Administration And Management In Criminal Justice 2nd Edition By Jennifer M. – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

Conflict, Power, and Ethical Issues

Test Bank

 

Multiple Choice (25)

 

  1. Resource scarcity, incompatible goals, and differentiation are conditions that may give rise to conflict during the _________ stage of organizational conflict.

*a. Latent conflict

  1. Perceived conflict
  2. Felt conflict
  3. Manifest conflict

Answer location: (Organizational Conflict) p. 136-137

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The initial stage of Pondy’s model of organizational conflict is referred to as ______________.

*a. Latent conflict

  1. Perceived conflict
  2. Felt conflict
  3. Manifest conflict

Answer location: (Five Stages of Organizational Conflict) p. 137

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Two inmates share a cell together; over time conflict has emerged to the point where they have recently engaged in a fistfight with one another. The fistfight is an indication that their conflict has likely reached the ___________ stage.
  2. Latent conflict
  3. Perceived conflict
  4. Felt conflict

*d. Manifest conflict

Answer location: (Five Stages of Organizational Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Sheriff Smith believes that one of his deputies causes a lot of conflict because he is inherently bad; Smith refers to him as a “troublemaker.” Smith’s view of conflict best fits which of the following?

*a. Personality defect theory

  1. Incomplete or incorrect differences
  2. Differentiation
  3. Team interdependency

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Conflict sometimes emerges because of differences in family upbringing, values, education, culture, and past experiences. This source of conflict is known as __________________.
  2. Personality defect theory

*b. Personal differences

  1. Incorrect or incomplete information
  2. Interdependence

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 139

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A police gang unit is in conflict with a group of patrol officers on a particular shift over how to handle gang members. Both groups believe they are responsible for preventing gang-related crime, thereby generating conflict based on ___________________.

*a. Overlapping authority

  1. Team interdependency
  2. Personality defect theory
  3. Incorrect information

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 141

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Which of the following is not typically viewed as a source of conflict?
  2. Personal differences in perceptions and expectations
  3. Lack of complete information or inaccurate information
  4. Team interdependence

*d. Abundant resources

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 142

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Different units within a police department have different views on how to reduce crime (though they all share the goal of crime reduction). Some want to aggressively enforce laws targeting minor crimes.  Others want to focus on more serious crimes.  This conflict is based on the concept of ________________.
  2. Goal incompatibility

*b. Differentiation

  1. Incorrect information
  2. Personality differences

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 141

Question Type: MC

 

  1. An inmate attempts to resolve conflict with another inmate by physically assaulting him. He is trying to satisfy his own needs with little regard for the needs of his fellow inmate.  His conflict resolution style is best described as ___________________.

*a. Competing

  1. Collaborating
  2. Compromising
  3. Accommodating

Correct Answer: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 142

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The adversarial nature of the criminal court process produces conflict between the prosecutor and defense attorney. Plea bargaining allows them to satisfying each of their goals partially rather than completely.  Plea bargaining may be viewed as a __________________ conflict management strategy.
  2. Competing
  3. Collaborating

*c. Compromising

  1. Accommodating

Answer location: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 143

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The best conflict management approach, applicable in the most situations, is ____________.
  2. Competition

*b. Collaborating

  1. Compromising
  2. Accommodating

Answer location: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 143

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Individuals can accumulate personal power in organizations via all of the following personal characteristics except _____________________.
  2. Expertise
  3. Personal attraction
  4. Effort

*d. Position

Answer location: (Attributes of Personal Power) p. 145-147

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A criminal defense attorney may have power because she is perceived to have special knowledge or capabilities. Such power is based on ____________________.
  2. Personal attraction

*b. Expertise

  1. Legitimacy
  2. Position

Answer location: (Attributes of Personal Power) p. 145

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Power in an organization may be exercised by ___________________.
  2. Lower ranking individuals toward upper ranking administrators
  3. Upper ranking administrators toward lower ranking individuals
  4. Individuals within a rank toward others within the same rank

*d. Power may be exercised in all of the above examples

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 147

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Position power in an organization is determined by all of the following except _____________.
  2. Formal position
  3. Discretion
  4. Relevance

*d. Effort

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 147-148

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A prosecutor has power because his position allows her to be flexible and exercise freedom in decisions related to charging offenders and entering into plea bargains. This example illustrates that the prosecutor’s power is derived, in part, from the ____________ of her position.
  2. Relevance
  3. Centrality

*c. Discretion

  1. Visibility

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 148

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A crime analyst increases his power within a police department by learning to use software and perform much needed analytical techniques that no other organizational member can perform. Which term or concept below best describes how he increased his power?
  2. Increased control of resources
  3. Coped with uncertainty

*c. Became difficult to replace (nonsubstitutability)

  1. Enhanced his charisma

Answer location: (Tactics for Increasing Power) p. 149

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Employees who can foresee or better predict future changes obtain power because ____________.
  2. They control resources

*b. They help the organization cope with uncertainty

  1. They earn high wages
  2. They are dependent upon others

Answer location: (Tactics for Increasing Power) p. 149-150

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A crime analyst increases his power within a police department by learning to use software and perform much needed analytical techniques that no other organizational member can perform. Which term or concept below best describes how he increased his power?
  2. Increased control of resources
  3. Coped with uncertainty

*c. Became difficult to replace (nonsubstitutability)

  1. Enhanced his charisma

Answer location: (Tactics for Increasing Power) p. 149

 

  1. Managers engage in a process of bargaining and negotiation in the workplace in order to increase their power. This is a process known as ________________.

*a. Organizational politics

  1. Abuse of power
  2. Noble cause corruption
  3. Managing promotions

Answer location: (Use of Power and Politics) p. 155

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Managers may use all of the following political strategies in order to increase their power in the workplace.
  2. Change organizational structures to their advantage
  3. Manage promotions
  4. Manage scarce resource allocation

*d. All of the above

Answer location: (Use of Power and Politics) p. 155

Question Type: MC

 

  1. When politics involves deception and dishonesty to promote individual self interests, it is considered ____________________.
  2. Noble cause corruption
  3. Differential application

*c. Abuse of power

  1. Scare resource allocation

Answer location: (Use of Power and Politics) p. 155

Question Type: MC

 

  1. Forensic labs in many states have been subject to scandal in recent years, including for fabricating results without performing the necessary tests. This is called providing:
  2. “Blue file” results

*b. “Dry lab” results

  1. “Dead drop” results
  2. “Wet lab” results

Answer location: (Ethical Decision Making) p. 157

Question Type: MC

 

  1. The ethical dimensions of right and wrong vary from person to person and from place to place. This is known as _______________________.

*a. Ethical relativism

  1. Ethical abolitionism
  2. Noble causes
  3. Centrality

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 166

Question Type: MC

 

  1. In a study of early career police officers, Catlin and Maupin found that their approach toward ethics _________________________.
  2. Was characterized by ethical relativism and remained unchanged
  3. Was characterized by ethical absolutism and remained unchanged
  4. Started as ethnical relativism and changed to ethical absolutism over time

*d. Started as ethical absolutism and changed to ethical relativism over time

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 166

Question Type: MC

 

  1. A forensic analyst wants to call attention to the sloppy evidence handling practices and potential mistakes made by some in the lab he works in. If he were to blow the whistle, who would he most likely contact?
  2. His immediate supervisor
  3. A co-worker

*c. A reporter from the local newspaper

  1. An administrative assistant in the lab

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 170

Question Type: MC

 

True/False (15)

 

  1. Officer Jones recognizes that his goals are being blocked by a coworker though he has not let this bother him. Officer Jones is most likely in the perceived conflict stage of organizational conflict.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Five Stages of Organizational Conflict) p. 137

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Issue-focused conflicts are typically more difficult to resolve than people-focused conflicts.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: TF

 

  1. People-focused conflicts tend to be more emotion-filled than issue-focused conflicts.

*a. True

b .False

Answer Location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Personality defect theory can successfully explain most organizational conflicts.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138-139

Question Type: TF

 

  1. During the conflict aftermath stage of a conflict episode, issues are usually resolved completely and all tension is gone.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Goal incompatibility occurs when the goals of one group conflict with the goals of another group.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location:  (Causes of Conflict) p. 141

Question Type: TF

 

  1. The collaborating style of conflict management involves fully satisfying the needs of only one of the parties involved in the conflict.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 143

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Power comes with authority.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Power) p. 145

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Workers may accumulate personal power by being committed and dedicated and engaging in hard work in the organization.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Attributes of Personal Power) p. 146

Question Type: TF

 

  1. A prison warden has power in a prison simply by virtue of her rank in the organization. As a result, she can be described as having position power.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 147

Question Type: TF

 

  1. People-oriented positions within an organization generally come with more power than task-oriented positions.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 147

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Formal position leads to position power based, in part, on visibility—the number of influential people that an individual knows and is seen with.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Characteristics of Position Power) p. 147

Question Type: TF

 

  1. “Noble cause” corruption occurs when workers violate fundamental laws for their own personal financial gain.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Ethical Decision Making) p. 161

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Ethical relativism maintains that right and wrong vary from person to person and place to place.

*a. True

  1. False

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 166

Question Type: TF

 

  1. Approximately one-half (50 percent) of academy training hours for police officers is devoted to ethics, including identifying their own personal ethics.
  2. True

*b. False

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 166

Question Type: TF

 

Short Answer (5)

 

  1. Describe the difference between people-focused conflicts and issue-focused conflicts. Describe two situations, one to illustrate each of the two types of conflicts.

Varies, but issue focused conflicts are negotiable.  People-focused conflicts are personality based.  Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 138

Question Type: SA

 

  1. Identify and briefly define three common causes of conflict in organizations.

Varies.  Personal differences, incorrect or incomplete information, task interdependence, team interdependency, overlapping authority, goal incompatibility, differentiation, and resource scarcity are some examples.

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 139-140

Question Type: SA

 

  1. What are three things a manager can do to promote conflict resolution in his/her organization?

Focus on larger goals rather than smaller ones.  Improve the communication between parties.  Help parties develop negotiation skills.

Answer location: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 142-144

Question Type: SA

 

  1. What is the difference between power and authority?

Authority is based on position and has become legitimized.  People view the individual with authority as having the right to direct others.

Answer location: (Power) p. 145

Question Type: SA

 

  1. It is possible that the nature of the police occupation itself may be enough to blur judgment of right and wrong, particularly when decisions have to be made quickly. What are some of the characteristics of the police officer’s job, including working conditions and environment that may lead to such challenges in decision making?

Varies.  May include danger of the job, shift work (poor sleep), little supervision, etc.

Answer location: (Ethical Decision Making) p. 158-161

Question Type: SA

 

Essay (3)

 

  1. Tasks in the workplace are interdependent and often a source of conflict. What is task interdependence?  When does it occur?  Describe two examples of task interdependence as it might occur in a police department.

Varies, but task interdependence occurs when resources are shared and when one task provides the inputs for another.  For example, the work of patrol officers actually represents a form of inputs for detectives.  Ineffective performance on the part of the patrol officer may lead to conflict.

Answer location: (Causes of Conflict) p. 140-141

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Research has identified five different conflict management strategies derived from a two-by-two matrix. What are these five different conflict management strategies?  Assume you are prison inmate Jones and you are in conflict with another inmate over a desirable seat in the prison cafeteria.  Choose three of the approaches described above.  Describe how inmate Jones would manage this conflict if he adopted each of the three different strategies.

Varies.  Avoiding, collaborating, compromising, accommodating, competing are the five strategies.  The two inmates might physically fight over the chair (competing).  Inmate Jones might let the other inmate have the chair (accommodating).  Inmate Jones might not even bother arguing about the chair in the first place and sit somewhere else (avoiding).

Answer location: (Conflict Management Strategies) p. 142-144

Question Type: ES

 

  1. Assume you are the chief of police in a local police department and you want to shape the organization’s culture. What is organizational culture?  If employees do indeed learn about values, beliefs, and behavior from watching supervisors, what are some specific things you, as the chief, can do to set an example for your subordinates?

Varies.  Organizational values that guide behavior.  The chief may avoid taking free meals or cups of coffee, enforce the law equally regardless of personal characteristics of offender, etc.

Answer location: (Steps Taken to Address Ethical Issues) p. 167-169

Question Type: ES

 

 

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