Abnormal Psychology 7th edition by Oltmanns and Emery – Test Bank

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Chapter 5

Mood Disorders and Suicide

 

 

Total Assessment Guide (T.A.G.)

 

Topic Question

Type

Factual Conceptual Applied
Overview
pp. 102-106
Multiple Choice 2, 3, 7, 8 1, 4 5, 6, 9
Short Answer 112, 113 111  
Essay      
Symptoms
pp. 106-108
Multiple Choice 10, 12, 15, 16 11, 14, 17 13, 18
Short Answer 114    
Essay      
Diagnosis
pp. 108-111
Multiple Choice 19, 28, 27, 28, 29, 33, 34 20, 23, 25, 26, 31, 32 21, 22, 24, 30
Short Answer 116   115
Essay   124  
Course and Outcome
pp. 111-112
Multiple Choice 35, 37 38 36
Short Answer 117    
Essay      
Frequency
pp. 112-115
Multiple Choice 39, 43, 46, 47 41, 42, 45 40, 44
Short Answer 118    
Essay   125  
Causes
pp. 115-124
Multiple Choice 52, 53, 56, 57, 58, 62, 64, 66, 67, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 77, 78, 79 48, 50, 51, 54, 55, 60, 61, 63, 65, 68, 73, 80, 83 49, 59, 69, 76, 81, 82
Short Answer 120 119, 121  
Essay   126, 127, 128, 130 129, 134
7. Treatment
pp. 124-129
Multiple Choice 86, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 95, 99 84, 90, 93, 96, 97 85, 92, 98
Short Answer     122
Essay   131  
8. Suicide
pp. 129-135
Multiple Choice 101, 103, 104, 105, 107 100, 106, 108, 110 102, 109
Short Answer 123    
Essay   132 133

 

 

Chapter 5: Mood Disorders and Suicide

 

 

 

Multiple Choice

 

5.1.1.    You were asked to give a talk to illustrate the problems caused by depression for youth as compared to their parents’ generation. Which of the following could be an accurate way to start your talk?

 

  1. The younger generation is experiencing rates of depression higher than previous generations.
  2. The younger generation is experiencing rates of depression lower than previous generations.
  3. The younger generation is experiencing depression at a later age than previous generations.
  4. None of the above are correct.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.1

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Overview

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer : a. The younger generation is experiencing rates of depression higher than previous generations.

 

 

5.1.2.    Which of the following describes the term affect?

 

  1. a state of arousal
  2. subjective feelings
  3. observable behaviors associated with subjective feelings
  4. physiological changes associated with subjective feelings

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.2

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer : c. observable behaviors associated with subjective feelings

 

 

5.1.3.    Which of the following is the term that psychologists use for a pervasive and sustained emotional response that can color the person’s perception of the world?

 

  1. affect
  2. mania
  3. depression
  4. mood

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.3

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer : d. mood

 

 

5.1.4.    Which of the following is a clinical feature of mania?

 

  1. elated mood
  2. criminality
  3. dissociation
  4. blunted affect

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.4

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Overview

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer : a. elated mood

 

 

5.1.5.    Mary has had two episodes of major depression with no other periods of psychological disturbance. What is the appropriate description of her symptoms?

 

  1. dysthymia
  2. double depression
  3. bipolar mood disorder
  4. unipolar mood disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.5

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Overview

Skill: Applied

 

Answer : d. unipolar mood disorder

 

 

5.1.6.    Robert has just experienced an episode of mania. Which diagnostic label best describes his condition?

 

  1. dysthymia
  2. bipolar mood disorder
  3. unipolar mood disorder
  4. dysphoric mood disorder

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.6

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Overview

Skill: Applied

 

Answer : b. bipolar mood disorder

 

 

5.1.7.    Euphoria is characterized by

 

  1. elated mood.
  2. labile affect.
  3. depressed mood.
  4. inappropriate affect.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.7

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. elated mood.

 

 

5.1.8.    Which of these is a characteristic of clinical depression that helps to distinguish it from normal sadness?

 

  1. altered brain chemistry
  2. caused by an identifiable precipitant
  3. occurs only in people who suffered early losses
  4. accompanied by a cluster of signs and symptoms, including cognitive features

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.8

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. accompanied by a cluster of signs and symptoms, including cognitive features

 

5.1.9.    The case of Cathy presented in your text is an example of major depressive disorder. One of the aspects of her case that clearly tells us this is more than just normal sadness is that Cathy

 

  1. had become impaired in her ability to work.
  2. did not have any manic or hypomanic symptoms.
  3. had been separated from her husband for five years.
  4. felt unworthy of her latest promotion at work.

 

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.9

Page Reference: 104

Topic: Overview

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. had become impaired in her ability to work.

 

 

5.1.10.  What is dysphoric mood?

 

  1. elated mood
  2. labile mood
  3. depressed mood
  4. inappropriate mood

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.10

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. depressed mood

 

 

5.1.11.  As was the case of Debbie in the textbook, it is often the case that symptoms of mania are initially

 

  1. very frightening.
  2. quite pleasant.
  3. triggered by some specific life stress.
  4. indistinguishable from depression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.11

Page Reference: 105

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. quite pleasant.

 

 

5.1.12.  All of the following are important considerations in distinguishing clinical depression from normal sadness EXCEPT

  1. In clinical depression the mood change may occur in the absence of any precipitating event.
  2. A clinically depressed mood is often accompanied by an inability to function in usual social situations.
  3. A clinical mood change may feel different or “strange” to the person.
  4. A clinical mood change is generally all pervasive, and is usually the only symptom or sign to occur.

 

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.12

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. A clinical mood change is generally all pervasive, and is usually the only symptom or sign to occur.

 

 

5.1.13.  Betty believes she is less capable than her coworkers, even though she has won many awards for her performance. She often feels lonely and believes no one wants to be her friend. Her future seems empty and meaningless. These traits characterize

 

  1. cyclothymia.
  2. psychotic depression.
  3. the “depressive triad.”
  4. somatic deficits in depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.13

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: c. the “depressive triad.”

 

 

5.1.14.  People who are clinically depressed frequently note that their thinking is __________ while manic patients commonly report that their thoughts are __________.

 

  1. realistic; unrealistic
  2. easily distracted; very focused
  3. slowed down; speeded up
  4. focused on the past; focused on the future

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.14

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. slowed down; speeded up

 

 

5.1.15.  Which of the following is an example of a somatic symptom of depression?

 

  1. suicidal thoughts
  2. sleeping problems
  3. feelings of low self-worth
  4. pessimistic thoughts about the future

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.15

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. sleeping problems

 

 

5.1.16.  Depressed patients often walk and talk as though they are in slow motion; this quality is described by the term

 

  1. hypomania.
  2. psychomotor retardation.
  3. dysphoria.
  4. morbid preoccupation.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.16

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. psychomotor retardation.

 

 

5.1.17.  Harold has just been diagnosed as suffering from major depressive disorder. In planning his treatment, the mental health professionals will discover that he has a comorbid condition. Which of the following is the most likely comorbid condition?

 

  1. alcoholism
  2. hypochondriasis
  3. paranoid schizophrenia
  4. histrionic personality disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.17

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. alcoholism

 

 

5.1.18.  One of your patients has been diagnosed with unipolar depression and alcohol addiction. Which of the following do you need consider in this light?

 

  1. For some people alcoholism develops first, for others it is the depression that comes first.
  2. Neither disorder tends to run in families.
  3. Alcohol is actually good for some schizophrenic patients as it dampens their hallucinations.
  4. Marijuana use is also correlated with alcoholism.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.18

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. For some people alcoholism develops first, for others it is the depression that comes first.

 

 

5.1.19.   In the DSM-IV-TR classification of mood disorders, an emphasis is placed on the distinction between

 

  1. unipolar and bipolar disorders.
  2. disorders with and without psychotic features.
  3. conditions precipitated by an identifiable stressor and conditions without identifiable stressor.
  4. disorders with somatic symptoms and disorders without somatic symptoms.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.19

Page Reference: 108

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. unipolar and bipolar disorders.

 

 

5.1.20.  Which of the following is the most typical course of unipolar mood disorder?

 

  1. a single episode of mania
  2. repeated episodes of major depression
  3. a single episode of major depression
  4. cycling episodes of depression and mania

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.20

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. several episodes of major depression

 

 

5.1.21.  For the past two years, Nick has experienced poor appetite, insomnia, fatigue, and several other symptoms. These symptoms have kept him from feeling happy although they do not indicate a major depressive episode. When assessing Nick, what disorder is the psychologist most likely to consider?

 

  1. bipolar I disorder
  2. dysthymia
  3. cyclothymia
  4. seasonal affective disorder

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.21

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. dysthymia

 

 

5.1.22.  Generally your patient of the past two years has exhibited depression. She did, however, have one quite dramatic symptom that rules out a diagnosis of both major depressive disorder and dysthymia. This symptom is

 

  1. alcohol addiction.
  2. extreme sadness.
  3. mania.
  4. comorbidity.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.22

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: c. mania

 

 

5.1.23.  Henry has a serious episode of depression that is diagnosed as major depressive disorder. A year later he experiences an episode of mania. What is his diagnosis after this event?

 

  1. cyclothymia
  2. bipolar I disorder
  3. dysthymic disorder
  4. cyclical major depressive disorder

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.23

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. bipolar I disorder

 

 

5.1.24.  For several years, Greg has experienced alternating episodes of very severe depression and episodes of hypomania. What is the most appropriate DSM diagnosis?

 

  1. bipolar I disorder without psychotic features
  2. bipolar II disorder
  3. cyclothymic disorder
  4. mixed bipolar disorder

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.24

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. bipolar II disorder

 

 

5.1.25.  What is one way that dysthymia differs from major depression?

 

  1. Dysthymia is more severe.
  2. Dysthymia usually lasts longer.
  3. Dysthymia responds better to medication.
  4. Dysthymia usually has a precipitating event.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.25

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. Dysthymia usually lasts longer.

 

 

5.1.26.  For the past two weeks Barbara has experienced serious symptoms including weight loss, feelings of worthlessness, insomnia, and difficultly in concentrating. She is also experiencing depressed mood and loss of interest in doing much of anything. What is the DSM-IV-TR term for what Barbara is experiencing?

 

  1. dysthymic disorder
  2. bipolar I disorder, mixed episode
  3. cyclothymic disorder
  4. major depressive episode

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.126

Page Reference: 109

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. major depressive episode

 

 

5.1.27.  Hypomania is an episode involving

 

  1. high energy, but less severe than mania.
  2. high energy, but more severe than mania.
  3. low energy, but less severe than depression.
  4. low energy, but more severe than depression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.27

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. high energy, but less severe than mania.

 

 

5.1.28.  A chronic but less severe form of bipolar disorder is

 

  1. dysthymia.
  2. dysphoria.
  3. cyclothymia.
  4. unipolar disorder.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.28

Page Reference: 110

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. cyclothymia.

 

 

5.1.29.  Melancholia is a term for

 

  1. dysthymia.
  2. neurotic depression.
  3. a severe type of depression.
  4. normal sadness unrelated to clinical depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.29

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. a severe type of depression.

 

 

5.1.30.  Which of the following individuals exhibits symptoms that suggest the presence of melancholia?

 

  1. weight gain, dysphoria, and hallucinations
  2. anxiety, excessive guilt, and depression worse in the evening
  3. difficulty getting to sleep, psychomotor agitation, and significant weight gain
  4. absence of any feelings of pleasure, early morning awakening, and marked psychomotor retardation

 

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.30

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: d. absence of any feelings of pleasure, early morning awakening, and marked psychomotor retardation

 

 

5.1.31.  Which of the following patients’ depression most clearly exhibits psychotic features?

 

  1. Ann, who wakes up early in the morning and cannot get back to sleep
  2. Kathy, who finds that food is unappealing and so she has been eating less
  3. Pete, who believes his digestive tract is dust and hears voices telling him he is evil
  4. Ted, who comes from a family with several depressed close relatives who committed suicide

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.31

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. Pete, who believes his digestive tract is dust and hears voices telling him he is evil

 

 

5.1.32.  Jane has recently become very depressed, and her doctor is explaining to her that she has a mood disorder with postpartum onset. If her doctor is correct, what do we know about Jane?

 

  1. Her depression will end very soon.
  2. She has given birth within the past four weeks.
  3. Her depression is linked to an identifiable environmental stressor.
  4. She has recently suffered the loss of someone she loves.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.32

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. She has given birth within the past four weeks.

 

 

5.1.33.  Rapid cycling bipolar disorder is characterized by

 

  1. many mood shifts per day.
  2. a seasonal pattern of symptoms.
  3. at least four episodes of mania, hypomania, or major depression within a year.
  4. development of a manic episode in less than a week.

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.33

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. at least four episodes of mania, hypomania, or major depression within a year.

 

 

5.1.34.  What is the most typical seasonal pattern in mood disorders?

 

  1. mania in summer, recovery in winter
  2. mania in winter, recovery in spring
  3. depression in winter, recovery in spring
  4. depression in summer, recovery in winter

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.34

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. depression in winter, recovery in spring

 

 

5.1.35.  Which of these individuals is at the average age for the onset of unipolar mood disorder?

 

  1. Al, who is 15 years old
  2. Sid, who is 21 years old
  3. Sally, who is 32 years old
  4. Veronica, who is 65 years old

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.35

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Course and Outcome

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. Sally, who is 32 years old

 

 

5.1.36.  Andy has just experienced his first episode of major depression; if Andy is average for someone with unipolar depression, how many additional episodes is he likely to experience in his lifetime?

 

  1. none; recurrence is uncommon
  2. one or two
  3. five or six
  4. none unless he also experiences a manic or hypomanic episode

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.36

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Course and Outcome

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: c. five or six

 

 

5.1.37.  The return of active symptoms in a person who has recovered from a previous episode of a disorder is known as

 

  1. remission.
  2. relapse.
  3. refraction.
  4. rapid cycling.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.37

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Course and Outcome

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. relapse.

 

 

5.1.38.  Other than the presence of manic episodes in bipolar mood disorder, what is the main distinguishing factor between unipolar and bipolar mood disorders?

 

  1. later onset and more episodes in bipolar mood disorder
  2. later onset and fewer episodes in bipolar mood disorder
  3. earlier onset and more episodes in bipolar mood disorder
  4. earlier onset and fewer episodes in bipolar mood disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.38

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Course and Outcome

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. earlier onset and more episodes in bipolar mood disorder

 

 

5.1.39.  Despite differences among epidemiological surveys in samples, methods, and definitions of mental disorders, what is one common finding concerning mood disorders?

 

  1. Bipolar disorder occurs in fewer people than major depressive disorder.
  2. Dysthymic disorder is the most common form of mood disorder.
  3. Mood disorders are the most common form of mental disorders.
  4. Bipolar and unipolar disorders are equally common in the general population.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.39

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. Bipolar disorder occurs in fewer people than major depressive disorder.

 

 

5.1.40.  According to the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the approximate percentage of individuals diagnosed with a major mood disorder in the past 12 months who received adequate treatment for that disorder was

 

  1. 10 percent.
  2. 20 percent.
  3. 40 percent.
  4. 60 percent.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.40

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. 20 percent.

 

 

5.1.41.  A report in the newspaper describes the common epidemiological finding that the rate of depression is higher among women than among men. How have researchers evaluated the validity of this finding?

 

  1. Men and women differ in their willingness to talk about their depressive symptoms.
  2. Mental health professionals are more prone to diagnose depression in women than in men.
  3. This gender difference is an artifact that occurs only in samples of patients that seek treatment.
  4. This gender difference is a real one that cannot be explained by methodological or sampling differences.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.41

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. This gender difference is a real one that cannot be explained by methodological or sampling differences.

 

 

5.1.42.  Comparisons of rates of emotional disorder across cultural boundaries encounter many problems. One such problem is that

 

  1. each culture has different words and concepts for describing illness.
  2. emotional disorders don’t exist in every culture.
  3. there is no agreement on which diagnostic criteria to use.
  4. it is not ethical to study people from cultures different from our own.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.42

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. each culture has different words and concepts for describing illness.

 

 

5.1.43.  What do cross‑cultural studies of psychopathology suggest concerning depression?

 

  1. DSM categories are culture-free.
  2. Chinese psychiatrists often mistake depression for a form of schizophrenia.
  3. There are very different rates of mood disorder in Western and non-Western countries.
  4. Depression is a universal phenomenon that may be expressed differently depending on cultural factors.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.43

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. Depression is a universal phenomenon that may be expressed differently depending on cultural factors.

 

 

5.1.44.  You are asked to consult about a patient who may be depressed. What you notice is that the focus of their symptoms is mostly somatic: on headaches, sleep disorder, and lack of energy. You ask if this patient happens to be from the country where these symptoms are more generally seen in depression,

 

  1. the East Coast of the United States.
  2. Eastern Europe.
  3. Australia.
  4. China.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.44

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: d. China.

 

 

5.1.45.  You are given the topic of age and mood disorders for a term paper in abnormal psychology and instructed to write the paper in the format of a newspaper report for the general public. Which of the following titles would be the best choice?

 

  1. “Mania Runs Wild in Older Generations”
  2. “Age and Mood Disorders: A Positive Correlation”
  3. “High Rates of Depression in the Elderly: Correcting a Myth”
  4. “Age Trends in Prevalence of Mood Disorders Obscured by Gender Effects”

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.45

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. “High Rates of Depression in the Elderly: Correcting a Myth”

 

 

5.1.46.  What do the results of the epidemiological studies tell us about changes over time in the frequency of depression?

 

  1. Rates of depression appear to be decreasing.
  2. Rates of bipolar disorder appear to be increasing.
  3. Rates of depression appear to be increasing and with earlier onset.
  4. Rates of depression appear to be increasing but with later onset.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.46

Page Reference: 113

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. Rates of depression appear to be increasing and with earlier onset.

 

 

5.1.47.  The rate of depression in women is about what percentage of the rate for men?

 

  1. 10 percent
  2. 50 percent
  3. 100 percent
  4. 200 percent

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.47

Page Reference: 114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. 200 percent

 

 

5.1.48.  A strong correlation exists between stressful life events and the onset of depression, but it is difficult to interpret this relationship because

 

  1. there haven’t been enough studies.
  2. stress can cause depression, but depression can cause stress.
  3. depression is a very subjective state and thus very difficult to measure.
  4. people are usually aware of any connection between their depression and stress in their lives.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.48

Page Reference: 115-116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. stress can cause depression, but depression can cause stress.

 

 

5.1.49.  A researcher investigating the link between stressful life events and depression has decided to use a prospective research design. This means that the researcher will have to

 

  1. select subjects with the prospect of becoming depressed.
  2. select subjects with the prospect of experiencing stress.
  3. follow subjects over time to see if stress predicts the onset of depression.
  4. question subjects carefully to see if their depression has always followed some identifiable stress.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.49

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: c. follow subjects over time to see if stress predicts the onset of depression.

 

 

5.1.50.  The research by Brown and Harris on the cause of depression in women has suggested that types of events that have a greater likelihood of contributing to the cause of depression are

 

  1. an accumulation of many small, daily hassles.
  2. severe events that are particularly threatening.
  3. family events such as the loss of a parent.
  4. none of the above are particularly related to the cause of depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.50

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. severe events that are particularly threatening.

 

 

5.1.51.  What did George Brown and Tirril Harris find when they followed women over a one-year period to study the link between depression and stressful life events?

 

  1. None of those who experienced a severe life event became depressed.
  2. Most of those who experienced a severe life event became depressed.
  3. Although life events and depression were related, most people who experienced such events did not become depressed.
  4. Although life events and depression were related, the results suggested that depression actually caused the life events.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.51

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. Although life events and depression were related, most people who experienced such events did not become depressed.

 

 

5.1.52.  Research shows that depression is often preceded by stressful life events, although not all such events lead to depression. What characteristics of a stressful life did George Brown and Tirril Harris identify as more likely to lead to depression?

 

  1. devaluation and loss
  2. preexisting and dangerous
  3. biological and unpredictable
  4. feeling trapped and devaluation

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.52

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. feeling trapped and devaluation

 

 

5.1.53.  With respect to the link between stress and the onset of manic and depressive episodes, it appears that

 

  1. the types of stress are very similar.
  2. the types of stress tend to be different.
  3. stress is linked to depressive episodes but not manic ones.
  4. stress is linked to manic episodes but not depressive ones.

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.53

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. the types of stress tend to be different.

 

 

5.1.54.  Severe events are clearly related to the onset of depression, but they do not provide a complete account of who will become depressed. Studies that examine factors that might explain which people are most likely to become depressed are seeking evidence for what psychologists call

 

  1. fragmentation.
  2. vulnerability.
  3. retrospective exposure.
  4. prospective exposure.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.54

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. vulnerability.

 

 

5.1.55.   According to cognitive models of depression, various types of cognitive errors or distortions in thinking are partly responsible for the disorder. Which of the following is NOT one of these cognitive distortions mentioned in the book?

 

  1. assigning global, personal meaning to an experience of failure
  2. a tendency to overgeneralize conclusions about the self based on negative experiences
  3. a tendency to turn anger at others toward the self
  4. a tendency to recall selectively events with negative consequences

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.55

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. a tendency to turn anger at others toward the self

 

 

 

5.1.56.  A good example of the type of cognitive distortions that lead to depression, according to the textbook, would include all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. over generalized conclusions about one’s self based on negative experiences.
  2. drawing inferences about one’s self without any evidence.
  3. exaggerating one’s estimates of their intellectual ability.
  4. exaggerating the importance of negative events over positive.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.56

Page Reference: 117

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. exaggerating one’s estimates of their intellectual ability.

 

 

5.1.57.  What is a schema?

 

  1. a role played in a relationship
  2. an example of a cognitive distortion
  3. a point of contention in a relationship
  4. an organized cognitive representation of prior experience

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.57

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. an organized cognitive representation of prior experience

 

 

5.1.58.  According to the hopelessness theory of depression, what are depressed persons likely to do?

 

  1. make external causal attributions
  2. make unstable causal attributions
  3. believe that their fate is determined at birth
  4. believe that aversive events will occur regardless of what they do

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.58

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. believe that aversive events will occur regardless of what they do

 

 

5.1.59.  Mary fails a calculus exam. Although other students who failed the same exam complain that the exam was too hard and the professor has a reputation for tough grading, Mary is convinced that she failed because she is incapable of understanding the material. How might we characterize Mary’s attribution style?

 

  1. global
  2. stable
  3. primary
  4. internal

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.59

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: d. internal

 

 

5.1.60.  Robert strikes out during a softball game, causing his team to lose the game. He begins to brood about his failure, and concludes that not only is he a failure in sports, but in all areas of his life. How might we describe Robert’s attribution style?

 

  1. stable
  2. global
  3. external
  4. magnified

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.60

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. global

 

 

5.1.61.  Meredith is depressed. According to the interpersonal view of depression, what is a likely description of Meredith?

 

  1. She makes internal causal attributions.
  2. Her interpersonal style may alienate others.
  3. Her grief over early childhood losses was not resolved.
  4. She erroneously believes that her relationships are inadequate.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.61

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. Her interpersonal style may alienate others.

 

 

5.1.62.  Some research evidence suggests that persons who show a ruminative style by writing in a diary or talking extensively with a friend about their depressed mood show

 

  1. increased empathy.
  2. longer and more severe depressed moods
  3. shorter and less severe depressed moods.
  4. good ability to distract themselves from their bad moods.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.62

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. longer and more severe depressed moods

 

 

5.1.63.  A hypothesis with regard to the response style model that attempts to explain the difference in rates of depression between men and women is

 

  1. men are more likely to respond to depression with rumination which prolongs and intensifies the depression.
  2. women are more likely to respond to depression with rumination which prolongs and intensifies the depression.
  3. women are more likely to respond to depression with rumination which has the effect of reducing their level of depression.
  4. men are more likely to respond to depression with rumination which has the effect of reducing their level of depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.63

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. women are more likely to respond to depression with rumination which prolongs and intensifies the depression.

 

 

5.1.64.  What two response styles are emphasized by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema in her research designed to understand the duration and severity of depression?

 

  1. social and individual
  2. internal and external
  3. distracting and ruminative
  4. predictable and unpredictable

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.64

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. distracting and ruminative

 

 

5.1.65.  Genetic factors seem to

 

  1. play a stronger role in bipolar than unipolar mood disorders.
  2. play a stronger role in unipolar than bipolar mood disorders
  3. play an insignificant role in the cause of mood disorders.
  4. be almost impossible to conduct with current technology.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.65

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. play a stronger role in bipolar than unipolar mood disorders

 

5.1.66.  Studies suggest that the heritability factor for bipolar disorder is approximately

 

  1. 20 percent.
  2. 40 percent.
  3. 60 percent.
  4. 80 percent.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.66

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. 80 percent.

 

 

5.1.67.  Studies of the concordance rates for unipolar mood disorder and bipolar mood disorder in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins suggest

 

  1. a larger role of genetic factors in bipolar mood disorder.
  2. a larger role of genetic factors in unipolar mood disorder.
  3. similar concordance rates for bipolar mood disorder in MZ and DZ twins.
  4. similar concordance rates for unipolar mood disorder in MZ and DZ twins.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.67

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. a larger role of genetic factors in bipolar mood disorder.

 

 

5.1.68.  The best evidence for the influence of nongenetic factors in the cause of mood disorder is in the

 

  1. concordance rates for MZ twins which are less than 100 percent.
  2. concordance rates for DZ twins which are less than 100 percent.
  3. concordance rates for MZ twins which are less than for DZ twins.
  4. concordance rates for DZ twins which are less than for MZ twins.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.68

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. concordance rates for MZ twins which are less than 100 percent.

 

 

5.1.69.  A report in a research journal describes the symptoms of a mental disorder along with information on its etiology, including a heritability of 50%. How should this finding be interpreted?

 

  1. Genetic factors and the environment contribute about equally to this disorder.
  2. Half of the people who suffer from the disorder have a genetically caused disorder.
  3. Half of the children of carriers of this disorder will actually develop the disorder.
  4. Geneticists have identified half of the genes thought to be responsible for this disorder.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.69

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. Genetic factors and the environment contribute about equally to this disorder.

 

 

5.1.70.  What is the estimated heritability for unipolar mood disorder?

 

  1. 5 percent
  2. 25 percent
  3. 50 percent
  4. 75 percent

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.70

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. 50 percent

 

 

5.1.71.  Which of the following lists mood disorders from the one with highest heritability to the one with the smallest degree of heritability?

 

  1. dysthymia, cyclothymia, major depressive disorder
  2. bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymia
  3. major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia
  4. dysthymia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.71

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, dysthymia

 

 

5.1.72.  A study by Kendler and his colleagues involving twins was designed to investigate the etiology of depression. What was one of the major conclusions?

 

  1. Genetics plays a small role in depression.
  2. The environment plays a major role in depression.
  3. Genetic factors seem to influence the effect the environment may have on depression.
  4. Twins are relatively immune from depression as a result of the close bond that they form with each other.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.72

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. Genetic factors seem to influence the effect the environment may have on depression.

 

 

5.1.73.  To conduct linkage studies, researchers attempt to find evidence for

 

  1. an association between life events and specific disorders.
  2. similar rates of disorder in MZ and DZ twins.
  3. different rates of disorder in adopted children and their biological and their adopted parents.
  4. an association between a disorder and another trait within the same family.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.73

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. an association between a disorder and another trait within the same family.

 

 

5.1.74.  Failure to suppress production of the hormone cortisol in response to the dexamethasone suppression test has implicated a dysfunction of which system in the etiology of depression?

 

  1. genetics
  2. MAO inhibition
  3. neurotransmitter system
  4. hypothalamus—pituitary—adrenal axis

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.74

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. hypothalamus—pituitary—adrenal axis

 

 

5.1.75.  The endocrine system and the central nervous system may be linked in the etiology of depression through which substance?

 

  1. cortisol
  2. dopamine
  3. HPA
  4. Dexamethasone

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.75

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. cortisol

 

 

5.1.76.  You are running a clinical trial on a method of stimulating regions of the brain in order to relieve symptoms of depression. Given the evidence that underacting in this region is associated with depression you decide to start clinical trials in the

 

  1. reticular activating system.
  2. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
  3. posterior occipital cortex.
  4. amygdala.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.76

Page Reference: 121-122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

 

 

5.1.77.  Using brain imaging techniques to examine activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in depressed patients, researchers have reported finding

 

  1. decreased activity.
  2. increased activity.
  3. decreased activity in some PFC regions and increased activity in others.
  4. decreased activity in patients with unipolar depression and increased activity in patients with bipolar depression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.77

Page Reference: 121-122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. decreased activity in some PFC regions and increased activity in others.

 

 

5.1.78.  Brain imaging studies have identified elevated levels of resting blood flow and glucose metabolism in which area of the brain of depressed patients?

 

  1. amygdala
  2. cerebellum
  3. parietal lobes
  4. temporal lobes

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.78

Page Reference: 122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. amygdala

 

 

5.1.79.  Which of the following is not a neurotransmitter?

 

  1. norepinephrine
  2. serotonin
  3. catecholamine
  4. dopamine

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.79

Page Reference: 122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. catecholamine

 

 

5.1.80.  The activity at the synapse of which of the following is most especially enhanced by medications like Prozac?

 

  1. serotonin
  2. dopamine
  3. activity of the amygdala
  4. activity of the cingulate gyrus

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.80

Page Reference: 122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. serotonin

 

 

5.1.81.  What is the primary advantage of analogue studies in research on mood disorders?

 

  1. They can use animals rather than humans.
  2. They can employ an experimental procedure.
  3. They are not subject to Ethics Review Boards.
  4. They are highly generalizable to situations outside the laboratory.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.81

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. They can employ an experimental procedure.

 

 

5.1.82.  Some clinicians have argued that mental disorders cannot be studied using laboratory animals as subjects, because

 

  1. studies of depression should only be done in natural settings and very few of those exist.
  2. cognitive symptoms cannot be measured in animals.
  3. animals don’t express emotions similar to depression.
  4. the brains of animals are too different from homo sapiens.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.82

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. cognitive symptoms cannot be measured in animals.

 

 

5.1.83.  A group of rats was exposed to the uncontrollable stress associated with being forced to swim for 15 minutes in cold water from which they cannot escape. What did researchers notice when they observed these animals?

 

  1. Most rats were immune to the effects of the stress.
  2. The rats’ depression was reduced by the high level of physical activity.
  3. The stress caused a form of brain damage that first led to motor retardation and then death.
  4. The rats that exhibited symptoms similar to depression had altered neurotransmitter levels.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.83

Page Reference: 123

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. The rats that exhibited symptoms similar to depression had altered neurotransmitter levels.

 

5.1.84.  Which of the following characterizes a cognitive therapy approach to the treatment of depression?

 

  1. probing for unconscious roots of anger
  2. focusing on early childhood experiences
  3. increasing internal causal attributions
  4. reducing patients’ self-defeating thoughts

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.84

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. reducing patients’ self-defeating thoughts

 

5.1.85.  Your boss just praised you effusively for a superior job on a marketing report; he also said he liked the presentation you gave at the regional meeting. As you walk out the door, he says you might want to try another tie. You spend hours mulling over that last comment and find yourself becoming depressed. Your reaction to the comment was, “I am washed up as an employee; they want someone to replace me.” Your conclusion is an example of

 

  1. attribution.
  2. an inexact label.
  3. cognitive dissonance.
  4. selective abstraction.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.1.85

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: d. selective abstraction.

 

 

5.1.86.  What is the focus of interpersonal therapy for depression?

 

  1. current relationship difficulties
  2. patterns learned in childhood relationships
  3. unconscious feelings for the attachment figure
  4. close, dependent relationship with the therapist

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.86

Page Reference: 124

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. current relationship difficulties

 

 

5.1.87.  Among patients who respond positively to antidepressant medication,

 

  1. improvement usually occurs within four to six weeks.
  2. side effects usually force them to terminate early.
  3. improvement usually occurs almost immediately.
  4. side effects are almost never a problem.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.87

Page Reference: 125

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. improvement usually occurs within four to six weeks.

 

 

5.1.88.  How do SSRI drugs produce their antidepressant effect?

 

  1. inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine
  2. inhibiting reuptake of serotonin
  3. blocking production of norepinephrine
  4. blocking production of serotonin

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.88

Page Reference: 125

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. inhibiting reuptake of serotonin

 

 

5.1.89.  What are the most frequently prescribed antidepressant medications?

 

  1. lithium
  2. tricyclics
  3. anticonvulsants
  4. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.89

Page Reference: 125

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: d. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

 

 

5.1.90.  Compared to tricyclics and MAO inhibitors, what is a major reason for the popularity of newer antidepressant drugs such as Prozac?

 

  1. lower cost
  2. fewer side effects
  3. available over-the-counter
  4. more effective

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.90

Page Reference: 125

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: b. fewer side effects

 

 

5.1.91.  Which of the following are the most troublesome side effects of the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors?

 

  1. muscle pain and double visions
  2. insomnia and excessive sweating
  3. sexual dysfunction and weight gain
  4. heart palpitations and difficulty breathing

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.91

Page Reference: 125

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. sexual dysfunction and weight gain

 

 

5.1.92.  Sal’s psychiatrist wrote a prescription for him and warned him not to eat a long list of foods, including cheese and chocolate. If Sal’s diagnosis is depression, what type of drug is likely to have been prescribed?

 

  1. tricyclics
  2. MAO inhibitors
  3. anticonvulsants
  4. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.92

Page Reference: 126

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: b. MAO inhibitors

 

 

5.1.93.  The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has ruled that care should be taken when prescribing some SSRIs to children because of the possibility of the side effects of

 

  1. catatonic, lethargic behavior.
  2. sever sleep disturbance.
  3. extreme weight loss.
  4. violent or suicidal thoughts or behavior.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.93

Page Reference: 127

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. violent or suicidal thoughts or behavior.

 

 

5.1.94.  Which of the following summarizes the research evaluating psychological and pharmacological treatments for depression?

 

  1. Antidepressant medication is the most effective approach.
  2. Cognitive therapy is the most effective approach.
  3. Antidepressants and cognitive therapy are both effective forms of treatment.
  4. Antidepressants work better on more severe depression and cognitive therapy works better with milder depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.94

Page Reference: 127

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. Antidepressants and cognitive therapy are both effective forms of treatment.

 

 

5.1.95.  The first choice for treating bipolar disorders is

 

  1. an SSRI like Prozac.
  2. electroconvulsive therapy.
  3. lithium.
  4. cognitive therapy plus a self-help group.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.95

Page Reference: 126

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: c. lithium.

 

 

5.1.96.  Bonnie has been diagnosed with a mental disorder and is currently receiving medication. If the prescription is for anticonvulsant drugs, what is the most likely mental disorder?

 

  1. dysthymic disorder
  2. cyclothymic disorder
  3. major depressive episode
  4. rapid cycling bipolar disorder

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.96

Page Reference: 126

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: d. rapid cycling bipolar disorder

 

 

5.1.97.  A bipolar patient in therapy is learning to lead a more orderly life and to resolve interpersonal problems more effectively. With this type of therapy, mood stabilizing medication will

 

  1. still be very important.
  2. no longer be needed.
  3. only confuse the patient.
  4. be less likely to cause side-effects.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.97

Page Reference: 126

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: a. still be very important.

 

 

5.1.98.  The family of a patient about to undergo electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is concerned about how the treatment will affect their loved one’s memory. They meet with the psychiatrist and ask questions. What is the psychiatrist likely to tell them?

 

  1. “Memory problems are typically of short duration.”
  2. “Although there will be some loss of memory, the patients rarely complain.”
  3. “Although there are serious memory losses, the benefits of treatment outweigh these losses.”
  4. “The memory problems are actually a benefit because they keep negative memories out of consciousness.”

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.98

Page Reference: 128

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. “Memory problems are typically of short duration.”

 

 

5.1.99.  Based on outcome studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of light therapy for seasonal depressions, it appears that

 

  1. many patients with seasonal affective disorders do respond well to light therapy.
  2. light therapy is an expensive but useless gimmick.
  3. no one knows the correct dosage of light.
  4. there is no theory to explain how light therapy could possibly work.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.99

Page Reference: 128

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. many patients with seasonal affective disorders do respond well to light therapy.

 

5.1.100.  Durkheim’s classification of suicides focused on a person’s social circumstances in terms of high and low levels of social

 

  1. apathy and altruism.
  2. egotism and fatalism.
  3. integration and regulation.
  4. anomie and bonhomie.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.100

Page Reference: 129

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. integration and regulation.

 

 

5.1.101.  The highest suicide rate in the United States is among

 

  1. White males under 40 years old.
  2. White males over 50 years old.
  3. Black females over 50 years old.
  4. teenage females.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.101

Page Reference: 129

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. White males over 50 years old.

 

 

5.1.102.  Which of the following individuals is most likely to die as a result of suicide?

 

  1. Jim, a 60-year-old
  2. Zack, an 8-year-old
  3. Alice, a 23-year-old
  4. Laura, a 4-year-old

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.102

Page Reference: 129

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. Jim, a 60-year-old

 

 

5.1.103.  What percentage of patients with mood disorders will eventually kill themselves?

 

  1. 5-10%
  2. 15-20%
  3. 40-45%
  4. more than 50%

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.103

Page Reference: 129

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b.15-20%

 

 

5.1.104.  Deliberate self harm is listed in the DSM-IV-TR as one of the symptoms of

 

  1. schizophrenia.
  2. borderline personality disorder.
  3. psychopathy.
  4. self-injurious neuroses.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.104

Page Reference: 130

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: b. borderline personality disorder.

 

 

5.1.105.  From rates of attempted and successful suicides, we can conclude that females more often ________ and males more often _________.

 

  1. attempt; succeed
  2. succeed; attempt
  3. leave notes; do not leave notes
  4. use guns; use poisons

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.105

Page Reference: 131

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. attempt; succeed

 

 

5.1.106.  According to Edwin Schneidman, the most common stressor in suicide is

 

  1. hostility.
  2. anger.
  3. frustration of psychological needs.
  4. the desire to make others suffer.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.106

Page Reference: 132

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. frustration of psychological needs.

 

 

5.1.107.  Studies of the role of genetic factors in suicide indicate that

 

  1. there is a genetic factor independent of the risk for depression.
  2. the only genetic factor is the genetic risk for depression.
  3. genetic factors do not play a role in suicide.
  4. genetic factors play a role in suicides by males but not suicides by females.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.107

Page Reference: 133

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. there is a genetic factor independent of the risk for depression.

 

 

5.1.108.  According to Edwin Schneidman, the most common emotion in suicide is

 

  1. fear.
  2. anger.
  3. hopelessness.
  4. depression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.108

Page Reference: 132

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. hopelessness.

 

 

5.1.109.  The state legislature is considering enacting measures that will have an impact in reducing suicide rates. Which of the following individuals who are testifying before a legislative committee will be able to provide the most empirical support for his or her suggestion?

 

  1. Al, who wants to reduce access to guns
  2. Jim, who wants to make suicide a criminal offence
  3. Stacey, who wants public service announcements focused on famous suicides
  4. Randy, who wants to establish crisis lines to handle calls from individuals contemplating suicide

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.1.109

Page Reference: 133

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. Al, who wants to reduce access to guns

 

 

5.1.110.  The city council is considering funding a suicide hot line and they ask you to review the literature on the topic. What will your report tell the council?

 

  1. Special training for police officers is a better way to spend the money.
  2. A hot line phone service is the most economical way to reduce the rate of suicide.
  3. Suicide rates do not differ in communities with and without suicide prevention programs.
  4. Crisis hot lines must be connected with hospital emergency rooms in order to be effective.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.1.110

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: c. Suicide rates do not differ in communities with and without suicide prevention programs.

 

 

 

Short Answer

 

 

5.2.111.  Depressed, or ____________(unpleasant), mood is the most common and obvious symptom of depression.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.111

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Overview

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: dysphoric

 

 

5.2.112.  The syndrome of depression is also called __________ depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.112

Page Reference: 103

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: clinical

 

 

5.2.113.  __________ or elated mood is the opposite emotional state from depressed mood.

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.113

Page Reference: 106

Topic: Overview

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. Euphoria

 

 

5.2.114.  Mood disorder symptoms that are related to basic bodily functions are known as __________ symptoms.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.114

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Symptoms

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. somatic

 

 

5.2.115.  If, during a period of mood disturbance, your patient experiences inflated self-esteem or grandiosity, you likely will diagnosis this as a(n)  __________ episode.

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.115

Page Reference: 107

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: a. manic

 

 

5.2.116.  A mood disorder that is regularly associated with changes in the seasons is called  __________  __________ disorder.

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.116

Page Reference: 111

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: seasonal affective

 

 

5.2.117.  When an individual’s symptoms are improved for a period of time this is referred to as __________ .

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.117

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Course and Outcome

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: a. remission

 

 

5.2.118.  Gender differences are typically not reported for  __________ mood disorders.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.118

Page Reference: 112

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: bipolar

 

 

5.2.119.  Brown and colleagues have found evidence that depression in women is more likely to occur when severe life events are associated with  (provide one of the three terms suggested in the textbook)  __________ .

 

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.119

Page Reference: 116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: humiliation and entrapment and defeat

 

 

5.2.120.  The system in the body responsible for regulating a person’s response to stress is known as the  __________ system.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.120

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Causes

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: endocrine

 

 

5.2.121.  When rats are exposed to stress in the lab, they exhibit signs of depression and evidence that the concentration of chemicals in their brains have been changed. These chemicals are known collectively as  _________.

 

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.2.121

Page Reference: 122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: neurotransmitters

 

 

5.2.122.  In a case conference about a procedure you are about to perform on your depressed patient the main topic is the amount of amnesia or memory loss they will experience as a result of the therapy. Likely you are considering using [three letter acronym or initials]  __________.

 

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 5.2.122

Page Reference: 128

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: ECT

 

 

5.2.123.  _____ suicide occurs when the rules of a society or social group dictate that an individual must sacrifice their life for the good of the group.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.2.123

Page Reference: 130

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Factual

 

Answer: Altruistic

 

 

Essay

 

 

5.3.124.  What are the two primary issues central to the debate regarding definitions of mood disorders? What are the five major considerations we can use in distinguishing clinical depression from normal sadness?

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.124

Page Reference: 108-109

Topic: Diagnosis

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: (1) should these disorders be defined in a broad or narrow fashion? (2) the issue of heterogeneity. All depressed persons do not have the same set of symptoms, same pattern of onset, or the same course over time. Some patients have manic episodes, whereas others experience only depression. Some exhibit psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. The important considerations in distinguishing clinical depression from normal sadness are: (1) Intensity: The mood change pervades all aspects of the person and impairs social and occupational functions. (2) Absence of precipitants: The mood may arise in the absence of any discernible precipitant or may be grossly out of proportion to those precipitants. (3) Quality: The mood change is different from that experienced in normal sadness. (4) Associated features: The change in mood is accompanied by a cluster of signs and symptoms, including cognitive and somatic features. (5) History: The mood change may be preceded by a history of past episodes of elation and hyperactivity.

 

 

5.3.125.  What has research revealed concerning the rate of depression among the elderly?

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.125

Page Reference: 113-114

Topic: Frequency

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: Although people mistakenly identify depression with the elderly, data from the NCS-R suggest that mood disorders actually are more frequent among young and middle-aged adults. The rates of both major depression and bipolar mood disorder are lowest among people over age 60. Several explanations have been offered for this pattern. It is possible that this finding is due to how the research was conducted, not actual differences in the rate of depression across age groups. One interpretation is that the elderly have greater difficulty remembering episodes of depression. In addition, mood disorders are associated with increased mortality; thus, some severely depressed people might not have survived into old age. However, the pattern observed in the NCS-R has been observed in several studies, and most investigators believe the effect (lower rates of depression among the elderly) is genuine.

 

 

5.3.126.  Summarize the findings of research investigating the relationship between stressful life events and depression, and then explain why it is difficult to interpret what the relationship means.

 

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.126

Page Reference: 115-116

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: People who become clinically depressed experience an increased number of stressful life events. Comparisons among different populations show that communities with the highest rates of severe events produced the highest prevalence of major depression. One troublesome problem involves the direction of the relationship. If depressed people experience more stressful events, what is the direction of effect? Does failure lead to depression, or does depression lead to failure? Another problem is that many people who experience stressful life events do not become depressed, and we don’t always know who will become depressed. The research of Brown, Harris, and others points to “severe” events, ones that are particularly threatening, as factors in the cause of depression, especially in women. Events that lead to humiliation, entrapment or defeat seem to be particularly related to depression.

 

 

 

5.3.127.  Discuss the concept of cognitive vulnerability as a model of the cause of depression.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.127

Page Reference: 117-118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: There are several cognitive models of the etiology of depression. One model is based on the work of Aaron Beck who suggests that people develop through the course of their lives habitual ways of looking at the world and themselves. These cognitive patterns determine how they interpret and react to life events. Some patterns, or habitual ways of thinking and perceiving, make an individual more vulnerable to depression. From this perspective persistent negative or pessimistic thoughts would be such a vulnerability. Various types of distortions, errors or biases in thinking or perceiving, such as a tendency to assign a global, personal meaning to negative experiences, would be conducive to depression. There are several cognitive distortions that could be mentioned here including a tendency to over generalize negative conclusions from one negative experience, drawing arbitrary inferences about one’s self with out evidence, and a tendency to exaggerate any negative experience. Mention should be made of Beck’s concept of schema which is a cognitive term for the collection of assumptions, attributions, and ways of perceiving that guide ones cognitive habits or tendencies.

 

 

5.3.128.  What are the two response styles described by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema? How are these response styles related to depression?

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.128

Page Reference: 118

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: Nolen-Hoeksema has proposed that the manner in which a person responds to the onset of depressed mood influences its duration and severity. Ruminative styles involve responding to feelings of depression by turning attention inward, contemplating causes and implications of sadness. Distracting style involves diverting oneself from unpleasant mood by working on hobbies, playing sports, etc. People with ruminative style experience longer and more severe episodes of depression than do people with distracting style. Women tend to use the ruminative style.

 

 

5.3.129.  Describe the research results suggesting that there is a greater genetic influence on bipolar disorder than on unipolar disorder.

 

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.3.129

Page Reference: 119

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: (1) There is a greater difference in the concordance rates for MZ and DZ twins in the case of bipolar disorder than in the case of unipolar disorder. (2) The rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar patients is similar to the rate in the general population, but the rate of unipolar disorder in family members of bipolar patients is higher than the rate in the general population.

 

 

5.3.130.  Brief describe the brain regions that have been associated with a biological model of the cause of depression.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.3.130

Page Reference: 121-122

Topic: Causes

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: There are several brain regions currently associated with models of the cause of depression. Likely they interact in some complicated fashion, but we are still in the process of sorting out their individual contributions. Mention could be made of the following: Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. When the CNS perceives a threat it signals the hypothalamus which intern signals the pituitary gland to secrete the hormone ACTH which modulates the secretion of, for example, cortisol from the adrenal cortex which helps the individual prepare for fight or flight in a number of ways. Depressed patients show a failure of suppression of the HPA axis after being given DST which suggests that they have, during depression, a hyperactive HPA axis. Stress causes the release of adrenal steroids, such as cortisol, which has been shown to cause structural and functional changes in the brain, including alterations in gene expression, that are associated with depression. Functional imaging of the brain suggests abnormal activation in several regions of the brain including: decreased activity in the regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) responsible for planning and the anticipation of emotion; increased activity in the region of the PFC responsible for the experience of reward and punishment; the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) which is activated when a person’s goals are frustrated; increased activity in the amygdala which is the part of the limbic system responsible for emotional experiences. Individual who respond well to any form of therapy evidence reduce activity in the amygdala.

 

 

5.3.131.  Summarize what is currently known about the effectiveness of psychotherapy and medication in the treatment of depression, and cite some of the research evidence.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.131

Page Reference: 124-126

Topic: Treatment

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: There are several different kinds of antidepressant medications, but they are generally equal in terms of effectiveness, with positive responses being shown by 50 to 60 percent of depressed patients. Cognitive therapy and antidepressant medication appear to be equally effective for people who suffer from unipolar depression, including major depressive disorder and dysthymia. Medication and psychotherapy also appeared equally effective in randomized trials conducted in primary care settings, with 64 percent of patients recovering from an episode of depression after 11 weeks of treatment with either an SSRI or problem-solving therapy.

 

 

5.3.132.  Discuss Joiner’s (closely related to Schneidman’s) model of the psychological factors that are involved in the cause of suicide. Mention the common elements of suicide.

 

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 5.3.132

Page Reference: 132

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Conceptual

 

Answer: For Joiner, social factors can set the stage for thoughts or motivations of suicide, but psychological events lie at the core of suicidal behavior. Emotional stress and hopelessness are central features of many individuals who actually attempt suicide. Joiner, and others, consider the common elements of suicidal psychology to focus on an attempt to escape from unbearable psychological pain, often the pain associated with prolonged frustration of basic psychological needs. Most important are the needs for affiliation and competence. People who view themselves as having failed in these domains—those who are low in belongingness or high in burdensomeness—will experience intense negative emotional states, such as shame, guilt, anger, and grief. Suicide then becomes a somewhat logical route to escape this on-going pain caused by these psychological states. Of particular association with the act of suicide are the belief and experience of being socially isolated and being a burden to others.

 

 

5.3.133.  What are some of the recommendations for dealing with individuals who have expressed a serious intent to harm themselves?

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.3.133

Page Reference: 134

Topic: Suicide

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: (1) reduce the lethality: reduce psychological pain and reduce access to means of committing suicide; (2) negotiate agreements: ask the client to sign a contract agreeing to postpone self-destructive behavior for at least a short period of time, include an agreement that the client will contact the therapist directly before engaging in any lethal actions; (3) provide support: make concrete arrangements for social support, alert friends and family members to be available; (4) replace tunnel vision with a broader perspective: suicidal individuals are often unable to consider alternative solutions for their problems; help clients to use a more flexible and adaptive pattern of problem solving to replace death as the only solution.

 

 

5.3.134.  Discuss the concept of genetic risk interacting with stress as demonstrated in the work of Caspi on the 5-HTT gene.

 

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 5.3.134

Page Reference: 120

Topic: Causes

Skill: Applied

 

Answer: Caspi’s work focused on the 5-HTT transporter gene which has been studied because several drugs that are used to treat depression have a direct impact on this particular neurotransmitter. There are two alleles or different versions of this gene one of which is shorter and is associated with reduced efficiency of neural transmission in serotonin pathways. Individuals who inherit this short allele or version of the gene are at particularly high risk for becoming clinically depressed if they experience stressful life events. In the absence of increased stress, the presence of this gene does not increase the person’s risk for depression. Both factors seem to be necessary.

 

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