Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood A Cultural Approach 5th Edition – Test Bank

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Chapter 5: Gender

 

Multiple Choice

 

5.1.01. Shannon’s friends sometimes tease her about her dislike of wearing fashionable clothes and her plans to be an aircraft mechanic. Shannon’s attributes most likely violate her friends’ views of

 

  1. vocational choices.
  2. psychological roles.
  3. gender roles.
  4. adolescent personality.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.01    Page Reference: 123

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. gender roles.

 

5.1.02. Sex is to biological categories as gender is to ________categories.

 

  1. androgynous
  2. psychological
  3. pathological
  4. social

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.02    Page Reference: 123

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. social

 

5.1.03. Which of the following best represents a gender difference versus a sex difference?

 

  1. Girls tend to have a more negative body image than boys.
  2. Girls develop breasts at puberty, whereas boys do not.
  3. Boys tend to reach the growth spurt two years later than girls.
  4. Boys grow facial hair during adolescence, whereas girls do not.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.03    Page Reference: 123

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Girls tend to have a more negative body image than boys.

 

5.1.04. In your text, use of the term sex refers to the

 

  1. theoretical notion of socially constructed identities.
  2. mate selection patterns in various societies.
  3. biological status of being male or female.
  4. psychological status of being male or female.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.04    Page Reference: 123

Topic: Introduction

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. biological status of being male or female.

 

5.1.05. Awareness of gender roles and expectations tends to ________ during adolescence.

 

  1. decrease
  2. intensify
  3. stabilize
  4. disappear

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.05    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. intensify

 

5.1.06. Which statement best reflects adolescents’ family relationships in traditional cultures?

 

  1. Boys have more contact with their mothers than do girls.
  2. Boys have more contact with peers than do girls.
  3. Girls have more contact with peers than do boys.
  4. Girls have more contact with their fathers than do boys.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.06    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Boys have more contact with peers than do girls.

 

5.1.07. According to research, in traditional cultures, during adolescence, socialization becomes broader for boys and narrower for girls. Therefore,

 

  1. girls generally have more freedom than boys.
  2. boys generally have more freedom than girls.
  3. girls are expected to leave home at an early age.
  4. boys are expected to have sexual experience before marriage.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.07    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. boys generally have more freedom than girls.

 

5.1.08. In cultures with narrow patterns of socialization, it tends to be the most narrow in terms of

 

  1. gender expectations.
  2. peer relationships.
  3. religious expectations.
  4. intellectual development.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.08    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. gender expectations.

 

5.1.09. Which of the following is most true of adolescent relationships in traditional cultures? Boys and girls

 

  1. live very different lives and spend little time together.
  2. spend a great deal of time working together.
  3. spend most of their time with friends and at school.
  4. spend very little time with their immediate family.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.09    Page Reference: 125

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. live very different lives and spend little time together.

 

5.1.10. Brittany is eight years old. Her daily activities include helping her mother make meals, running the household, and looking after her baby brother. Most likely, Brittany lives in a(n)

 

  1. traditional preindustrial culture.
  2. urban Westernized area.
  3. large single-family household.
  4. industrialized European nation.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.10    Page Reference: 124-125

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. traditional preindustrial culture.

 

5.1.11. Which of the following tasks best reflects the socialization of adolescent girls in traditional cultures? Preparation for

 

  1. leaving the family home.
  2. entering the workplace.
  3. establishing peer relationships.
  4. marriage and gender-specific adult roles.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.11    Page Reference: 124-125

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. marriage and gender-specific adult roles.

 

5.1.12. Chinas (1991) studied adolescent girls and women in a traditional village in

 

  1. Canada.
  2. Columbia.
  3. Japan.
  4. Mexico.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.12    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Mexico.

 

5.1.13. Cross-cultural analyses have shown that in traditional cultures a boy is considered a man when he is able to

 

  1. divide and conquer.
  2. clothe and feed himself.
  3. work, war, and wager.
  4. provide, protect, and procreate.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.13    Page Reference: 125

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. provide, protect, and procreate.

 

5.1.14. The idea that attaining manhood is considered a difficult achievement is best reflected by

 

  1. a large population of males who do not conform to traditional ways.
  2. many cultures having a special word meaning “failed man.”
  3. a large proportion of matriarchal societies.
  4. many cultures having a distinct name for adolescent males.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.14    Page Reference: 125

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. many cultures having a special word meaning “failed man.”

 

5.1.15. Which of the following most accurately represents manhood requirements in traditional cultures?

 

  1. Acquiring useful skills and developing character qualities.
  2. Discovering new ideas through formal education.
  3. Learning how to raise a family by working alongside female family members.
  4. Separating from home and village ties.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.15    Page Reference: 126

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Acquiring useful skills and developing character qualities.

 

5.1.16. In your text, which of the following is put forth as a function of female circumcision? Female circumcision

 

  1. is a form of male control over female sexuality.
  2. is a traditional method of practicing hygiene.
  3. provides equality with males who are also circumcised.
  4. shows females’ ability to endure pain.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.16    Page Reference: 127

Topic: Male and Female Circumcision in Adolescence

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. is a form of male control over female sexuality.

 

5.1.17. Gilmore studied the Mehinaku people who live in the remote Brazilian rain forest. The Mehinaku culture has been affected very little by

 

  1. research procedures.
  2. gender expectations.
  3. village traditions.
  4. globalization.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.17    Page Reference: 127

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. globalization.

 

5.1.18. Kedrick is a 12-year-old member of Mehinaku society. He is often sick and stays at home to help his mother rather than fishing with his father and practicing wrestling. Kedrick is likely to be

 

  1. ridiculed and called names like “little girl.”
  2. married earlier than most of his peers.
  3. considered a tribal religious leader when he reaches manhood.
  4. more desirable to the women in his village.

 

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.18    Page Reference: 127

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. ridiculed and called names like “little girl.”

 

5.1.19. The use of derogatory names for men who prefer the company of women illustrates

 

  1. pressure to conform to culturally prescribed gender norms.
  2. a subordinate role of men in matriarchal societies.
  3. the absence of passionate manhood.
  4. instrumental traits of males.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.19    Page Reference: 128

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. pressure to conform to culturally prescribed gender norms.

 

5.1.20. Increased emphasis on gender roles in adolescence is characteristic of

 

  1. traditional cultures only.
  2. cultures affected by globalization.
  3. Western cultures more so than traditional cultures.
  4. both traditional and Western cultures.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.20    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. both traditional and Western cultures.

 

5.1.21. Which of the following was most likely to be the adult role of a young middle class woman in 18th and 19th century America?

 

  1. Wife and mother
  2. Teacher or nurse
  3. Nun or telephone operator
  4. Hostess or waitress

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.21    Page Reference: 129

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Wife and mother

 

5.1.22. The fact that in the 19th century many American girls were not taught about menarche reflected the view that girls

 

  1. should be seen and not heard.
  2. need more access to higher education.
  3. have limited intellectual capacity to understand biology.
  4. should remain innocent from sexual knowledge.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.22    Page Reference: 129

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. should remain innocent from sexual knowledge.

 

5.1.23. Historically, American girls were socially constricted in terms of employment, sexuality, and

 

  1. language development.
  2. health care.
  3. family relationships.
  4. physical appearance.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.23    Page Reference: 129

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. physical appearance.

 

5.1.24. Historically, service organizations such as the YWCA provided a “protective umbrella” for the nurturing of adolescent girls. The focus of activities was mainly on

 

  1. physical appearance and deportment.
  2. building relationships and serving the community.
  3. marriage preparation and health education.
  4. social adjustment and conflict resolution.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.24    Page Reference: 129

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. building relationships and serving the community.

 

5.1.25. Brumberg (1997) argues that although today’s adolescent girls are less constricted than their historical counterparts, they are also

 

  1. more likely to suffer from emotional problems.
  2. less integrated into the lives of adult women outside their families.
  3. more integrated into the lives of adult women outside their families.
  4. overwhelmed by the pressure of having too many vocational choices.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.25    Page Reference: 130

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. less integrated into the lives of adult women outside their families.

 

5.1.26. Gerald is a young man who is preparing to become the head of his future household. Like most of his peers, Gerald believes it is more important to contribute to community and family than to pursue personal goals of wealth and success. The year is most likely

 

  1. 1547.
  2. 1776.
  3. 1969.
  4. 1999.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.26    Page Reference: 130

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. 1776.

 

5.1.27. In colonial America in the 17th and 18th centuries, preparations for manhood most closely resembled those in

 

  1. present day America.
  2. traditional cultures.
  3. 19th century America.
  4. the era of self-made manhood.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.27    Page Reference: 130

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. traditional cultures.

 

5.1.28. In America, the concept of self-made manhood is associated with what century?

 

  1. 17th
  2. 18th
  3. 19th
  4. 20th

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.28    Page Reference: 130

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. 19th

 

5.1.29. The year is 1865, and Jan is a member of a popular volunteer youth organization. The organization stresses the importance of service to others, belief in God, and developing self-control. Sometimes during meetings, the group engages in competitive sports, and occasionally has rowdy celebrations under the leadership of their 19-year-old president. Jan is most likely

 

  1. female.
  2. male.
  3. from a rural area.
  4. from a wealthy family.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.29    Page Reference: 131

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. male.

 

5.1.30. Individualism is most closely associated with __________ manhood.

 

  1. traditional
  2. communal
  3. passionate
  4. diminishing

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.30    Page Reference: 131

Topic: From Boy to Man

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. passionate

 

5.1.31. Hill and Lynch (1991) argue that the increase in the intensity of gender socialization at adolescence is

 

  1. the same for boys and girls.
  2. greater for boys than for girls.
  3. greater for girls than for boys.
  4. dependent upon socio-economic status.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.31    Page Reference: 131

Topic: The Gender Intensification Hypothesis

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. greater for girls than for boys.

 

5.1.32. According to researchers, over a two-year study period, how did girls in grades 6, 7 and 8 change their self-descriptions?

 

  1. They described themselves as more feminine.
  2. They became more aggressive.
  3. There were only reported changes for younger girls.
  4. No changes were found.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.32    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Gender Intensification Hypothesis

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. They described themselves as more feminine.

 

5.1.33. Research indicates that conformity to gender roles during early adolescence is mostly likely among adolescents whose

 

  1. self-descriptions were more positive.
  2. teachers encouraged more gender exploration.
  3. parents influenced them toward gender compliance.
  4. cultural beliefs were more collectivist.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.33    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Gender Intensification Hypothesis

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. parents influenced them toward gender compliance.

 

5.1.34. Which of the following best reflects the socialization patterns of boys and girls in Western culture?

 

  1. Boys are more self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships.
  2. Girls and boys are equally self-conscious about their appearance and forming intimate friendships.
  3. Girls are more self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships.
  4. Boys are less self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.34    Page Reference: 131

Topic: The Gender Intensification Hypothesis

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. Girls are more self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships.

 

5.1.35. According to research, increased conformity to gender roles during early adolescence occurs especially for adolescents

 

  1. whose parents encourage gender-role conformity.
  2. whose parents are divorced.
  3. who come from large single-parent families.
  4. who attend all-girl or all-boy schools.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.35    Page Reference: 132

Topic: The Gender Intensification Hypothesis

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. whose parents encourage gender-role conformity.

 

5.1.36. Today, American adolescents are entering an adult world in which traditional gender beliefs are

 

  1. stronger than in the past.
  2. virtually non-existent.
  3. weaker than in the past.
  4. reversed.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.36    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Cultural Beliefs About Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. weaker than in the past.

 

5.1.37. Research shows that approximately ________ of Americans have beliefs about gender roles consistent with those in traditional cultures.

 

  1. one-half
  2. one-tenth
  3. one-quarter
  4. one-eighth

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.37    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Cultural Beliefs About Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. one quarter

 

5.1.38. Which of the following best defines differential gender socialization?

 

  1. Gender expectations differ across cultures within the first and third worlds.
  2. Boys and girls are socialized according to different gender expectations.
  3. Gender intensification decreases with age in non-Westernized cultures.
  4. Boys are more likely than girls to conform to gender expectations.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.38    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. Boys and girls are socialized according to different gender expectations.

 

5.1.39. Daryl, a thirteen-year-old boy, takes jazz dancing lessons and wants to be a fashion designer. According to research, he is likely to experience

 

  1. some peer ridicule and be less popular.
  2. academic difficulties.
  3. peer acceptance and popularity.
  4. late maturation.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.39    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. some peer ridicule and be less popular.

 

5.1.40. The research finding that 90 percent of infants observed at an American shopping mall were wearing gender-specific clothing provides support for

 

  1. differential gender socialization.
  2. the gender intensification hypothesis.
  3. gender stereotypes.
  4. self-socialization.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.40    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. differential gender socialization.

 

5.1.41. Differential gender socialization becomes more pronounced during

 

  1. adulthood.
  2. adolescence.
  3. middle childhood.
  4. early childhood.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.41    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. adolescence.

 

5.1.42. Carmela encourages her daughter to express her feelings, while she advises her son to “forget about” his hurt feelings over an argument with his friend. Most likely, Carmela’s behaviors result from

 

  1. favoritism toward her daughter.
  2. intentions to treat her children differently.
  3. beliefs arising from her own gender socialization.
  4. ignorance of inherent differences between boys and girls.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.42    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. beliefs arising from her own gender socialization.

 

5.1.43. The content of girls’ magazines is focused predominantly on physical appearance and attracting boys, while boys’ magazines are more likely to focus on

 

  1. physical appearance and attracting girls.
  2. hobbies and activities.
  3. career and education.
  4. sexually appealing imagery.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.43    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. hobbies and activities.

 

5.1.44. Which of the following is NOT a typical article topic in magazines targeted to adolescent girls?

 

  1. Fashion and beauty
  2. Entertainment
  3. Weight reduction/control
  4. Professional careers

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.44    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. Professional careers

 

5.1.45. According to research, the percentage of teen magazines devoted to advertising is approximately

 

  1. 15 percent
  2. 25 percent
  3. 40 percent
  4. 50 percent

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.45    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. 50 percent.

 

5.1.46. Unrealistic beauty ideals in magazines likely contribute to adolescent girls’

 

  1. increased self-confidence.
  2. negative body image.
  3. early maturation.
  4. late maturation.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.46    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. negative body image.

 

5.1.47. Boys are found to be more aggressive than girls due to ____________ factors.

 

  1. strictly biological
  2. simply socialization
  3. a combination of biological and socialization
  4. a combination of media and environmental

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.47    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. a combination of biological and socialization

 

5.1.48. According to the text, for adolescent girls, gender role socialization is most problematic with regard to

 

  1. submissiveness.
  2. body image.
  3. early sexuality.
  4. social cognition.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.48    Page Reference: 135

 

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. body image.

 

5.1.49. Jake plays defensive tackle on his high school football team and is an aggressive player on the field. According to research, which of the following is most likely to be true? Jake is

 

  1. unpopular with peers.
  2. popular with peers.
  3. academically gifted.
  4. a late-maturer.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.49    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. popular with peers.

 

5.1.50. Insults that ridicule a boys’ manhood provide evidence of

 

  1. a parallel between Western and traditional cultures.
  2. underlying violence in patriarchal societies.
  3. the effects of the women’s movement.
  4. self-made manhood.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.50    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. a parallel between Western and traditional cultures.

 

5.1.51. Jonathan sometimes starts physical fights with his friends and often shouts insults at other neighborhood kids. When his mother asks him what was wrong, he replies that he “is just acting normal – it’s cool to be tough.” According to research, Jonathan has a good chance of

 

  1. doing well in business as an adult.
  2. marrying at a young age.
  3. being abused by his parents.
  4. engaging in other problem behaviors.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.51    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. engaging in other problem behaviors.

 

5.1.52. According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender, children understand gender identity when they are about ______ year(s) old.

 

  1. one
  2. three
  3. five
  4. seven

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.52    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. three

 

5.1.53. Bonnie is in kindergarten. She tells her mom, “I don’t want to go to the hockey game – that’s for stinky boys!” This scenario best illustrates

 

  1. media control.
  2. parental influence.
  3. self-socialization.
  4. expressive traits.

 

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.53    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. self-socialization.

 

5.1.54. Alex finds enjoyment in after-school activities that include playing soccer, showing off on the latest video game, gossiping with friends or playing with dolls. Alex isn’t concerned about whether after-school activities are “boy” things or “girl” things. Alex is most likely a

 

  1. 5-year-old boy.
  2. 9-year-old girl.
  3. 12-year-old boy.
  4. 16-year-old girl.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.54    Page Reference: 135-136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. 9-year-old girl.

 

5.1.55. According to the text, gender expectations become more rigid in early adolescence as part of the gender intensification process. In what grade does gender flexibility peak?

 

  1. 5th – 6th grade
  2. 7th – 8th grade
  3. 8th – 9th grade
  4. 9th – 10th grade

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.55    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. 7th – 8th grade

 

5.1.56. Piaget’s gender schema theory portrays gender as one of the fundamental ways that people

 

  1. organize information about the world.
  2. interact with one another.
  3. stereotype and categorize people.
  4. create norms and behaviors.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.56    Page Reference: 136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. organize information about the world.

 

5.1.57. Which of the following is associated with gender schema theory?

 

  1. An assumption that people organize information in terms of gender.
  2. An assumption that differences between males and females are purely biological.
  3. The belief that gender is a social construction.
  4. The belief that psychological theories of gender are inadequate.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.57    Page Reference: 136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. An assumption that people organize information in terms of gender.

 

5.1.58. Which of the following best defines “schema”?

 

  1. The name for a type of individual that is self-motivated.
  2. The statistical technique that integrates many research studies.
  3. A means of coordinating one’s physical surroundings.
  4. A mental structure for organizing information.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.58    Page Reference: 136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. A mental structure for organizing information.

 

5.1.59. Margot loves going to the mall with her friends, trying on clothes, and talking about boys. Mitch plays football, hangs out with his friends, and plays video games on the weekend. Allison likes collecting baseball cards and playing hockey with the neighborhood kids. According to the text, whose activities would most likely be inconsistent with traditional gender schemes?

 

  1. Margot trying on clothes.
  2. Mitch playing football.
  3. Allison collecting baseball cards.
  4. All of these answers are correct.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.59    Page Reference: 136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. Allison collecting baseball cards.

 

5.1.60. According to research, which of the following traits are considered most desirable for an American male?

 

  1. Analytical, sympathetic, and gentle
  2. Affectionate, loyal, and tender
  3. Ambitious, cheerful, and warm
  4. Self-reliant, competitive, and assertive

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.60    Page Reference: 137

Topic: Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. Self-reliant, competitive, and assertive

 

5.1.61. Which statement most accurately represents the expressive traits ascribed to females? Women are generally ____________ than males.

 

  1. more emotional and relationship-oriented
  2. more artistic and creative
  3. less sexually and physically active
  4. less androgynous and stereotypical

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.61    Page Reference: 137

Topic: Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. more emotional and relationship-oriented

 

5.1.62. Eleanor and Jerry are adolescents who both have some masculine traits and some feminine traits. According to research,

 

  1. Eleanor is more likely than Jerry to have a positive self-image.
  2. Jerry is more likely than Eleanor to have a positive self-image.
  3. Jerry and Eleanor are likely to be ostracized.
  4. this will have no bearing on self-image.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.62    Page Reference: 138

Topic: Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

Skill: Applied

Answer: a. Eleanor is more likely than Jerry to have a positive self-image.

 

5.1.63. Most research studies on masculinity, femininity, and androgyny have been conducted on

 

  1. White elementary school students.
  2. minority high school students.
  3. White college students.
  4. minority graduate students.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.63    Page Reference: 137

Topic: Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. White college students.

 

5.1.64. The year is 1958. Norma is applying to different law schools. Which of the following would be accurate advice for Norma, given the year?

 

  1. “Norma, your grades are so high you should apply to Harvard Law School.”
  2. “Norma, it’s too bad Harvard doesn’t grant degrees to women – your grades are so high.”
  3. “Women are not allowed to practice law.”
  4. “There are no institutions in North America that grant law degrees to women.”

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.64    Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Women’s Movement of the 1960s

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. “Norma, it’s too bad Harvard doesn’t grant degrees to women – your grades are so high.”

 

5.1.65. Which of the following was NOT a political action associated with the women’s movement?

 

  1. The kidnapping of a wealthy publisher
  2. A nationwide strike for women’s rights
  3. Demonstrations protesting beauty pageants
  4. The publication of books on feminist issues

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.65    Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Women’s Movement of the 1960s

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. The kidnapping of a wealthy publisher

 

5.1.66. Some scholars argue that for African American adolescents gender roles reflect

 

  1. differential gender socialization.
  2. challenges faced in African American history.
  3. the lack of research done with minority samples.
  4. a reversal of gender roles.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.66    Page Reference: 140

Topic: Gender Roles in American Minority Groups

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: b. challenges faced in African American history.

 

5.1.67. According to your text, masculine and feminine stereotypes are a type of

 

  1. adolescent egocentrism.
  2. cultural norm.
  3. social cognition.
  4. gender schema.

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.1.67    Page Reference: 141

Topic: Gender Stereotypes in Emerging Adulthood

Skill: Factual

Answer: d. gender schema.

 

5.1.68. In height, you have a friend who is 6’10”, another who is 4’10” and several who are somewhere between 5 and 6 feet tall.  This scenario reflects the concept of

 

  1. meta-analysis.
  2. normal distribution.
  3. effect size.
  4. instrumental traits.

 

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.68    Page Reference: 142

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. normal distribution.

 

5.1.69. In terms of gender differences in adolescence and emerging adulthood, which of the following is the most accurate? For most characteristics, there is __________________________ between genders.

 

  1. more difference than similarity
  2. no significant difference
  3. more similarity than difference
  4. limited means of determining differences

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.69    Page Reference: 142

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. more similarity than difference

 

5.1.70. Gender differences may be exaggerated because

 

  1. our gender schemas alert us to information that confirms our expectations.
  2. research is often conducted on people with narrow cultural views.
  3. globalization is influencing traditional cultures and marginalized populations.
  4. most people do not understand sociological categories in terms of their own expectations.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.70    Page Reference: 142-143

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. our gender schemas alert us to information that confirms our expectations.

 

5.1.71. Social roles theory asserts that the social roles for males and females may

 

  1. disprove the cognitive developmental theory of gender.
  2. be based in biology.
  3. increases women’s chances for employment outside the home.
  4. amplify or suppress certain skills.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.71    Page Reference: 143

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. amplify or suppress certain skills.

 

5.1.72. Belinda plans to study early childhood development. Her decision was based upon her love of baby-sitting when she was in high school and looking after her young niece on the weekends. Her brother Brad disliked baby-sitting and tried to “get out of it” when it was his turn. Most likely, Belinda

 

  1. is naturally a more nurturing person than Brad.
  2. has developed skills and is thus more interested in child care than Brad.
  3. is considerably older than Brad.
  4. has more career options, but is still more interested in childcare than Brad.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.72    Page Reference: 143

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. has developed skills and is thus more interested in child care than Brad.

 

5.1.73. Helen is a researcher interested in gender differences in students’ math achievement. She plans to use the meta-analysis technique because

 

  1. it is more accurate than collecting data in schools.
  2. there are very few studies published on this topic.
  3. there are many studies published on this topic.
  4. it is more respected than other methodologies.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.1.73    Page Reference: 144

Topic: Meta-Analyses of Gender Difference

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. there are many studies published on this topic.

 

5.1.74. In your text, the idea is raised that discrimination against girls may decrease with

 

  1. increased globalization.
  2. an equal decrease in globalization.
  3. a return to traditional cultural values.
  4. increased female population in the West.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.74    Page Reference: 145

Topic: Gender and Globalization

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. increased globalization.

 

5.1.75. The text’s author describes which of the following as a research area in which further investigation is needed?

 

  1. Investigating adolescents’ own perceptions of the gender socialization process.
  2. Observing puberty rituals in traditional cultures.
  3. Comparing media influences in traditional and Western cultures.
  4. Investigating parents’ perceptions of adolescents’ gender socialization.

 

Difficulty: 2    Question ID: 5.1.75    Page Reference: 146

Topic: Gender and Globalization

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: a. Investigating adolescents’ own perceptions of the gender socialization process.

 

True/False

 

5.2.76. In traditional cultures, socialization becomes broader for girls and narrower for boys in adolescence.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.76    Page Reference: 124

Topic: Adolescents and Gender in Traditional Cultures

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

5.2.77. In traditional cultures, there is considerable pressure on adolescent boys to prove their sexual prowess.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.77    Page Reference: 124

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.78. The historical belief that intellectual work endangered women’s health is an example of a gender difference thought to be a sex difference.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.78    Page Reference: 129

Topic: From Girl to Woman

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.79. Research shows that teachers generally reinforce traditional cultural messages regarding gender.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.79    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.80. According to research, gender roles may temporarily become more flexible during middle childhood.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.80    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.81. Research shows that math and science professors were more likely to encourage female college students to pursue graduate studies.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.81    Page Reference: 133

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

5.2.82. In teen magazines for girls, articles about career are usually about how to look.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.82    Page Reference: 134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.83. Adolescents who value aggressive behavior as part of male gender roles are more likely to engage in problem behavior.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.83    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Gender Socialization as a Source of Problems

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.84. Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory of gender was based on Jean Piaget’s ideas about cognitive development.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.84    Page Reference: 135

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.85. Gender schemes have no influence on the way we interpret the behavior of others and what we expect from them.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.85    Page Reference: 136

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

5.2.86. Harvard University first granted degrees to women in 1963.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.86    Page Reference: 139

Topic: The Women’s Movement of the 1960s

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.87. Most of the research on gender expectations in adulthood has been conducted by anthropologists.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.87    Page Reference: 141

Topic: Gender Stereotypes in Emerging Adulthood

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

5.2.88. The term “opposite sex” accurately describes the differences between men and women.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.88    Page Reference: 142-143

Topic: The Persistence of Beliefs about Gender Differences

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

5.2.89. Today, women tend to earn less money than men for similar work.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.89    Page Reference: 143

Topic: Gender and Globalization

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. True

 

5.2.90. Research shows that economic development and perceptions of gender roles are NOT strongly related.

 

  1. True
  2. False

 

Difficulty: 1    Question ID: 5.2.90    Page Reference: 145

Topic: Gender and Globalization

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. False

 

Essay

 

5.3.91. Contrast gender roles of male and female adolescents in traditional cultures.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.3.91    Page Reference: 123-128

Topic: Adolescents and Gender in Traditional Cultures

Skill: Applied

Answer: • Gender roles for males and females are distinct • Girls work alongside mothers and other women learning skills related to running the home and child care. • Boys learn skills related to the tasks of providing, protecting, and procreating.

 

5.3.92. Define differential gender socialization. Provide an example.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.3.92    Page Reference: 132

Topic: Gender Socialization: Family, Peers, and School

Skill: Applied

Answer: • Differential gender socialization: Socializing males and females according to different expectations regarding appropriate behaviors and attitudes. Gender appropriate behavior is encouraged, while gender inappropriate behavior is often ridiculed by peers. • Example: Bob and Lucille have decorated their nursery in blue with pictures of cars, boats, and airplanes when their test results indicated they were going to have a boy. • Example: Aunt Phyllis buys Helen a Barbie Doll and Joseph a chemistry set. • Example: Darryl’s older brother teases him when he says he wants to take figure skating lessons instead of hockey.

 

5.3.93. Discuss media influences in terms of gender socialization in adolescence.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.3.93    Page Reference: 133-134

Topic: Media and Gender

Skill: Applied

Answer: • Media popular with adolescents promote gender stereotypes. Magazines for girls focus on physical appearance, while boys’ magazines focus on activities and hobbies. • Gender intensification at adolescence and culture makes girls susceptible to the message to strive to conform to presented ideals. • The focus on physical appearance in the female gender role is associated with girls’ negative body image, depression, and eating disorders. • For boys, gender expectations and value of aggression are associated with problems and problem behavior.

 

5.3.94. Define gender schema theory and discuss the possible effects of these schemes on how adolescents interpret behaviors of others.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.3.94    Page Reference: 136-137

Topic: Cognition and Gender

Skill: Applied

Answer: • Gender Schema Theory: portrays gender as one of the fundamental ways that people organize information about the world. By the time we reach adolescence, we have learned to categorize an enormous range of activities, objects, and personality characteristics as “male” or “female.” Gender schemas influence how we interpret the behavior of others and what we expect from them.

 

5.3.95. Discuss possible effects of globalization upon gender role perceptions in traditional cultures.

 

Difficulty: 3    Question ID: 5.3.95    Page Reference: 143-145

Topic: Gender and Globalization

Skill: Applied

Answer: • Economic development is associated with availability of contraception. • Men’s physical prowess becomes less salient as work becomes more specialized and focused on information technology. • Gender roles may become more egalitarian.

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