Adolescence Canadian 1st Edition By McMahan – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Peers

Multiple Choice Questions

1)     Social scientists consider peers to be those who

  1. A) have the right to tell others what to do.
  2. B) are involved in the same activities.
  3. C) are of roughly the same status or level of functioning.
  4. D) are still considered less than adult.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 148

 

2)     Unlike relationships with other adolescents, a teen’s family relationships are generally

  1. A)
  2. B) full of storm and stress.
  3. C) based on social equality.
  4. D) open to radical change.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 148

 

3)     Canadian adolescents spend the largest proportion of their waking hours

  1. A) with their parents.
  2. B) with their siblings.
  3. C) alone, doing homework.
  4. D) with other adolescents.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 149

 

4)     The fact that Canadian teens spend so much time with others who are almost exactly the same age is the result of

  1. A) finding those who are younger childish and boring.
  2. B) not wanting to be bossed around by those who are older.
  3. C) significant amount of time in schools and organized teen sports.
  4. D) the influence of child labor laws.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 149

 

5)     Adolescents are more open to new styles, trends, and ideas because

  1. A) they have fewer set habits.
  2. B) their new cognitive abilities allow them to imagine different approaches.
  3. C) they are eager to construct identities different from those they are assigned.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 152

 

6)     During the 1960s, the proportion of teens in the Canadian population climbed steeply as a result of

  1. A) increased immigration.
  2. B) the baby boom that followed World War II.
  3. C) more adults leaving the country.
  4. D) higher casualties in the Vietnam War.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 152

 

7)     In his book, The Adolescent Society, sociologist James Coleman expressed deep concern that the monolithic world of adolescents

  1. A) were becoming radicalized by the civil rights movement.
  2. B) rejected the importance of learning and academic success.
  3. C) were more interested in literature and the arts than in the sciences.
  4. D) were becoming sexually active at younger ages.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 153

 

8)     _____ refers to a contrast in values and behaviours between adolescents and adults.

  1. A) The generation gap
  2. B) Storm and stress
  3. C) The age divide
  4. D) Cohort clash

Answer: A

Page Ref: 152

 

9)     The biological, cognitive, and social changes that adolescents are going through are similar

enough to make the idea of a separate and coherent _____________ plausible.

  1. A)
  2. B) back-to-the-land movements.
  3. C) youth culture.
  4. D) greater respect for older generations.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 154

10)   Marta, 14, spent Saturday morning setting up her mother’s new computer and showing her mother how to access her e-mail. Margaret Mead would see this as a symptom of a _____ culture.

  1. A) postfigurative
  2. B) postmodern
  3. C) prefigurative
  4. D) postindustrial

Answer: C

Page Ref: 153

 

11)   Respect for elders and for authority is likely to be strongest in societies in which

  1. A) traditional ways of doing things are dying out.
  2. B) technological change comes slowly.
  3. C) rural populations are moving to the city.
  4. D) adolescents are encouraged to learn new skills.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 153

 

12)   Societies in which the young are equally likely to learn from elders or from their contemporaries are called

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: C

Page Ref: 153

 

13)   Most social scientists would consider that Western cultures today are

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 154

 

14)   Javier goes to see a new movie because some friends told him it’s great. This is an example of _____ social influence.

  1. A) negative
  2. B) impositional
  3. C) normative
  4. D) informational

Answer: D

Page Ref: 156

 

15)   Barack goes to see a new movie because everybody he knows has seen it and he doesn’t want to feel left out. This is an example of _____ social influence.

  1. A) normative
  2. B) positional
  3. C) informational
  4. D) negative

Answer: A

Page Ref: 156

 

16)   Those we look to for guidance on what to do and how well we do it are known as a(n)

  1. A) imaginary audience.
  2. B) reference group.
  3. C) comparison control.
  4. D) peer set.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 156

 

17)   Helene observes how other girls in her class act when talking to boys. For this purpose, she is making the other girls her

  1. A) reference group.
  2. B) comparison standard.
  3. C) interpersonal examples.
  4. D) implicit rivals.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 156

 

18)   The members of one’s reference group who exert the most influence are likely to be those who

  1. A) are most admired or successful.
  2. B) are seen as most similar by the person being influenced.
  3. C) have control over desirable resources.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 157

19)   In photography class, Hans is affected by whether he thinks his pictures are as good as those of his classmates. This process is known as

  1. A) social comparison.
  2. B) evaluative control.
  3. C) contingent reward.
  4. D) peer referencing.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 158

 

20)   Going along with antisocial behaviour by peers is strongest among

  1. A) 3rd graders.
  2. B) 6th graders.
  3. C) 9th graders.
  4. D) 12th graders.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 161

 

21)   Sven’s friends urge him to come to a game with them, but his parents insist he come with them to visit his grandmother. Sven is being subjected to

  1. A) an approach-avoidance conflict.
  2. B) the generation gap.
  3. C) postfigurative culture.
  4. D) cross-pressures.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 163

 

22)   Teens whose parents are warm and engaged with them are less subject to cross-pressures because

  1. A) their parents do not put pressure on them to be a particular way.
  2. B) they are likely to share their parents’ values and to choose friends with similar values.
  3. C) their friends do not put pressure on them to be a particular way.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 163

 

23)   Adolescents with overly strict parents, like those whose parents fail to monitor them,

  1. A) are especially susceptible to peer influence.
  2. B) are more likely to select deviant peers as friends.

 

  1. C) are more likely to do poorly in school.
  2. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 163

 

24)   Angelo is wondering if he should drop chemistry in order to have more time to spend practicing drums. He is most likely to go for advice to

  1. A) his parents.
  2. B) an other-sex friend.
  3. C) a same-sex friend.
  4. D) an Internet chatroom.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 164

 

25)   Kwame is wondering how to get closer to a girl he likes. He is most likely to go for advice to

  1. A) his mother.
  2. B) his father.
  3. C) his best friend.
  4. D) an Internet chatroom.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 164

 

26)   In a nomination study, hardly anyone said they really liked Rebecca, and hardly anyone said they really disliked her. Rebecca’s status would be considered

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: D

Page Ref: 165

 

27)   In a nomination study of social status, a child whose social preference score is around zero would be considered

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D) Impossible to say without more information.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 165

28)   A child’s status category tends to stay the same, with the exception of those in the _____ category.

  1. A) neglected
  2. B) controversial
  3. C) average
  4. D) popular

Answer: B

Page Ref: 166

 

29)   Another boy bumps into Pasquale in the hallway. Pasquale spins around, ready to throw a punch. His belief that the other kid meant to bump him reflects a

  1. A) projective defense mechanism.
  2. B) conflict readiness.
  3. C) hostile attributional bias.
  4. D) passive-aggressive character.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 166

 

30)   Those in the rejected-aggressive category tend to stay there because

  1. A) if they try to be friendly, others assume they are being insincere.
  2. B) by rejecting them, others build up their own status.
  3. C) they enjoy the status that comes with being well known as bad guys.
  4. D) teachers single them out for infractions that are ignored in others.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 166

 

31)   The teens that classmates name as the most popular

  1. A) are also the best liked.
  2. B) are considered trustworthy.
  3. C) are seen as stuck-up bullies.
  4. D) are high in social preference and impact.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 167

 

32)   Henri is angry at Jacques and gets back at him by ridiculing the way he dresses. Henri is engaging in what is known as

  1. A)
  2. B) relational aggression.
  3. C)
  4. D) implicit victimization.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 168

 

33)   The term relational aggression refers to

  1. A) harming someone by damaging their personal and social relations.
  2. B) getting back at an enemy by picking on their younger sibling.
  3. C) starting fights only when backed up by friends.
  4. D) being aggressive toward someone who has many relatives.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 168

 

34)   Research indicates that young adolescents who are high in relational aggression tend to be _____ in social prominence and _____ in social preference.

  1. A) high; high
  2. B) low; low
  3. C) high; low
  4. D) low; high

Answer: C

Page Ref: 169

 

35)   Teens are better able than children to think about and understand their relationships with peers because of their more

  1. A) frequent peer interactions.
  2. B) advanced social cognition.
  3. C) distant relations with parents.
  4. D) ambitious friendship goals.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 170

 

36)   “I was hurt when Jenny didn’t come to my party, but I’m okay with it now because I can see that she couldn’t bear to run into Tammy so soon after they stopped being best friends.” This is an example of

  1. A) adolescent egocentrism.
  2. B) a personal fable.
  3. C) relational aggression.
  4. D) social perspective taking.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 170

37)   Kwan is very self conscious about his acne problem. When a girl he finds attractive makes a joke about her own complexion, he interprets it as a disguised rejection of him and reacts with hostility. His misplaced response is the result of a problem with

  1. A) social information processing.
  2. B) relational aggression.
  3. C) reference groups.
  4. D) normative social influence.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 171

 

38)   Adolescents who frequently engage in bullying

  1. A) are generally disliked.
  2. B) think of themselves as attractive and popular.
  3. C) may themselves be victims of bullying.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 174

 

39)   Susanna is socially immature, withdrawn, and fearful. She is likely to

  1. A) be a target of bullying.
  2. B) grow out of her problems soon.
  3. C) get special attention from teachers.
  4. D) be adopted as a “pet” by more mature classmates.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 172

 

40)   Those who are _____ are most likely to carry a weapon to school.

  1. A) persistent bullies
  2. B) persistently victimized
  3. C) both bullies and victims
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 174

 

41)   Being victimized by a bully is less likely

  1. A) among younger than among older adolescents.
  2. B) if the potential victim has at least one good friend.

 

  1. C) in a smaller school.
  2. D) if the potential victim learns to avoid social encounters.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 173

 

42)   Jon has four friends he always hangs around with, talking, kidding, shooting baskets, and playing video games. Jon and his friends make up

  1. A) a status hierarchy.
  2. B) a crowd.
  3. C) a clique.
  4. D) an activity group.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 177

 

43)   During early adolescence, the members of a clique are usually the same

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C) ethnic group.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 177

 

44)   During middle adolescence, clique membership

  1. A) becomes more diverse in social class and status.
  2. B) becomes more multiethnic.
  3. C) comes to include both males and females.
  4. D) All of the above.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 179

 

45)   As many as one in four adolescents have friends in two or more cliques, but do not themselves belong to one. They are called

  1. A)
  2. B)
  3. C)
  4. D)

Answer: B

Page Ref: 177

46)   Belonging to a clique is linked to better peer relationships and school adjustment

  1. A) for girls but not for boys.
  2. B) for boys but not for girls.
  3. C) for both boys and girls.
  4. D) for neither boys nor girls.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 178

 

47)   On the first day of school, Malika shows up with a copy of James Joyce’s Ulysses tucked under her arm. Her fellow students are likely to assume that she is

  1. A) selling used books on eBay.
  2. B)
  3. C) a “brain.”
  4. D) trying to get on the good side of her English teacher.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 181

 

48)   Membership in a _____ is based on reputation, observable behaviour, and stereotypes.

  1. A) status hierarchy
  2. B) clique
  3. C) crowd
  4. D) reference group

Answer: C

Page Ref: 179

 

49)   Jocks, Brains, and Druggies are examples of _____ that are found in most high schools.

  1. A) crowds
  2. B) cliques
  3. C) reference groups
  4. D) status hierarchies

Answer: A

Page Ref: 181

 

50)   Across adolescence, the crowd structure

  1. A) becomes more rigidly defined.
  2. B) becomes more differentiated.
  3. C) develops stricter barriers between crowds.
  4. D) dissolves as teens become more autonomous.

Answer: B

Page Ref: 182

Essay Questions

1)     What do teens gain from relationships with peers that they do not get from relationships with parents or siblings? How are mixed-age peer relationships different from same-age relationships?

Answer: Peer relationships are equal, reciprocal, and voluntary, unlike the fixed hierarchy of parental and sibling relationships. Mixed-age relationships give opportunities to practice both leadership and follower roles and skills.

 

2)     Explain the difference between normative and informational social influence. Who among a teen’s peers might be most likely to exert each kind of influence, and why?

Answer: In normative social influence, one is influenced by others because of a norm of conformity, while in informational social influence, one is influenced by others because they may be better informed. Those peers who are seen as most similar (age, gender, SES, etc.) might be most likely to exert normative social influence, while those who are seen as more mature (older, higher grade, more advanced in pubertal development, etc.) might wield informational social influence.

 

3)     What is relational aggression, who uses it, and how is it related to popularity and social status?

Answer: Relational aggression involves hurting someone by damaging their social relationships. Both girls and boys use it, but it is a more important form of aggression for girls. Popular teens often use relational aggression as a tool to maintain their popularity, and it does not necessarily have the same negative effects on social status as physical aggression does.

 

4)     Discuss the phenomenon of bullying among teens. Who is likely to be a bully, who is likely to be a victim, and what are the effects on each?

Answer: Bullying is widespread during childhood and adolescence. It has negative impact not just on bullies and their victims but on those who witness harassment as well. Victims of bullying tend to be withdrawn, insecure, and socially isolated, while bullies tend to be aggressive, hostile, domineering, and disliked by peers. Some who are victimized themselves also victimize others. These bully/victims are at particular risk for problem behaviour.

 

5)     How do social groups evolve during adolescence and what functions do different types of groups serve for their members?

Answer: The clique is a small, tightly knit group of friends who are usually similar in age, sex, and social background that offers adolescents social and emotional support, but also demand conformity to the group’s norms. The crowd is a social group that is largely defined by reputation, interests, and activities (populars, jocks, brains, druggies, nerds, etc.). Most adolescents identify with their crowd as their primary reference group.

 

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