ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY PERSPECTIVES 6TH ED BY DAVID – TEST BANK

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Chapter 05: Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Trauma -Related Disorders

 

 

Chapter 05 Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Anxiety is distinguished from fear and panic because of the emphasis on __________.
  2. A) fighting
  3. B) the present
  4. C) the past
  5. D) the future
  6. E) fleeing

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-01

Page-Reference: 96

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: D) the future

 

  1. Panic is defined as an extreme __________ reaction that is triggered by a(n) __________.
  2. A) anxiety; future-oriented threat
  3. B) emotional; perceived threat
  4. C) fear; false alarm
  5. D) anxiety; false alarm
  6. E) emotional; imagined threat

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-02

Page-Reference: 96

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: C) fear; false alarm

 

  1. References to anxiety have been made since __________, with the first references being made by _____ about __________.
  2. A) Victorian era; Freud; a woman who feared men with cigars
  3. B) the Middle Ages; Paracelsus; people who feared possession
  4. C) the 18th century; Pinel; a patient with apparent agoraphobia
  5. D) late 1800s; Kraepelin; a patient with apparent OCD-related disorder
  6. E) beginning of history; Hippocrates; a man who feared flute music

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-03

Page-Reference: 96

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: E) beginning of history; Hippocrates; a man who feared flute music

 

  1. According to the text, biological theories of anxiety emphasize all of the following except
  2. A)
  3. B) structural brain damage.
  4. C) family history.
  5. D)
  6. E)

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-04

Page-Reference: 97

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: B) structural brain damage.

 

  1. The neural circuit in fear / anxiety is believed to involve (from input to output):
  2. A) sensory systems; frontal cortex; adrenal cortex; brain stem / spinal cord
  3. B) sensory systems; thalamus; amygdala; hypothalamus; midbrain; brain stem / spinal
  4. C) thalamus; hippocampus; basal ganglia; hypothalamus; brain stem / spinal
  5. D) thalamus; occipital cortex; association cortex; motor cortex; brain stem/spinal
  6. E) thalamus; temporal cortex; association cortex; motor cortex; brain stem / spinal

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-05

Page-Reference: 97

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) sensory systems; thalamus; amygdala; hypothalamus; midbrain; brain stem / spinal

 

  1. With regard to neurotransmitters involved in fear / anxiety
  2. A) serotonergic circuits are primarily involved.
  3. B) dopamine agonists increase the fear / anxiety response in animals.
  4. C) the roles of GABA, norepinephrine and serotonin are the most studied.
  5. D) Only GABA has been well studied but others are thought to be involved.
  6. E) GABA’s function in the brain is processing threat-related stimuli.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-06

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) the roles of GABA, norepinephrine and serotonin are the most studied.

 

  1. The role of GABA in anxiety was discovered after it was found that a class of drugs known as __________ reduce anxiety through their action on GABA.
  2. A) tricyclics
  3. B) benzodiazepines
  4. C) SSRIs
  5. D) bicyclics
  6. E) monoamine oxidase inhibitors

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-07

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) benzodiazepines

 

  1. According to the two-factor theory of phobias, avoidance or escape serves as a __________ which prevents classically conditioned fears from being unlearned.
  2. A) positive punisher
  3. B) negative reinforcer
  4. C) negative punisher
  5. D) neutral stimulus
  6. E) positive reinforcer

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-08

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) negative reinforcer

 

  1. Support for the two-factor theory of fear was found in the case of __________, who developed a fear of ________.
  2. A) Little Albert, spiders
  3. B) Little Hans; horses
  4. C) Little Albert; horses
  5. D) Little Albert; rats
  6. E) Little Hans; spiders

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-09

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: D) Little Albert; rats

 

  1. Cognitive factors involved in anxiety and anxiety-related disorders include:
  2. A) dysfunctional attitudes, beliefs and thinking abilities.
  3. B) maladaptive attitudes, beliefs and interpretive biases.
  4. C) maladaptive beliefs, schemas, attention and processing biases, and automatic thoughts.
  5. D) over-exaggerations in terms of number and degree of threats to the self.
  6. E) over-exaggerations only in terms of degree of threats to the self.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-10

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) maladaptive beliefs, schemas, attention and processing biases, and automatic thoughts.

 

  1. The textbook cites research support for the following interpersonal factors as being involved in the anxiety and anxiety-related disorders:
  2. A) parenting style / attachment style; parental criticism, overprotection, and control; peer victimization experiences in childhood
  3. B) harsh and inconsistent punishment; peer victimization experiences in early childhood
  4. C) coercive parental discipline techniques; over-crowded early social environment
  5. D) at least one parent with an anxiety disorder; over-crowded early social environment
  6. E) at least one parent with an anxiety disorder; early peer victimization

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-11

Page-Reference: 99, 108

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) parenting style / attachment style; parental criticism, overprotection, and control; peer victimization experiences in childhood

 

  1. Approximately __________ % of the population may be expected to develop an anxiety or anxiety-related disorder at some point in their lives.
  2. A) 10
  3. B) 40
  4. C) 31
  5. D) 55
  6. E) 90

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-12

Page-Reference: 99

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) 31

 

  1. According to DSM-5, a(n) __________ is defined as a discrete period of intense fear or discomfort accompanied by at least 4 of the 13 somatic, behavioural and cognitive symptoms listed (such as palpitations and fear of dying).
  2. A) panic attack
  3. B) anxiety attack
  4. C) panic episode
  5. D) acute attack
  6. E) anxiety episode

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-13

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) panic attack

 

  1. According to DSM-5, which of the following is not included as a core symptom of a panic attack?
  2. A) the urge to scream
  3. B) chest pain
  4. C) derealization
  5. D) sweating
  6. E) nausea

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-14

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) the urge to scream

 

  1. The behavioural avoidance test (BAT) is used to measure and assess
  2. A) agoraphobic avoidance.
  3. B) derealization.
  4. C)
  5. D)
  6. E) fear of dying.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-15

Page-Reference: 101

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) agoraphobic avoidance.

 

  1. Though panic attacks can occur in a variety of other disorders, in panic disorder they occur
  2. A) more intensely.
  3. B) predictably.
  4. C) for longer periods of time.
  5. D) more frequently.
  6. E)

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-16

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: E) spontaneously.

 

  1. Heather avoids situations such as travelling far from home, being alone in or outside the home and going into crowded places. Judging from this description, which of the following terms best encapsulates her behaviour?
  2. A) Agoraphobia
  3. B) Social anxiety disorder
  4. C) Specific phobia
  5. D) Panic attacks
  6. E) Generalized anxiety

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-17

Page-Reference: 101

Skill: Application

 

Answer: A) Agoraphobia

 

  1. The onset of panic disorder is typically
  2. A) around childhood.
  3. B) around late adolescence or young adulthood.
  4. C) near late adulthood.
  5. D) early to middle adulthood.
  6. E)

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-18

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) around late adolescence or young adulthood.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of panic disorder?
  2. A) It afflicts more males than females.
  3. B) People having panic attacks often feel they are having a heart attack.
  4. C) The average age of onset is 25 years.
  5. D) It is often underdiagnosed by heath care professionals.
  6. E) It is often comorbid with other mental disorders.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-19

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) It afflicts more males than females.

 

  1. Clark’s model of panic postulates that panic attacks arise from
  2. A) catastrophic misinterpretation of arousal-related bodily sensations.
  3. B) the correct interpretation of bodily sensations.
  4. C) raised levels of norepinephrine.
  5. D) previous conditioning experiences.
  6. E) lowered levels of norepinephrine.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-20

Page-Reference: 102

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) catastrophic misinterpretation of arousal-related bodily sensations.

 

  1. The term __________ refers to the fact that people prone to panic attacks tend to catastrophically misinterpret arousal-related bodily sensations.
  2. A) panic sensitivity
  3. B) alarm sensitivity
  4. C) anxiety sensitivity
  5. D) panic catastrophizing
  6. E) anxiety catastrophizing

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-21

Page-Reference: 102

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) anxiety sensitivity

 

  1. The idea that individuals with panic disorder catastrophically misinterpret their bodily sensations is most consistent with __________ theories of panic disorder.
  2. A) physiological-attribution
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) physiological
  5. D) biopsychological
  6. E) bio-behavioral

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-22

Page-Reference: 102

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) cognitive

 

  1. With regard to panic and panic disorder, it is generally accepted that
  2. A) panic attacks are relatively common in the population.
  3. B) unexpected panic attacks are quite rare in the population; the majority of those who experience them are eventually diagnosed with panic disorder, provided they meet additional criteria.
  4. C) the frequency of panic attacks is normally distributed in the population; those with frequency in the upper 5% are diagnosed with panic disorder.
  5. D) the intensity of panic attacks is normally distributed in the population; those with intensity in the upper 5th percentile are diagnosed with panic disorder.
  6. E) panic attacks only occur in persons with panic disorder.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-23

Page-Reference: 100

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) panic attacks are relatively common in the population.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the five specifiers of specific phobia listed in the DSM-5?
  2. A) animal
  3. B) specific situation
  4. C) death
  5. D) blood injection
  6. E) environmental

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-24

Page-Reference: 103

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) death

 

  1. If the equipotentiality premise concerning specific phobias is true, then it must also be true that
  2. A) a person cannot be afraid of both dogs and doors.
  3. B) only neutral stimuli that involve animals can become phobias.
  4. C) classical conditioning cannot explain the development of phobias.
  5. D) only a select number of stimuli are consistently related to phobias.
  6. E) all neutral stimuli have the potential for becoming phobias.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-25

Page-Reference: 103

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: E) all neutral stimuli have the potential for becoming phobias.

 

  1. The non-associative model of phobias claims that
  2. A) evolution endowed humans not to respond fearfully to any kind of stimulus and that learning was necessary for very specific phobias to develop.
  3. B) evolution endowed humans to respond fearfully to a select group of stimuli but that learning is necessary to develop the phobia.
  4. C) evolution endowed humans to respond fearfully to a select group of stimuli but that learning is not necessary to develop the phobia.
  5. D) evolution endowed humans to respond fearfully to any kind of stimuli but that personal experience was necessary for a phobia to develop.
  6. E) evolution endowed humans not to respond fearfully to any kind of stimuli and that personal experience is necessary for a phobia to develop.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-26

Page-Reference: 103

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: C) evolution endowed humans to respond fearfully to a select group of stimuli but that learning is not necessary to develop the phobia.

 

  1. The concept of biological preparedness helps to explain why
  2. A) learning to fear snakes is just as easy as learning to fear lamps.
  3. B) it is impossible to develop two fears at the same time.
  4. C) all stimuli have an equal potential for becoming specific phobias.
  5. D) learning to fear snakes is easier than learning to fear lamps.
  6. E) learning is not a necessary component in the development of phobias.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-27

Page-Reference: 104

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: A) learning to fear snakes is easier than learning to fear lamps.

 

  1. Research on disgust sensitivity supports the notion that
  2. A) the fear of death is also an important component.
  3. B) the cause of phobias may not always involve only fear of danger.
  4. C) other emotions, such as anger, are necessary, for some phobias.
  5. D) the cause of phobias must also always include a fear of contamination.
  6. E) beliefs about being harmed are critical to the onset of some phobias.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-28

Page-Reference: 104

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: B) the cause of phobias may not always involve only fear of danger.

 

  1. Research has shown:
  2. A) that anxiety disorders appear to be unique to large urban environments.
  3. B) that psychological explanations for anxiety disorders are common around the world.
  4. C) that the DSM-5 anxiety disorders are expressed the same way around the world.
  5. D) that in some cultures, heat in the chest is reported as part of the experience of anxiety.
  6. E) that the DSM-5 does not acknowledge culturally-unique expressions of anxiety.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-29

Page-Reference: 104

Skill: Conceptual, Factual

 

Answer: D) that in some cultures, heat in the chest is reported as part of the experience of anxiety.

 

  1. Jim has a strong fear of eating in restaurants, but otherwise does not experience anxiety. His correct diagnosis would probably be
  2. A)
  3. B) social anxiety disorder.
  4. C) generalized anxiety disorder.
  5. D) specific phobia.
  6. E) panic disorder.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-30

Page-Reference: 106

Skill: Application

 

Answer: B) social anxiety disorder.

 

  1. __________ has a prevalence rate comparable to unipolar depression.
  2. A) Social anxiety disorder
  3. B) PTSD
  4. C) Generalized anxiety disorder
  5. D) OCD
  6. E) Panic disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-31

Page-Reference: 107

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) Social anxiety disorder

 

  1. Cognitive factors associated with social anxiety disorder appear to involve
  2. A) normal social information processing but negative beliefs about self and others.
  3. B) abnormal social information processing despite generally positive beliefs about self and others.
  4. C) abnormal social information processing.
  5. D) abnormal social information processing and negative beliefs about self and others.
  6. E) negative beliefs about self and others.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-32

Page-Reference: 107

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: D) abnormal social information processing and negative beliefs about self and others.

 

  1. Research found that 92% of an adult sample of individuals with ____ were bullied or severely teased during childhood; this was at least twice as frequent as for __________ or __________
  2. A) social anxiety disorder; OCD; panic disorder
  3. B) panic disorder; OCD; social anxiety disorder
  4. C) social anxiety disorder; specific phobia; PTSD
  5. D) specific phobia; social anxiety disorder; OCD
  6. E) anxiety disorders; depression; bipolar mood disorders

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-33

Page-Reference: 107

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) social anxiety disorder; OCD; panic disorder

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding social anxiety disorder in DSM-5?
  2. A) It has been re-classified as a trauma-and-stressor related-disorder, which has proven to be quite controversial.
  3. B) It is characterized in part by a fear of being in tunnels or on bridges.
  4. C) It has been re-classified as a subtype of specific phobia.
  5. D) The duration criterion is now 3 months, rather than 6 months.
  6. E) A person who endures but does not avoid social situations may receive this diagnosis.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-34

Page-Reference: 106

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: E) A person who endures but does not avoid social situations may receive this diagnosis.

 

  1. For a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) the DSM-5 requires that the anxiety must be present more days than not for a period of at least
  2. A) 1 year.
  3. B) 6 weeks.
  4. C) 6 months.
  5. D) 6 days.
  6. E) 3 years.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-35

Page-Reference: 108

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) 6 months.

 

  1. Worrying appears to help individuals with GAD avoid
  2. A) panic attacks.
  3. B) depression.
  4. C) suicidal ideation.
  5. D) physiological arousal.
  6. E)

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-36

Page-Reference: 108

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: D) physiological arousal.

 

  1. Which of the following symptoms is NOT associated with generalized anxiety disorder in the DSM-5?
  2. A) muscle tension
  3. B) sleep disturbance
  4. C) irritability
  5. D) fear of losing control or going crazy
  6. E) restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-37

Page-Reference: 108

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: D) fear of losing control or going crazy

 

  1. Many of the etiological models of GAD are primarily __________ in nature.
  2. A) neuropsychological
  3. B) genetic
  4. C) biological
  5. D) behavioural
  6. E) cognitive

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-38

Page-Reference: 108

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: E) cognitive

 

  1. According to the Dugas, Gagnon, Ladouceur, and Freeston (1998) model of generalized anxiety disorder, which of the following is one of the key elements underlying the disorder?
  2. A) excessive amounts of catecholamines.
  3. B) intolerance of uncertainty.
  4. C) thought-action fusion.
  5. D) poor interpersonal relations.
  6. E) catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily arousal.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-39

Page-Reference: 110

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) intolerance of uncertainty.

 

  1. According to research, which of the following is an associated feature of generalized anxiety disorder?
  2. A) excessive amounts of catecholamines.
  3. B) elevated levels of anger.
  4. C) elevated levels of paranoia.
  5. D) elevated levels of disgust.
  6. E) elevated levels of guilt.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-40

Page-Reference: 110

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) elevated levels of anger.

 

  1. __________ are repetitive behaviours or cognitive acts performed in response to obsessions.
  2. A) repeats
  3. B) checks
  4. C) compulsions
  5. D) reiterations
  6. E) motor disturbances

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-41

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) compulsions

 

  1. Behavioural or mental acts of neutralization appear to be
  2. A) specific to OCD patients.
  3. B) specific to male OCD patients.
  4. C) specific to female OCD patients.
  5. D) not common among OCD patients.
  6. E) a normal and common activity.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-42

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: E) a normal and common activity.

 

  1. In an experiment, students were asked to complete the sentence, “I hope _____ is in a car accident” by inserting a friend’s name in the blank space and imagining that the situation had occurred. The finding was that the participants engaged in action to cancel the effects of writing the sentence. This was a demonstration of:
  2. A) thought action fusion.
  3. B) intolerance of uncertainty.
  4. C)
  5. D) fear of negative evaluation.
  6. E) positive beliefs about worry.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-43

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Factual, Conceptual

 

Answer: A) thought action fusion.

 

  1. Examples of obsessional themes include all of the following except:
  2. A) contamination
  3. B) sexual
  4. C) order/symmetry
  5. D) worry
  6. E) harm

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-44

Page-Reference: 111-112

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: D) worry

 

  1. Most neuropsychological models of OCD implicate the following brain area:
  2. A) frontal cortex
  3. B) cerebellum
  4. C) occipital lobe
  5. D) spinal cord
  6. E) hippocampus

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-45

Page-Reference: 112

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) frontal cortex

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding the memory of individuals with OCD who experience persistent doubting:
  2. A) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD have memory deficits.
  3. B) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD have superior memory relative to people without OCD.
  4. C) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD are affected by poor memory confidence.
  5. D) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD suffer from brief episodes of amnesia.
  6. E) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD typically have trouble remembering childhood events.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-46

Page-Reference: 113

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) Research has confirmed that individuals with OCD are affected by poor memory confidence.

 

  1. What is the central feature of DSM-5 body dysmorphic disorder?
  2. A) Excessive preoccupation with actual body disfigurement.
  3. B) Excessive preoccupation with imagined body disfigurement.
  4. C) Excessive preoccupation with caloric intake.
  5. D) Excessive preoccupation with the physical appearance of loved ones.
  6. E) Excessive preoccupation with unattainable beauty ideals.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-47

Page-Reference: 113

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) Excessive preoccupation with imagined body disfigurement.

 

  1. Research comparing OCD and BDD has found that
  2. A) there is low co-occurrence between the two in families.
  3. B) BDD is actually a subtype of OCD.
  4. C) OCD is associated with greater suicidal ideation.
  5. D) OCD confers higher risk for substance use.
  6. E) BDD is associated with more delusions.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-48

Page-Reference: 114

Skill: Factual, Conceptual

 

Answer: E) BDD is associated with more delusions.

 

  1. With regard to PTSD, two important changes in DSM-5 include:
  2. A) tightening of the criteria such that fewer people can be diagnosed with PTSD; behavioural specification of a number of terms that are currently vague.
  3. B) addition of symptoms and behaviours to better incorporate the variety of reactions to trauma; distinction between avoidance symptoms and negative alterations in cognition and mood.
  4. C) removal of the criterion that the person be directly exposed to the traumatic event; creation of subtypes based on type of avoidance.
  5. D) increase in the duration requirement to 2 months; broadening of the way that impairment may manifest.
  6. E) increase in the duration requirement to 6 months; broadening of the way that impairment may manifest.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-49

Page-Reference: 114

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) addition of symptoms and behaviours to better incorporate the variety of reactions to trauma; distinction between avoidance symptoms and negative alterations in cognition and mood.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the four clusters of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder?
  2. A) Recurrent re-experiencing of the traumatic event
  3. B) Exposure to a traumatic event
  4. C) Persistent symptoms of increased arousal
  5. D) Avoidance of trauma-related stimuli
  6. E) Repeated and unwanted day dreams

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-50

Page-Reference: 115

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: E) Repeated and unwanted day dreams

 

  1. To qualify for a diagnosis of PTSD the individual must display symptoms for longer than _______ following a traumatic event.
  2. A) one year
  3. B) 1 month
  4. C) 3 months
  5. D) 6 months
  6. E) five years

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-51

Page-Reference: 115

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) 1 month

 

  1. Concerning the risk factors for the development of PTSD,__________ appear to be the most powerful predictors.
  2. A) childhood factors
  3. B) interpersonal traumas
  4. C) post-event factors
  5. D) psychiatric histories
  6. E) pre-event factors

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-52

Page-Reference: 117

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) post-event factors

 

  1. A physiological marker of PTSD is
  2. A) decreased cortisol secretion.
  3. B) smaller frontal lobes.
  4. C) a smaller hypothalamus.
  5. D) increased cortisol secretion.
  6. E) an enlarged hippocampus.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-53

Page-Reference: 117

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) decreased cortisol secretion.

 

  1. The most commonly used and effective medications for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders today are __________.
  2. A) antidepressants
  3. B) the benzodiazepines
  4. C) stimulants
  5. D) antianxiety drugs
  6. E) minor tranquilizers

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-1-54

Page-Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A) antidepressants

 

  1. __________ was the first psychological treatment to be thoroughly validated for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.
  2. A) Psychoanalysis
  3. B) Relaxation training
  4. C) Exposure therapy
  5. D) Hypnosis
  6. E) Cognitive restructuring

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-55

Page-Reference: 119

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) Exposure therapy

 

  1. One commonly used technique in cognitive restructuring involves the use of
  2. A) response prevention.
  3. B) a fear hierarchy.
  4. C) dual representation.
  5. D) a thought record.
  6. E)

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-56

Page-Reference: 118

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: D) a thought record.

 

  1. The rationale underlying systematic desensitization is that
  2. A) anxiety is due to uncontrollable thoughts or worries.
  3. B) anxiety is an outcome of an abnormally functioning HPA-axis.
  4. C) anxiety is a learned or conditioned response.
  5. D) anxiety is due to a history of child abuse.
  6. E) anxiety is due to poor interpersonal skills.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-57

Page-Reference: 120

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: C) anxiety is a learned or conditioned response.

 

  1. The main treatment for OCD involves exposure and
  2. A) worry exposure.
  3. B) ritual prevention.
  4. C) interoceptive exposure.
  5. D) worry behaviour prevention.
  6. E) intense exposure.

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-58

Page-Reference: 121

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) ritual prevention.

 

  1. Worry imagery exposure was primarily developed for the treatment of __________.
  2. A) social anxiety disorder
  3. B) generalized anxiety disorder
  4. C) obsessive-compulsive disorder
  5. D) specific phobia
  6. E) panic disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-59

Page-Reference: 121

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) generalized anxiety disorder

 

  1. Both cognitive restructuring and exposure appear to be useful in the treatment of __________ disorder.
  2. A) panic
  3. B) obsessive-compulsive
  4. C) generalized anxiety
  5. D) social anxiety
  6. E) phobic

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-1-60

Page-Reference: 123

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: D) social anxiety

 

  1. __________ treatments for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders tend to have lower relapse rates.
  2. A) Pharmacological
  3. B) Cognitive-behavioural
  4. C) Humanistic
  5. D) Existential
  6. E) Psychoanalytic

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-1-61

Page-Reference: 124

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: B) Cognitive-behavioural

 

 

Chapter 05 True/False Questions

 

  1. Panic could be described as a “false alarm.”

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-62

Page-Reference: 96

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Mythical and historical accounts of anxiety reactions date as far back as the existence of writing.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-63

Page-Reference: 96

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Family studies indicate that up to 50% of those suffering from anxiety and anxiety- related disorders have an immediate family member who also suffers from one as well.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-64

Page-Reference: 97

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. If a first degree relative has an anxiety and/or anxiety-related disorder, then the offspring have 4-6 times the risk of inheriting that specific anxiety disorder.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-65

Page-Reference: 97

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. We now know that GABA is the only neurotransmitter system dedicated to the fear and anxiety response.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-66

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. The amygdala can effectively process external (i.e., fear-provoking) stimuli and determine its survival relevance without the influence of higher brain functioning.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-67

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Mowrer’s two-factor model of fear and phobias proposes that fears are acquired through classical conditioning but are maintained through operant conditioning.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-68

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Mowrer’s two-factor theory satisfactorily explains why some stimuli (such as spiders) are more likely to become feared rather than others.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-69

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Individuals who are susceptible to anxiety and anxiety-related disorders do not appear to have atypical beliefs about the self, but have been found to have a number of distorted beliefs about specific threats in the environment.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-70

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Specific parenting behaviours and styles have been associated with increased risk of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-71

Page-Reference: 99

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Researchers hope to provide critical experimental tests of attachment vs. cognitive explanations of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, since these approaches are incompatible.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-2-72

Page-Reference: 99

Skill: Application

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Anxiety and anxiety-related related disorders are the third most common mental disorder, second only to mood disorders and eating disorders.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-73

Page-Reference: 99

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. It is possible to have a diagnosis of agoraphobia without history of panic disorder.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-74

Page-Reference: 101

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. From a cognitive perspective, panic disorder involves catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-75

Page-Reference: 102

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. The equipotentiality premise, as it applies to phobias, is widely accepted as true.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-76

Page-Reference: 103

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Although females are more likely to develop a specific phobia, a surprising finding is that males tend to be higher in disgust sensitivity.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-77

Page-Reference: 104

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Research has shown that there are no cross-cultural differences in the expression of social anxiety disorder.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-78

Page-Reference: 105

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder often avoid activities such as drinking coffee and having sex because they frequently misinterpret the resulting bodily sensations of arousal.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-79

Page-Reference: 108

Skill: Application

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Obsessions are repetitive behaviours performed in response to repetitive, intrusive thoughts.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-80

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Research has shown that neutralizing occurs relatively often in people who do not have OCD.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-81

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Salkovskis proposed that cognitive intrusions develop into obsessions only when intrusions are appraised as posing a threat for which the person is personally responsible.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-82

Page-Reference: 111

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Researchers contend that body dysmorphic disorder is actually a subtype of eating disorder.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-2-83

Page-Reference: 114

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. Personality disorders are frequently present in more complex and severe cases of PTSD.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-2-84

Page-Reference: 116

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. There is research support for mindfulness-based approaches to treating anxiety and anxiety-related disorders.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-85

Page-Reference: 122

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. True

 

  1. Research shows that Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, which includes exposure, is significantly more effective than exposure alone.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-86

Page-Reference: 122

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

  1. The theory behind Eye-Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, a new method of treating anxiety and anxiety-related disorders is widely accepted.

a True

b False

 

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 05-2-87

Page-Reference: 122

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. False

 

 

Chapter 05 Essay Questions

 

  1. Several researchers have examined the role of neurotransmitters and neuroanatomy in anxiety. Briefly discuss the role of one brain region and one neurotransmitter that have been studied.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-88

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: Amygdala: principal brain region involved in the processing of fear; subcortical region involving neural fear circuit that acts independently of higher brain regions.

GABA: neurotransmitter; its role discovered after benzodiazepines were found to reduce anxiety through their action on GABA; one hypothesis is that they increase the release of GABA into the synaptic cleft, thereby depleting the presynaptic neurons of GABA.

 

  1. What is the two-factor theory? Give an example of how a fear could be acquired and maintained in the context of this theory.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-89

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: Mowrer’s theory proposes that fears are acquired by classical conditioning as proposed by Watson but are maintained by operant conditioning (avoidance is reinforced; prevents extinction). For example: A person who previously liked dogs gets jumped very suddenly by a large, snarling dog one day. The person develops a conditioned fear response via classical conditioning. Subsequently, the person starts to become very tense and anxious whenever they pass the dog park, which is down the street from where the jumping occurred. However, when the person avoids this route and instead takes a different route, anxiety and tension are kept at bay. Avoidance of the street with the dog park is maintained by operant conditioning; specifically, negative reinforcement.

 

  1. Several findings are inconsistent with classical conditionings accounts of fear acquisition. Briefly discuss two such findings.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-90

Page-Reference: 98

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: 1. cannot explain the development of all phobias; fears are sometimes acquired in the absence of conditioning

  1. researchers have often failed to create conditioned fears in the lab; some real-life situations which would appear to be fear provoking actually fail to do so
  2. cannot explain why some stimuli are more likely to become feared than others

 

  1. What does Seligman’s biological preparedness theory state? Has the evidence generally supported this theory?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-91

Page-Reference: 104

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: Theory states that people and other organisms are biologically prepared to acquire fears of certain stimuli; that evolution predisposed organisms to easily learn those associations which facilitate survival. E.g., easier to fear spiders than wooden blocks. Evidence: substantial in non-human species, such as monkeys; less compelling in humans

 

  1. Briefly define “specific phobia”, and list the specifiers discussed in the DSM-5. How can a phobia be differentiated from regular fear experienced by many people?

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-92

Page-Reference: 103-104

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: A marked and persistent fear and avoidance of specific stimuli or situations; 1) animal phobia, 2) environmental phobia, 3) blood-injection-injury phobia, 4) specific situations phobia. Other phobias is a subtype which include those phobias not otherwise listed such as extreme fears of choking, vomiting, and clowns. Phobias are distinguishable from ordinary fear in that the fear is excessive or unreasonable, and the fear, avoidance and worries related to the phobic stimulus must interfere significantly with the person’s life.

 

  1. According to DSM-5, what is social anxiety disorder? Describe one biological factor, one environmental factor, and one cognitive factor involved in this disorder.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-93

Page-Reference: 107

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: Social anxiety disorder is characterized by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance-type situations wherein exposure to possible scrutiny is possible. Examples of situations include but are not limited to: meeting new people, making small talk, eating in front of people, and giving a speech. People with social anxiety disorder fear being negatively evaluated for (1) showing signs of anxiety (e.g., blushing) and (2) behaving in a way that is socially inept/awkward that will cause others to reject them. Although everyone experiences social anxiety at some point, the disorder is distinguished by frequent avoidance. The fear or anxiety is out of the proportion to the threat posed by the social situation and to the sociocultural context. A diagnosis is made when the fear and anxiety have been present for at least 6 months. The anxiety must cause clinically significant distress or impairment.

 

Biological factors: behavioural inhibition, an inherited temperament, is observable in infancy and predicts later development of social anxiety disorder; amygdala is implicated in fear.

 

Environmental: People with social anxiety disorder are more likely than those with OCD or panic disorder to report that they were bullied or severely teased in childhood. Adults with social anxiety disorder also report criticism from parents and overprotection in childhood.

 

Cognitive: negative beliefs about the self (e.g., negative self view as inferior causing individuals with social anxiety disorder to engage in dishonest self-disclosure) and abnormal information processing in social interactions (e.g., paying excessive attention to signs of anger and displeasure in others; turning attention inwards during social interactions which causes individuals with social anxiety disorder to misinterpret social cues).

 

  1. According to the DSM-5, what is generalized anxiety disorder? Describe two psychological theories of GAD.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-94

Page-Reference: 108-110

Skill: Factual, Conceptual

 

Answer: Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worrying about bad things that may happen in the future. People with this disorder typically describe themselves as always having been a worrier and the diagnosis is considered when an individual reports worrying about many different things. The worry in generalized anxiety disorder is not transient; the diagnosis is assigned only if the worry has been present more days than not for at least 6 months. The worry is accompanied by at least 3 of the 6 associated symptoms: restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge; irritability; concentration difficulties; muscle tension; sleep disturbances; being easily fatigued. The worry causes clinically significant distress or clinically significant impairment.

 

According to Borkovec, worry is a behaviour/mental act that reduces physiological signs of anxiety. Therefore, worry is maintained by process of negative reinforcement. Researchers believe that it is the verbal quality of worry (like talking to oneself in the mind) that dampens physiological responding. Because people with GAD are very uncomfortable with and even fear emotional arousal, thinking in verbal ways while worrying limits emotional experience.

 

According to Dugas and colleagues, people with GAD are intolerant of uncertainty and have a lower threshold of discomfort when exposed to uncertain or ambiguous situations. People with GAD pay a lot of attention to uncertain information and show a tendency to interpret ambiguity in a negative way. Because uncertainty is an inherent part of life, this gives people with GAD many triggers for worry.

 

  1. Briefly define obsessions and compulsions as they relate to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Provide two examples of each.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-95

Page-Reference: 110-112

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: Obsessions: thoughts, images or urges that are persistent, markedly distressing and egodystonic (experienced as unwanted and unacceptable). Many possible examples, such as: contamination fears, persistent doubting (e.g., about having locked the door, turned off the stove); intrusive unwanted thoughts of violence, sex; urges to arrange things in order.

 

Compulsions: repetitive behaviours (overt actions or cognitive acts) performed in response to an obsession, or according to certain rules or in a stereotyped manner. Many possible examples, such as: repeated washing, repeated checking, repeated seeking of reassurance (e.g., did you see me lock the door), ordering or arranging objects.

 

  1. What two reasons does the cognitive-behavioural model advance to explain why compulsions tend to persist and to be excessive? Provide an example consistent with these two reasons.

 

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 05-3-96

Page-Reference: 112

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: 1) They are negatively reinforced by immediate distress reduction.

2) They prevent the person from learning that the dire appraisals are unrealistic.

 

  1. DSM-5 divides Anxiety and Anxiety-Related Disorders into: anxiety disorders, obsessive- and compulsive-related disorders, and trauma- and stressor-related disorders. Defend this change by explaining how these groupings appear to have different general etiologies.

 

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 05-3-97

Page-Reference: 100-119

Skill: Conceptual, application

 

Answer: The anxiety disorders under this system include panic disorder, specific phobias, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder. These have a non-specific genetic vulnerability (i.e., a relative with one such disorder increases one’s risk for any of the others in the category). Also, there is high comorbidity and shifting from one diagnosis to another over time. Also, there is overlap in that behavioral and cognitive factors play an important role in formulation and treatment of each of these.

 

The obsessive-compulsive-related disorders stand alone on the basis of unique symptoms, and evidence for unique genetic and brain correlates which suggest a standalone category of mental disorder. Unusual symptoms which are specific to OCD include magical thinking, such as thought-action fusion, where having the thought of harming someone is viewed as increasing the likelihood of that thought coming true and that having a thought of harming someone is the moral equivalent of actually doing the action. Brain correlates specific to OCD include structural / functioning differences in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex.

 

The trauma- and stressor-related disorders stand alone in the DSM due to the accumulating evidence that PTSD has unique associated features with apparently unique etiological pathway. PTSD involves onset that follows exposure to a significant stressor(s). It also has unique physiological correlates, including decreased cortisol with enhanced negative feedback of adrenal function; and decreased hippocampal volume.

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