy into Russian is an example of the translation problem called experiential equivalence.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Conceptual Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. One-way handheld voice translators were used by the U.S. military in Afghanistan as early as 2002.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Human and Machine Translators

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Pidgins can best be described as a second language used for restrictive purposes such as trade.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Pidgins

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Esperanto has the advantage over other universal language attempts of being easy to learn by anyone.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Esperanto

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Freire used the term cultural invasion to refer to one group penetrating the culture of another group to impose its own view of the world.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Language as Nationalism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The English language has a Germanic structure.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. One advantage of English as a universal language is its large vocabulary.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. Today’s estimate is that one fifth to one fourth of the world’s population is familiar with English.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

  1. In 2009, the Texas-border state of Tamaulipas declared itself the first bilingual state in Mexico.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. English is the first language for nearly 60% of the population of South Africa.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-5: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: South Africa

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

  1. The indigenous language of the Māori has nearly disappeared from New Zealand.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Australia and New Zealand

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Canada is officially a one-language country.

Ans: F

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Canada

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. During the 19th century, the most common second language in the United States was German.

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Since 1950, the requirement for U.S. citizenship has been “to read, write, and speak words in ordinary English.”

Ans: T

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

Short Answer

  1. Whorf observed that the Hopi don’t have tenses, or any constructions or expressions referring to ______.

Ans: time

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development of the Hypothesis

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The Sapir–Whorf hypothesis asserts that reality is embedded in a culture’s ______.

Ans: language

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Development of the Hypothesis

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Eskimo languages have many words for different kinds of ______, while other languages, such as English, may require several words to describe the same thing.

Ans: snow

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Vocabulary

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. In the Eskimo language, there is a consistent use of the word ______ in reference to the future; linguists have associated this grammatical trend with the harsh environment that Eskimos live in, where there is little control over nature.

Ans: if

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Grammar and Syntax

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Only about a third of English sentences lack a ______.

Ans: subject

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Grammar and Syntax

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Today, few accept the extreme position of the Sapir–Whorf linguistic ______.

Ans: determinism

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Westerners favor ______ whereas Easterners favor relationships.

Ans: decontextualization

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Even when cultures speak the same language, as do Australia and the United States, there can be ______ differences.

Ans: vocabulary

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Translation Problems

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Languages that are different often lack words that are directly ______.

Ans: translatable

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Vocabulary Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. ______ bilingual speakers are people who learn a second language later in life and who typically use their second language in a limited number of contexts.

Ans: Coordinate

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. ______ bilingual speakers are people who learned a second language early in life and use the language in many different contexts.

Ans: Compound

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Recently, voice translators involving speech recognition, machine translation, and voice synthesis have been developed for handheld devices for use between English and ______.

Ans: Iraqi Arabic

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Human and Machine Translators

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Language is central to ______ identity.

Ans: national

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Language as Nationalism

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The most widely spoken first language in the world is ______.

Ans: Mandarin (or Chinese)

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The second most widely spoken first languages in the world is ______.

Ans: Spanish

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The third most widely spoken first languages in the world is ______.

Ans: English

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. ______ and ______ are the official languages of the territory of Puerto Rico.

Ans: English; Spanish

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Puerto Rico and Statehood

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. The predominant language on the Internet in India is ______.

Ans: English

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: India

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. The most commonly used second language in the United States during the 19th century was ______.

Ans: German

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. ______ is the major language used on the Internet.

Ans: English

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

 

Essay

  1. What is language?

Ans: Varies, but the text uses the following definition: a set of symbols shared by a community to communicate meaning and experience. The symbols may be sounds or gestures, as in American Sign Language. Of the estimated 7,100 languages spoken today, each has unique sounds, words, and structures.

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Language as a Barrier

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. How do linguists trace the origins of language?

Ans: Varies, but should explain the idea that linguists study the words in languages and then look for similar-sounding words with similar meanings in different languages. Answers may include a discussion of the work of Sir William Jones, who found similarities between Sanskrit words and ancient Greek and Latin words and argued that the languages were derived from a common mother tongue.

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Language as a Barrier

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Ans: Varies, and could cover a variety of examples. Linguistic determinism and the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis may be discussed, along with linguistic relativism, or the idea that language only somehow shapes our thinking and behavior.

Learning Objective: 5-1: Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: Language as a Barrier

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

  1. Using at least three examples, explain the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Ans: The basic notion of the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis is that reality is embedded in culture’s language and that language then controls thought and cultural norms. Each of us lives not in the midst of the whole world but only in that part of the world that our language permits us to know. Thus, the world as each of us knows it is predetermined by the language of our culture. And the differences between languages represent basic differences in the worldview of diverse cultures.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Describe the difference between coordinate bilingual speakers and compound bilingual speakers.

Ans: Varies, but the following definitions should be employed. Coordinate bilingual speakers are people who learn a second language later in life and who typically use their second language in a limited number of contexts. Compound bilingual speakers are people who learned a second language early in life and use the language in many different contexts. For example, many people from China and Taiwan learn English later in life, while people from Hong Kong and Singapore tend to learn English earlier and use it in many different contexts.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Using at least three examples, explain linguistic relativism.

Ans: Varies, but should explain that the view considers the idea that linguistic characteristics and cultural norms influence each other. Examples from the text include various studies, and the idea of coordinate bilingual speakers, or people who learn a second language later in life and who typically use their second language in a limited number of contexts and compound bilingual speakers, or people who learned a second language early in life and use the language in many different contexts.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Linguistic Relativism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Discuss how the Qur’an is related to Arabic culture and language.

Ans: Varies. The Qur’an is the ultimate standard for Arabic style and grammar. Islam has had major effects on both written and spoken Arabic. Classical Arabic, the language of the Qur’an, is the accepted standard for the written language. As Islam spread throughout the world, so too did spoken Arabic, as all Muslims, regardless of nationality, must use Arabic in their daily ritual prayers.

Learning Objective: 5-2: Critique and apply the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Compare the Arabic language to English.

Ans: Arabic emphasizes creative artistry through repetition, metaphor, and simile in part because of the poetic influences of the Qur’an. The role that formal poetry, prose, and oratory play is missing today in the English language. English-speaking Westerners often find it difficult to locate the main idea of an Arabic message; Arabs often fault Westerners for being insensitive to linguistic artistry. Arabic makes more use of paralanguage—pitch, rhythm, intonation, and inflection—than other languages such as English.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Case Study: Arabic and the Arab Culture

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Discuss and give examples for the translation problems related to vocabulary.

Ans: Some languages have more words than other languages. Further, languages that are different often lack words that are directly translatable.

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Vocabulary Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Discuss and give examples for the translation problems related to idioms.

Ans: Many idioms do not exist in more than one language, and when translated literally, would not “make sense” and could cause confusion. Examples in English include “out to lunch” and “toss your cookies.”

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Idiomatic Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Discuss and give examples for the translation problems related to grammar.

Ans: This simply means that languages don’t necessarily have the same grammar. Often, you need to understand a language’s grammar to understand the meaning of words. For example, words in English can be nouns or verbs or adjectives, depending on their position in a sentence.

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Grammatical-Syntactical Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Discuss and give examples for the translation problems related to experience.

Ans: If an object or experience does not exist in your culture, it’s difficult to translate words referring to that object or experience into that language when no words may exist for them.

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Experiential Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

  1. Discuss and give examples for the translation problems related to concepts.

Ans: Specifically, the idea here is that abstract ideas that may not exist in the same fashion in different languages. An example in the text is the meaning of the word freedom.

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Conceptual Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

 

  1. Discuss issues related to machines as translators.

Ans: Varies. Machines are not human and cannot fully understand the nuance of human language. For example, idioms, even if translated directly perfectly, would not have the intended meaning. Further, machines still have difficulty translating voice.

Learning Objective: 5-3: Give examples of translation problems that impede intercultural communication.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: Human and Machine Translators

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. How can back translation improve the effectiveness of intercultural communication?

Ans: Varies. Back translation involves first translating into the second language, then translating back into the first language, and then comparing the result to the original. Often, the process can prevent amusing translation problems.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Answer Location: Conceptual Equivalence

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. Why is Esperanto unlikely to become a widely used language?

Ans: Universal languages, such as Esperanto, are artificial languages; they have no relationship to a culture—hence, they are static and don’t change and evolve as a culture changes and evolves. Nor do universal languages reflect the worldview of any culture. Any universal first language would probably begin to develop unique regional vocabularies and pronunciations over time and would then again begin to reflect cultural differences as the regional dialects grew further apart.

Learning Objective: 5-4: Give examples of how humans have communicated in language when there is no shared language.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Esperanto

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Describe the development and spread of English.

Ans: Varies, but should briefly describe the history and expansion of English. History should include the ideas that English did not exist when Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 BCE. English kept its relatively simple Germanic structure while adding a huge vocabulary of French words. Even before Columbus, English had borrowed words from 50 languages.

Learning Objective: 5-6: Trace the development of English as the most widely spread language around the world.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: The Spread of English

Difficulty Level: Easy

 

 

  1. How do language and nationalism relate?

Ans: Varies, but should explain that language is central to national identity. When a group with more power enforces the use of its language on another group, it also is making its culture dominant. The spread of a language to common use around a region also means the spreading influence of the culture native to that language.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

Answer Location: Language as Nationalism

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. What arguments can be made for and against official language laws?

Ans: Varies. Arguments against include the weakening of cultural languages as well as the curtailing of government employees’ free speech rights by prohibiting them from using other languages when dealing with the non-English-speaking population. Arguments for include the millions spent on bilingual education, bilingual ballots, high school equivalency diploma tests, driving tests in foreign languages, and instant translation of court proceedings for defendants who don’t speak English. Emergency and health-care organizations would face a burden of providing information in all the languages spoken in the United States.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Application

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Medium

 

 

  1. Develop arguments for both sides of the Lau v. Nichols case.

Ans: Varies, as students are asked to develop arguments. All answers should be based on the case. In 1974, the Supreme Court ruled in Lau v. Nichols, a class-action suit against the San Francisco Unified School District, that schools that don’t provide special help for children with limited English are violating these students’ civil rights.

Learning Objective: 5-5: Explain the relationship between language and nationalism.

Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Answer Location: United States

Difficulty Level: Hard

 

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